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Full text of "Dewey Decimal clasification and relativ index"

To lern to clasify is in itself an education 

Alex. Bain 



Decimal Clasification 

and 

Relativ Index 

for libraries and personal use 

in arranjing for immediate reference 
books, pamflets, clippings, pictures, manuscript notes 
and other material 

by 

Melvil Dewey MA LL D 



Edition iz, revized and enlarjd 



Forest Pres 
Lake Placid Club 
Adirondaks N Y 
1922 



Matter of interest to uzers of this book wil be sent from time to time 
to recorded owners. Send prompt notis of any chanje in address givn 
on slip inserted opposit this note to 

Forest Pres Lake Placid Club Adirondaks N Y 



Copyryt by Melvil Dewey 1876; 1885; 1911; 1913; 1915; 1919 
Copyryt by Library Bureau 1888; 1891; 1894; 1898 
Copyryt by Lake Placid Club Education Foundation 1922 

Speling 

Simpler spelings ar strongly recommended for jeneral adoption by both American 
and English filolojic associations, including nearly all prominent skolars in English 
now living. We regret prejudis that certain uzers wil feel against these chanjes, 
but after careful study of all objections urjd, we find the weight of skolarship, reazon 
and economy wholy in their favor, and feel compeld to bear a share of the prejudis 
which sum must endure before the great benefits of a rational orthografy can be secured. 

We uze all simpler forms recommended for jeneral adoption by the Simplified 
Spelling Board. Fuller information free from: S S B Secretary, 4 Emerson Hall, 
Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. or from Forest Pres. 

Beside these we also uze in the Introduction many other simpler forms. Most 
S S B rules and our aditions merely drop useless or misleading silent letters, with 
needed substitutes in a few cases, e.g. f for ph and gh in phlegm and rough, where we 
drop g and and substitute f, speling flem and ruf. 

Sum typografic errors hav doutless been overlookt, but we intend to spel as abuv. 

Tables and Index alredy set in old speling wil not be chanjed til re-set when 
they ar next revized. 

See, at end of Introduction, p. 45-58, summary of compeling reazons for making' 
these chanjes, and code of brief rules. Read them before criticizing our shorter and 
much better speling. 

Modifying D C numbers 
Confuzion and annoyance to thousands of uzers cauzd by printing unauthorized 
variations force the publishers to insist strictly on ful copyryt protection. Every library 
and individual uzer has, however, entire freedom to make such variations as he thinks 
he needs, under the simpl restrictions found necesary to protect the ryts of others. 
See p. 32 2 ~349» Letter or simbol notations for chanjes or aditions. 




(2) 



CONTENTS 



Paje 

EXPLANATION . 6 



INTRODUCTION 

Description ......... 7-20 

Orijin and growth ........ 7-8 

Extent of use ... . . . . . 8-9 

What is the sistem? ....... 9 

Notation . . . . ..... 9 

Best known decimal form . . . . . .10 

Relativ Subject Index . . . ... . . 10-12 

What Relativ Index includes . . . . . .12 

Explanation of tables . . . . . . . 12-13 

Coordination . . . . . . . .13 

New subjects . . . . . . . .14 

Choice and arranjement of heds . . . . .14 

Sequence of allyd subjects . . . . . .14 

Cachtitles ......... 14 

Form distinctions . . . . . . . .14-15 

Minute clasing ........ 15-16 

Tentativ tables . . . . . . . .16 

Nemonics . . . ^ . ... . 16-18 

Decimalism ......... 18-19 

Relativ location . . . . . . . 19-20 

Sizes on shelvs . . . . . . . .20 

Catalogs .......... 20-21 

Name catalog ........ 20 

Shelflist .20 

Clast catalog . . . . . . . .21 

Dictionary catalog . . . . . . . .21 

Advantajes . . . . . . 21-24 

Shelvs . ." . . . . . . . . 21 

Shelflist . . . . . . . .22 

Accession book . . . . . . . .22 

Pamflets . . . . . . . . . 22 

Sale duplicates . . . . . . . .22 

Charjing sistem . . . . . . . .22 

Subject references . . . . . . 23 

Recataloging or reclasifying . . . . . .23 

Adaptability . . . . . . . . .23 

Arabic numerals . . . . . . . .23 

Endowment of special departments ..... 23-24 

Summary . . . ■ . . . .24 

Sugjestions to uzers . . 24-30 

Numeration . .. . . . . . . 24 

•Plan of Tables . . . . . .... 24 

" Index . ... ... . * . . 25 

Familiarity with clasification . . . . . . .25 

How to find subject of book . . . • . . 25-26 

Assyning clas numbers . . . . . . 26-28 

Number of figures uzed in clas number . . . . 28 

Bilding numbers ........ 28-29 

Book numbers .... . . . . . 29-30 

(3) 



DECIMAL CLASIFICATION 



Variations practicabl ........ 30-36 

Cautions . . . . . . . . .31 

Letter or simbol notations for chanjes or aditions . . 32-34 
Fiction . . . . . . . .32 

Juvenils 32-33 

Biografy > 33 

Paralel libraries . . . . . -33 

Combining languaj and literature . . . -34 
Reference library . . . . . .34 

Contractions for specialists . . . . . .34 

Alfabet or cronolojy for final subdivisions . . .35 

Broken order ........ 35-36 

Pro and con division of topics . . . . . .36 

Bibliografic modifications ....... 37-39 

Accretion syn + . . . . . . -37 

Cuplingsyn- . . . . . . .38 

Relation syn : ........ 38 

Form syn (o) ........ 38 

Universality syn co . . . . . . -38 

Place syn (3H9) 38 

Languaj syn = ........ 38 

Time syn" " 38 

Jeneral points of view syn 00 . . . . . .39 

A to Z 39 

Sequence of syns ........ 39 

Other uses ......... 39-41 

Bookstores ......... 39 

Offis files ......... 39-40 

Scrapbooks ......... 40 

Index rerums . . . . . . ■ . 40-41 

Topical indexes ......... 41 

Separates ......... 41 

Aknowlejments ........ 42-43 

Future of D C . . . . 43-44 

SIMPLER SPELING REAZONS AND RULES 
Reazons .......... 45—49 

Disgrace of present usaje . . . . . -47 

Criminal waste of mony . . . . . . -47 

Criminal waste of skool time . . . . . -47 

Adling brains ........ 47-48 

English as world languaj ....... 48-49 

Disregard of pedants rules . . . . . . . 49-50 

Consistency . . . . . . 50 

Conciseness . . . . . . . . .50 

Can it be dun? ......... 50-51 

Rules .......... 51-58 

N E A 12 words 52 

S S B 30 words ........ 52 

Simplifyd Speling Board alfabetic rules .... 52-54 

SSB 18 rules ........ 54-55 

D C rules . . * . . . - 56 

U S Jeografic Board rules . . . . . -57 

Filolojists 10 joint rules . . ..... 57-58 

Sugjestions ......... 58 

Index to Introduction and Simpler speling .... 59-61 

(4) 



CONTENTS 



TABLES AND INDEX 

First summary: the 10 main clases i paje 

Second " the 100 main divisions i " 

Third " the iooo sections 10 pajes 

Tables of subsections of Jeneral works 42 " 

" Filosofy 11 8 

" Relijion . 20 " 

" Sociolojy 47 " 

• " Filolojy ......... 6 " 

u Natural syence 51 " 

■ Useful arts . . 198 " 

" • Fine arts 18 " 

" Literature ........ 44 " 

" History 10 1 " 

Paje 

Index abbreviations 614 

Explanation of Index 615-16 

Relativ Subject Index 617-974 

Alfabetic table of topics divided jeograficly 975 — 77 

form divisions . . 978 

languajes 978-79 

filolojic divisions 980-81 

" literatures 982-83 

Biscoe and Olin book numbers . . . . . . . . . 984-86 

Special author tables 987-88 

(5) 



EXPLANATION 



This Clasification divides knowlej into 9 main clases numberd 1 to 9. 
Cyclopedias, periodicals, etc. so jeneral as to belong to no one of these 
clases ar markt o (naught) and form a 10th clas. Each clas is similarly 
separated into 9 divisions, jeneral works belonging to no division having 
o in place of division number. Divisions ar similarly divided into 9 sec- 
tions. This process is repeated as often as necesary. Thus 512 means 
clas 5 (Natural syence), division 1 (Mathematics), section 2 (Aljebra), 
and every aljebra is numberd 512. 

Books on shelvs and cards in a clast catalog ar arranjed in simpl numeric 
order, all clas numbers being regarded as decimals. These Tables show 
order of subjects. Thus 512 Aljebra follows 511 Arithmetic and precedes 
513 Jeometry. Since each subject has a definit number, all books on any 
subject stand together. 

Summaries 1st summary shows the 10 clases. 2d shows the 9 divisions 
of each clas, and is useful as a i-paje birdseye view of whole skeme. Then 
follow 10 pajes, 1 for each clas, which givs the 9 sections of each of its 
9 divisions, and shows scope of the clas on a singl paje. 

Tables These 3 summaries ar followd by ful Clasification Tables, 
which present in numeric order, all clases, divisions, sections and sub- 
sections. Sinonimus terms, exampls, brief notes, dates and each words 
ar often aded to simpl heds to giv fuller and clearer idea of scope of each 
number. Therefore all references to numbers shud be lookt up in ful 
Tables, never in Summaries, which ar in effect a contents table of the 
ful Clasification. 

Index After the Tables an alfabetic Index of all heds givn in Tables 
refers by clas number of each to its exact place in Tables. This Index 
includes also sinonims and many other entries likely to help a reader 
find his subject eazily. Even a uzer who knows just where to turn to his 
subject in Tables, may, by consulting the Index, be put on trak of valuabl 
allyd matter which he wud otherwize overlook. 

Ful explanations Lustrations and sugjestions for numerus applications 
of this sistem, and ful explanations of its nemonic and other important 
features ar givn in the Introduction on following pajes. 



(6) 



INTRODUCTION 

[Simpler spelings ar strongly recommended for jeneral adoption by both American 
and English filolojic associations, including nearly all prominent skolars in English 
now living. 

The speling of this introduction has many more chanjes than we recommend for 
jeneral use at once. For convenient reference we hav included in ' Simpler speling rea- 
zons and rules' (p. 45-56) the famus 12 words adopted in 1898 by the National Edu- 
cation Association for all its official printing and correspondence, and adopted later by 
hundreds of periodicals, colejes and normal skools; also the 30 words, as a better tipical 
list with which to begin simpler speling; also the S S B rules, from which one shud select 
those which most appeal to him; also the 10 joint rules of American and English filol- 
ojists, and selections from rules of U S Geographic Board. From these one may choose 
chanjes he is willing to make, knowing how ampl authority is behind them. We recom- 
mend that each one convinst of the importance begin with a few of these chanjes, ading 
others from time to time as he and his correspondents becum familiar with the new forms. 
That it ' looks queer ' is admittedly the only argument left to objectors. This introduc- 
tion is speld to show how it wil look if practicaly all these recommendations ar uzed. 
Sum with specialy strong vizual prejudis wil hav attention distracted from the matter 
to the speling, but if with an open mind they wil try to concentrate on the meaning, they 
wil be surprized to find how quikly the new forms wil cease to annoy. Then if they con- 
tinue reading them they wil soon be surprized to find that the old absurd common spel- 
ing wil annoy. There ar very few simpler spelings in Tables or Index but we decided to 
show in Introduction how extreme chanjes wud look] 

Orijin and growth The plan of this Clasification and Index was 
developt erly in 1873, the result of long study of library economy as found 
in hundreds of books and pamnets, and in over 50 personal visits to 
libraries. This study convinst me that usefulness of libraries myt be greatly 
increast without aded expense. Only a fraction of the servis posibl cud 
be got from them without clasification, catalogs, indexes and other aids, 
to tel librarians and readers what they containd on any givn subject; 
yet, by methods then uzed, this cud be dun satisfactorily only at a cost 
so great as to be prohibitiv to all but a few welthy libraries. With rare 
exceptions, libraries wer growing rapidly. Catalogs, made at great cost, 
soon became antiquated. Methods uzed involvd frequent rearranjement, 
renumbering and remarking of books, and of necesity remaking of catalogs 
and indexes, as the only escape from a confuzion that seriusly cripld 
usefulness. In this costly repetition, work of previus librarians was larjly 
lost. The great need was a sistem which wud enable each to stand on 
the sholders of his predecessors, and fully utilize their labors; which wud 
make work dun today permanent, insted of sumthing to be superseded 
in so few years as not to be worth doing in the best way; which wud 
supply the best applyances, insted of leaving yung librarians not only to 
lern how to work, but to make all their own tools. 

Practical use for 49 years proves that this sistem wil accomplish this 
result; for with its aid catalogs, shelflists, indexes and references, essential 
to this increast usefulness, can be made faster and cheaper than by any 
method not having its essential features, and, when dun, they ar better 
and vastly more permanent. Practical utility and economy ar its keynotes 
and no theoretic refinement has been allowd to modify the skeme, if it 
wud detract from usefulness or ad to cost. 

(7) 



DECIMAL CLASIFICATION 



It was chiefly necesary to find a method that would clas, arranje and 
index books and pamflets on shelvs, cards of a catalog, clippings and notes 
in scrapbooks and index rerums, references to all these items, and indeed 
any literary material in any form, as redily as an ordinary index gyds to 
proper paje of a bound book. This difficult problem was solvd by uzing 
no reference marks except the simplest simbols known to the human 
mind, arabic numerals with their uzual arithmetic values, and by aiding 
their unequald simplicity by many practical nemonic devices. 

Tho the importance of clasification was recognized, the filosofic sistems 
proposed wer so difficult fully to understand or apply that not i person in 
iooo cud uze them practicaly. Decimal Clasification simplicity and even 
more its Relativ Index hav made this work io-fold eazier. In recent years, 
use of the sistem has spred rapidly in all civilized cuntries, meeting suc- 
cess in thousands of different applications. In its simpl form a skoolboy can 
quikly master it and keep for instant reference not only his books but every 
note, clipping or pamflet. Almost every profession and occupation has 
lernd its wonderful laborsaving powers. It is in daily use by miriads of 
business and professional men who wud never even attempt to understand 
or uze the old sistems. 

By mere adition of figures, without chanjing this shorter form, this 
very simpl sistem is redily made to record the utmost refinements of 
specialists, and the Relativ Index, as simpl as a, b, c, sends the novis 
to the exact place where the expert has clasifyd the matter sought. Thus 
942 is history of England, and 942.99055 is history of County Pembroke 
in Wales, under Elizabeth, 5th of the Tudors. A colon between 2 numbers 
to mean ' in relation to ', and other combining simbols for time, languaj 
etc. make of the sistem a compact shorthand for each fact. (See p. 37 1 - 
39 5 .) But this brevity is les important than the eaz with which matter 
so markt can be aranjed (giving figures and decimal point their common 
arithmetic value), stored as compactly as wisht and found again in the 
least posibl time. 

The sistem has been found equaly valuabl for cataloging, indexing, 
analyzing and summarizing, and for clasifying, numbering and arranjing 
books and pamflets on shelvs. For notes on other uses, see p. 39 5 ~4i 8 . 

The 1st edition, publisht in 1876, 12 pajes of tables containing 1000 
sections, was criticized as altogether too elaborate for even a larj library. 
As fast, however, as the Relativ Index with its remarkabl powers became 
known, the rapidly increasing uzers askt for further subdivisions, til 
Tables hav grown from 2600 entries in Index of 1876 to 40,000 in this 
edition 11, becauz it has been found so eazy to gain the admitted great 
advantajes of close clasification, and yet, by means of this Index, avoid the 
old difficulties. 

Extent of use The rejister of libraries which hav actuary 'adopted it, 
tho growing rapidly, is incomplete. Libraries often uze the sistem for 
many years before we lern the fact. We rejister all byers of the Clasifica- 
tion, so far as known, but do not assume that a library has adopted the 
sistem becauz it has orderd the book. 

(8) 



EXTENT OF USE 



The table below shows the growth of the 1 1 editions. The nearest esti- 
mate givs several thousand libraries, beside a great number of private book 
owners and literary workers having the sistem in daily use. 

Number of pajes 



Edition 


Date 


Preface, etc. 


Tables 


Index, etc. 


Total 


Increase 


Copies printed 


T 
1 


l O /\J 


1 2 


1 2 


18 


4^ 




IOOO 


2 


I88 5 


66 


162 


86 


314 


272 


500 


3 


1888 


4 


227 


185 


416 


102 


500 


4 


1 89I 


4i 


234 


191 


466 


50 


IOOO 


5 


1894 


a 


235 


« 


467 


I 


2000 


6 


I899 


a 


260 


210 


511 


44 


7600 


7 


I9II 


48 


42O 


324 


792 


281 


2000 


8 


1913 


u 


462 


340 


850 


58 


2000 


9 


1915 


« 


465 


342 


856 


6 


3000 


IO 


1919 




517 


374 


940 1 


84 


4000 


ii 


1922 


61 


551 


376 


988 


48 


5000 



What is the sistem? A Subject Clasification with a Relativ Index 2 
so numberd or letterd that reference is compact, accurate and quik, is 
the essential feature, and anything beyond this is merely applying this plan 
with varius helps and accessories. Any subject clasification with a relativ 
index in which the entry indexes a book in the ordinary way, and also 
indexes shelvs, cards, clippings or any other literary material, is a form 
of this sistem. 

Notation We devized and experimented with several notations by 
means of numbers, letters, and combined numbers and letters, with 
bases of 26, 35, 50, 100 and 150, yet none seemd good enuf to warrant 
publishing details, except that here printed, based on simpl arabic numerals 
with their uzual decimal powers. International adoption of this sistem is 
larjly becauz no one ever complains that any clasification is too simpl, 
while there is constant complaint of complexity. Decimal simplicity 
has so commended itself that many think of it as the only form, tho 
obviusly it wud be just as much the 1 relativ index sistem ' if the 
clasifications wer wholy markt by letters or other simbols, 

The Subject Index is the simplest application of a, b, c, the simbols next 
in simplicity to 1, 2, 3. This use of the simplest 2 sets of simbols known, 
with their common meanings, has givn our notation its worldwide reputa- 
tion as the simplest yet devized. 

1 Thru mistaken numbering printed as 936. 

2 Tho the author is interested only in the usefulness of the sistem, not in questions of 
priority of its invention, extended investigation by others fails to show that this most 
important feature of the sistem — the Relativ Index, on which all else hinjes — had 
ever before been uzed as here to index by a singl reference most diverse material. Relativ 
location had been uzed, but not in the present combination with the subject index, 
which givs it most of its value. The Clasification Tables, while adopting suggestions 
from many sources, ar orijinal in their sistem of arranjement and notation, and in many 
minor features. The decimal form and many nemonic features hav not been found in 
erlier use, tho since their invention in 1873, these as wel as the Subject Index and other 
features hav been very frequently copid, often with, but oftener without, aknowlej- 
ment of their source. But we ar glad to find this sistem, which has cost so much labor, 
doing good servis even for those who neglect to mention where they found so valuabl 
a laborsaving literary tool. 

(9) 



DECIMAL CLASIFICATION 



Best known decimal form Decimal form means simply that heds ar 
groupt and numberd with common arithmetic figures uzed decimaly. This, 
the only decimal form thus far carefuly elaborated and publisht, is com- 
monly spoken of as if it wer the only posibl form of our orijinal plan; tho 
obviusly an infinit variety of ' relativ index sistems ' in decimal form 
cud be made by filling the outline with different heds, or with the same 
heds in different order. 

To make out new heds involvs labor and cost vastly beyond the dreams 
of any person who has not tryd exactly this work. Time actualy spent on 
tables here printed, by varius committees and individuals, totals many 
years and has cost many thousand dollars. Uniform and urjent advice 
of the experienst is to adopt a poorer skeme alredy made rather than 
undertake so herculean a labor. When dun, the maker may posibly be 
better suited with it, but few if any others wil be. It is wizer for anyone 
whose time is of value, to uze it in sumthing more practicaly useful to him- 
self and his library than in trying to construct a 'satisfactory' skeme 
< of clasification. No one yet ever wholy suited himself or anyone else, 
and probably no one ever wil. By adopting this alredy workt out he 
saves much time and money, gains the immense advantaj of uzing a sistem 
in common with thousands of others, so that he may utilize their labors 
and investigations and share with them economies of cooperation. 

Relativ Subject Index This alfabetic Index, the most important 
feature of the sistem, consists of hedings gatherd from a great variety "of 
sources, as uzers of the sistem hav found them desirabl in 49 years expe- 
rience. After all these efforts, many new heds ar aded in each new edition. 

The Index gyds in both numbering and finding books. In assyning 
numbers, the most specific hed that wil contain the book having been 
determind, reference to that hed in Index givs proper clas number. Con- 
versely, in finding books on any givn subject, reference to Index givs 
number under which they ar found on shelvs, in shelf list, or in clast catalog. 
When any new subject cums up, interline it and its sinonims in Index, 
with clas number decided on, so clasifyer may be uniform with himself 
in future work. 

The Index givs similar or sinonimus words, and the same words in dif- 
ferent connections, so any intelijent person wil surely get the ryt number. 
A reader wishing to know sumthing of the tarif looks under T, and, at a 
glance, finds 337 as its number. This gyds him to shelvs, to all books and 
pamflets, to shelf catalog, to clast subject catalog on cards, to clast record 
of loans, and, in short, in simpl numeric order, thruout the whole library 
to anything bearing on his subject. If he turns to Tables, he sees that it 
means clas 3, Sociolojy; division 3, Economics; section 7, Protection and 
free trade; but the number alone is enuf to clas the book or find it, for 
iether clasifyer or reader. If he had lookt under P for protection, or F for 
free trade, or D for duties, or C for customs, or under any other leading 
word relating to his subject, he wud hav been referd to 337, or sum 
one of its subdivisions. 

(10) 



RELATIV SUBJECT INDEX 



Had he lookt for 'railroad' he wud hav found after it 22 separate 
entries, each preceded by a word or fraze indicating the faze of the sub- 
ject in the skeme. A book on railroads may treat of the desirability of 
government ownership, control etc. and then is clearly a question of social 
syence; or it may be a practical handbook for an employe, explaining busi- 
ness methods of railroading, running trains, handling freight, etc. when 
it is as clearly one of the useful arts. The clasifyer knows to which of these 
heds his book belongs, and the reader knows in which of its fazes he wishes 
to examin the subject. Moreover, 3 and 6 beginning the numbers clearly 
indicate caracter of each clas. But even if significance of these figures 
is entirely disregarded, no confuzion results, for, on consulting iether 
number in catalog, in skeme, or on shelvs the difference is clearly seen. 
In other cases, it is more useful to keep books on the same subject together, 
tho treated from different standpoints. A glance at the Index tels iether 
reader or clasifyer which plan has been adopted. 

All topics in blakface typ in Index ar further divided in Tables, where 
one may see the subheds. This saves reprinting all these subdivisions, 
which wud increase Index bulk many-fold; e. g. if one having a book on 
' prison labor ' looks in the Index for ' Convict labor ' or ' Prison contracts ', 
he finds at once its special number 331.51; but if, on the other hand, he thinks 
to look only for jeneral subject 'Labor', he finds in blakface typ the 
entry ' Labor, political economy, 331 ', and turning to Tables he finds under 
331 the subdivision '331.51, Convict labor ', the exact topic in hand. 

The greatest objection to a clast catalog has always been the difficulty 
in knowing just where to clas a book and just where to look for it when 
again wanted. Different librarians, or the same librarian at different 
times, clast the same or similar books in widely different places. Where 
one man did all the work for many years, there was a degree of uniformity ; 
but even then there was danjer of looking at the same book at different 
times from different viewpoints, thus cauzing confuzion. When the daily 
pres is ful of one faze of a subject, tendency is strong to clas all books on 
this subject from current viewpoint ; and next year, if a different side of 
this same subject is before the public, there is same tendency to clas books 
from new viewpoint, thereby separating similar books and bringing 
together books on different fazes. But fortunately, practical usefulness does 
not require that the ideas of this or that one be followd, but only that books 
of same caracter be always put in same place, and that there be sum means 
of knowing redily what that place is. The Relativ Index, with its each- 
words, was desynd and is found in use to meet both these requirements, 
for it insures that books on same faze of any subject cuming before the 
clasifyers shal be assynd to same place, and that any reader seeking these 
books shal be referd instantly to that place. If this is dun, all requirements 
of a good clasification ar fild. If it is not dun, the sistem is a failure; for 
the only real test of any skeme is its helpfulness to its uzers. 

Sum prominent opponents of clast catalogs admit that the Relativ Sub- 
ject Index, in deciding where to clas a book at first and where to look for 

(11) 



DECIMAL CLASIFICATION 



it ever afterwards, has removed their strongest objections. Certainly it 
wud be imposibl to make an Index more compact or eazier of reference. 

This Index allows a great part of the work of clasifying to be dim in 
advance by experts in larj central libraries with ampl resources, thus 
securing, at a mere fraction of uzual cost, better and more uniform results 
than wud be posibl to the ordinary clasifyer and reducing labor to 
much narrower limits than ever before. 

To these thousands of subjects hav been carefuly assynd their individual 
numbers, many of them after long consideration and consultation with 
specialists. No one person is lerned enuf to clas wizely books on all sub- 
jects and syences ; but botanists can assyn all botanic subjects to the ryt 
number, mathematicians all mathematical topics, and thus the Index 
wil in time becum as accurate as the best skolarship of the day can make it. 
Even if the decision reacht is not always wizest, all practical purposes ar 
servd, becauz, as each clasifyer copies the number from same Index, all 
books on that subject ar together; and, as each reader gets his number 
from this same Index, he goes directly to the book he seeks. 

What Relativ Index includes The Index, containing 40,000 entries 
and constantly being enlarjd by ading new subjects, aims to include all 
topics exprest or implyd in Tables, together with every corresponding 
sinonim likely to be sought, but does not include most names of cun tries, 
towns, animals, plants etc. except when mentiond in Tables; e. g. it can 
not enumerate all species of trilobites, but when clasifyer has found from 
proper reference books that Remopleurides is a trilobite, the Index sends 
him to 565.39, and he can clas his monograf on that subject. 

Tables The essential complement of the Subject Index is the Tables 
of Clasification, so mapt out as to show in 4 ways — viz, by size of typ, 
face of typ, indention, and number of figures prefixt — each subject's 
rank in the Clasification. 

The field of knowlej is divided into 9 main clases, numberd 1 to 9. 
Cyclopedias, periodicals etc. so jeneral as to" belong to none of these 
clases, ar markt o (naught), and form a 10th clas; e. g. clas 1 is library of 
Filosofy; clas 5, library of Syence; clas 9, History, etc. These special clases 
or libraries ar then considerd independently, and each is separated again 
into 9 special divisions of the main subject, numberd 1 to 9, as wer the 
clases, jeneral works belonging to no division having o for their division 
number. Thus 59 is division 9 (Zoolojy) of clas 5 (Syence). A 3d division 
is then made by separating each of these divisions into 10 sections, numberd 
in same way with o and the 9 dijits; and this decimal subdivision is 
repeated, til it secures as many subsections as may be needed in any topic. 
Thus 513 is section 3 (Jeometry) of division 1 (Mathematics) of clas 5 
(Natural syence). This number, giving clas, division, section and sub- 
section, if any, is cald the clas number, and is applyd to every book and 
pamflet belonging to the library. All jeometries ar thus numberd 513, 
all mineralojies 549, and so thruout the library all books on any givn sub- 
ject bear the number of that subject in this skeme. 

(12) 



TABLES 



Where o occurs before the decimal point in a clas number, it has its normal 
zero value. Thus a book nurnberd 510 is clas 5, division 1, but no section; 
i. e. treats of division 51 (Mathematics) in jeneral, and is limited to no 
1 section, as is jeometry, markt 513. 500 indicates a treatis on syence in 
jeneral, limited to no division, o occurring in the 1st place wud in the 
same way show that the book was limited to no clas; e. g. a jeneral cyclo- 
pedia which treats of all 9 clases. 

With the same 1 jeneral ' sense, o is often uzed to indicate chanje in 
caracter of subdivision, meaning in this case 1 basis of subdivision chanjes 
at this point i. e. figure (or figures) following o apply to what precedes 
in jeneral, e. g. 505 indicates syence in jeneral treated in the form of a 
periodical. In history, clasification is by cun tries (i. e. jeografic) and as 
minute jeografic divisions ar needed for travels, gyd books, and varius 
other uses, the figures 1-9 ar jeneraly uzed for jeografic subdivisions and 
again for further jeografic subdivisions, as far as needed, and o followd 
by another figure for time division, i. e. the figures before the o indicate 
the locality as a whole, while figures after the o indicate the special time 
at which the history of the locality is being considerd; e. g. 942.06, con- 
sisting of 942 {jeografic division) and 06 (time division), means history of 
England in jeneral in time of the Stuarts, while 942.6 and 942.67 mean 
respectivly history of eastern England and history of Essex co., to which 
the same time division may be aded, giving 942.606 and 942.6706 as the 
history of those localities under the Stuarts. As any subdivision may, 
by ading figures 1-9, be givn 9 further subdivisions, any desired degree 
of minuteness may be secured in clasing special subjects. 

Coordination Theoreticly division of every subject into just 9 parts 
is absurd. Practicaly it is desirabl to clas as minutely as posibl, without 
use of aded figures; and decimals, on which our skeme hinjes, allow 9 divi- 
sions as redily as fewer. This has proved wholy satisfactory in practis, 
tho apparently destroying proper coordination in sum places. 

Where more than 9 divisions ar needed the difficulty is commonly obviated 
by grouping on singl numbers the subjects most closely allyd, or by assyning 
1-8 specificly to most important subjects and grouping minor subjects 
on 9 as ' Other.' Since any of these groups may be further subdivided 
for specific topics as needed, provision is thus made for an unlimited 
number of subjects. 

As in every skeme, many minor subjects ar under jeneral heds to which 
they do not strictly belong. In sum cases, these heds ar printed in distinctiv 
typ; e. g. 829 Anglo-Saxon, under English literature. The rule has been 
to assyn these subjects to the most nearly allyd heds, or where it was 
tho't they wud be most useful. The only alternativ was to omit them 
altogether. If any such omission occurs, it wil be supplyd as soon as dis- 
coverd, for we intend to provide in the Tables a place for every known 
topic. 

(13) 



DECIMAL CLASIFICATION 



New subjects A new topic is always closely related to sum existing 
hed. If there is no blank number availabl it is combined with the hed 
nearest all yd, and, when important enuf, abundant room for the new cumr 
is made by ading another decimal. The sistem is thus capabl of unlimited 
expansion, and can never break down for lak of room for growth. 

Choice and arranjement of heds Detaild explanation of selection and 
arrangement of the many thousand heds wud be tedius; but everywhere 
filosofic theory and accuracy hav yielded to practical usefulness. The 
imposibility of making a satisfactory clasification of all knowlej as pre- 
servd in books, has been appreciated from the first, and theoretic harmony 
and exactness hav been repeatedly sacrificed to practical requirements. 

Sequence of allyd subjects Wherever practicabl, heds hav been so 
arranjed that each subject is preceded and followd by most nearly allyd 
subjects, and thus aded convenience is secured both in clast catalogs and 
on shelvs; e. g. Bilding (690) follows Mekanic trades (680) at end of 
Useful arts, and Arkitecture follows at beginning of Fine arts. 

Students of Biolojy (570) find fossil life or Paleontolojy (560) before, 
and vejetabl life or Botany (580) after, this followd in turn by animal 
life or Zoolojy (590), ending with Mammals (599); while Useful arts (600) 
begin with human Anatomy (611) under Medicin, thus giving a regular 
growth from fossil plant thru vejetabl and animal kingdoms to living man. 

Cachtitles In naming hedings, strict accuracy has often been sacrificed 
to brevity, for short familiar titles ar more important than that terms 
chosen shud express fully and exactly caracter of all books clast under 
them. Many subjects, apparently omitted, wil be found in the Index, 
assynd, with allyd subjects, to a hed which bears the name of the most 
important only. Reference to the Index wil decide at once most doutful 
points. 

Form distinctions The clasification is mainly by subject or content 
regardless of form (see p. 2G 5 ) but an aded form distinction for jeneral 
treatises is found practicaly useful. 

Thus, in Syence there ar many compends, dictionaries, essays, peri- 
odicals and socyeties, treating of Syence in jeneral, and so having o for 
the division figure, but treating it under different forms, and therefore 
divided into sections according to this form: 501 for filosofy or theories 
of Syence, 502 for compends, 503 for dictionaries. This treatment is as 
nearly as practicabl, uniform in all clases. Creasy's ' 15 decisiv battles ' 
is 904, the 1st figure being 9, becauz the book is clearly history; the 2d 
figure o, becauz limited to no division of clas 9; and the 3d figure 4, becauz 
the book is a colection of essays. 

The 10 main clases ar regularly divided by form, e. g. 809, history of 
literature in jeneral. For divisions, sections or subsections having enuf 
jeneral material to make such division ad vizabl, form numbers, preceded by 
o,may be uzed (e. g. 820.9, history of English literature; 821.09, history of 
English poetry), except when o and the following number hav been other- 

(14) 



FORM DISTINCTIONS 



wize assynd, e. g. 821.04 English liric poetry, not essays on English poetry; 
942.05 England in time of the Tudors, not a periodical on English history. 
A history of English literature is 820.9, not 809, becauz every book belongs 
to the most specific lied that wil contain it; so 809 is limited to histories of 
literature in jeneral. Books treating of many clases, such as jcncral cyclo- 
pedias or periodicals, go in clas o and ar then divided by form into cyclo- 
pedias, periodicals, socyeties or newspapers. 

Do not confuze form number 07, meaning 4 methods of study or teach- 
ing ' with number for same subject under 375, which is for its value as a 
means of education, or for its curiculum place. 

These form distinctions ar introduced at the beginning of the clas 
becauz the number of jeneral works is larj, and these 1st numerals wud 
otherwize be unuzed. 

Form divisions always hav the same set of numbers, preceded by o, 
viz: 1 filosofy, theories etc. 2 compends, outlines; 3 dictionaries, cyclo- 
pedias; 4 essays, lectures, letters etc.; 5 periodicals, magazines etc.; 6 
socyeties, associations, transactions, reports etc.; 7 education, study, teach- 
ing, training etc. ; 8 poligrafy, colections etc. ; 9 history. Thus a periodical 
on a subject has the subject number followd by 05; e. g. a periodical on 
public helth, 614.05. 

But if the number alredy ends in o, o is not repeated before form-divi- 
sion figures; e. g. a zoolojic magazine is 590.5, not 590.05. 

Minute clasing On first publication in 1876, a common criticizm was that 
1000 heds cud never be successfuly uzed, however desirabl so close clasi- 
fication myt be. As soon, however, as actual experience proved it as 
eazy to uze 1000 heds in the new sistem as 100 in the old, the obviusly 
great practical value of close clasing led one uzer after another to urj 
strongly publication of more subdivisions. Minute as ar many now givn 
there ar none that sum hav not askt for and almost none that others hav 
not declared needless. Subdivisions ar made in such a way that one may 
uze all, or any part and ignore the rest without difficulty or confuzion, 
thus allowing each to uze minute subdivisions where he wishes or needs 
them, without being forst into refinements in subjects where he has few 
books or litl interest. Since the degree to which any skeme shal be applyd 
is optional with each clasifyer and close analisis is useful to everyone in 
defining content or in clarifying differences between related subjects, 
even elaborate skemes ar printed in ful if no essential objection has been 
bro't against them by the best qualifyd critics. The 1st 3 figures only may 
be uzed when preferd, and the rest show the scope of the subject. On 
many topics minute subsections ar printed simply for this purpose, and 
for use in indexing periodicals, transactions of socyeties, and in keeping 
notes. Note typ is uzed for topics clearly useful only to specialists or 
as showing scope. Many others probably belonging in same category, 
if doutful ar in regular typ of their grade. 

(15) 



DECIMAL CLASIFICATION 



The advantaj of close clasing is unquestiond, if the uzer knows just what 
it is. With this plan it is not only practicabl, but comparativly eazy. If 
there ar only 10 books on a givn topic, it is useful to hav them in groups 
amung themselvs, for otherwize they wud hav only accidental order, 
which is of servis to no one. A reader wishing a specific book shud go, 
not to shclvs, but to catalog, where he can find its place quickest. If he 
wishes a specific subject, he is sent instantly to its exact place by the 
Subject Index. If he wishes to study the library's resources at the shelvs, 
he wil be greatly helpt by minute clasing. A teacher showing his pupil the 
material on any subject, wud, if there wer only 20 books, surely put 
together those covering same points, even if there wer only 2. Much more 
shud librarians group closely their greater colections, that readers may 
gain sumthing of the advantajes of an experienst gyd. 

Thus every specialist has his own special library. If a student of syence 
in jeneral, he is sent to clas 5; if his department is zoolojy, his library is 
59; if his specialty is shels, he finds all works and references on that subject 
in library 594. Whether a specialist needs it or not, every subject, being a 
library by itself, shows resources and wants as no catalog can. A catalog 
can not be made to take satisfactorily the place of handling books themselvs. 
This advantaj weighs most in a colej or socyety library, where many go to 
the shelvs; but even if only librarians ar admitted, close clasing is worth 
its cost becauz of aded power givn. 

Tentativ tables More and more minute subdivisions hav been specialy 
cald for til the 1000 heds of 1873, with 2600 index entries in edition 1, 
hav increast til they command 40,000 index entries., in edition 11. After 
getting many sugjestions, sumtimes hundreds, for aditions or further 
subdivisions of sum subject, we draft a skeme and test it on a sampl 
colection. To get larjer cooperation in perfecting it we sumtimes print 
the new draft in Tables without including its new words in Index, so every 
uzer wil see what is proposed and if interested may test it on his own work 
and submit sugjestions for improvement. Then in the next edition, with 
this great help, needed revisions can be made and all new words inserted 
in Index. A note before such tentativ skemes calls attention to this fact, 
e.g. in edition 11, skemes for 069 Museums, 651 Offis economy, 960 Africa. 

Nemonics Arranjement of heds has sumtimes been modifyd to secure 
nemonic aid in numbering and finding books without the Index; thus 
China has always number 1. In Ancient history, it has the 1st section, 
931; in Modern history, under Asia, it has 951. Similarly the Indian 
number is 4; English, 2; German, 3; French, 4; Italian, 5; Spanish, 6; 
Russian, 7; European, 4; Asian, 5; African, 6; North American, 7; South 
American, 8; and so for all divisions by languajes or cuntries. Italian 5, 
for instance, is in 035, 055, 065, 450, 850, 945, and many others. This 
nemonic principl is specialy prominent in Filolojy and Literature, and their 
divisions, and in form distinctions uzed in the 1st 9 sections of each clas. 
Filosofy, methods or theory occurring as a hed is always 1; dictionaries 

(16) 



NEMONICS 



and cyclopedias ar 3 ; essays, 4; periodicals, 5; associations, institutions and 
socyeties, 6; education, 7; poligrafyor colections, 8; history, 9. Innumerus 
cases several minor heds ar groupt together as Other, uzualy numberd 9. 

While Italian is always 5, 5 is by no means always Italian. Grammar 
is 5, Periodicals ar 5, Asia is 5, Oratory is 5, etc. Even wer it posibl, to 
limit 5 to Italian wud waste numbering material, and results wud not 
justify cost. The purpose is to giv practical aid, not to follow fanciful 
theory. A clasifyer marking a French grammar, remembers that all 
Filolojy begins with 4, and, as French is always 4 and grammar 5, he 
knows the number must be 445. Italian (5), poetry (1), is plainly 851 
with no danjer of being mistaken for ' poetry of grammar ' or ' theory of 
Asia,' becauz the numbers also hav those meanings. This feature is an 
aid, not regular method, and in all doutful cases one refers at once to 
Index or Tables. Sugjested difficulties ar uzualy creations of injenius 
theorists and not outgrowth of practical experience. 

Wherever practicabl, this nemonic principl is uzed in subdividing sec- 
tions. 558, Jeolojy of South America, is subdivided by ading the sections 
of 980, History of South America. Jeolojy of Brazil then must be 558.1: 
nemonicly, the 1st 5 is Syence; 2d 5, Jeolojy; 8, South America; and 1, 
Brazil. Any library attendant or regular uzer of the skeme recognizes 
5 58. 1 at a glance as Jeolojy of Brazil. This nemonic feature occurs in several 
hundred places, and is of great practical utility in numbering and finding 
books without catalog or index, and in determining caracter of any book 
simply from its call number. Extent of use is shown in 5 tables appended to 
main Index, giving alfabetic lists of (1) subjects, with clas number of each, 
which may be subdivided jeograficly; (2) form divisions, with figures to 
be aded in making such division; (3) languajes, with their clas numbers, 
which may be further subdivided filolojicly by ading figures givn in Index 
table 4; (4) filolojic divisions, with figures to be aded in subdividing any 
languaj in Index table 3; (5) literatures, with their clas numbers, which 
may be further subdivided by ading form divisions from English literature. 

As in close subdivision, wish for nemonic correspondence has never out- 
weighd any claim of greater usefulness. In many cases choice between 
numbers was hardly perceptibl: e. g. whether in filolojy order shud be 
French, Spanish, Italian, or French, Italian, Spanish. In such cases 
nemonic numbers wer givn preference, and 49 years use has proved this 
wizest. Great gain, beside eaz of remembering, results from this uniform 
use of same numbers with same meaning whenever similar division is 
made. Wherever division by languajes or cuntries is made, it follows 
filolojy or history numbers, and in Tables, the note ' Divided like 900 ' 
fully takes the place of reprinting all history subdivisions. This saving 
justifys use of these numbers in sum cases, even where a sumwhat 
different order myt seem more nearly fitted to the special case; e. g. in 342, 
constitutional history of Canada (342.71) and Australia (342.94) next that 
of England (342.42) wud be better than our order, which separates them 

(17) 



DECIMAL CLASIFICATION 



both from England and from each other. Stil by following the uzual 
4 procrustean ' numbers, many topics can be subdivided minutely without 
further study, by simply applying history or languaj subdivisions. A 
singl ilustration of the astonishing power this principl givs wil suffice, tho 
thousands myt be givn: 016 is 4 Bibliografy of special subjects, divided 
like regular clasification \ therefore by aid of tables under 581, 
016.581974742 redily translates itself to all uzers into ' Bibliografy of 
flora of Albany co., N Y '. While these 12 figures myt never be uzed, 
if a specialist wishes minute division, it is redy to his hand, conforms to 
Index, and wil be clearly understood by anyone familiar with our plan. 
A specialist in such cases wud probably adopt a contraction for his long 
number, and uze in ful only the minute divisions. See p. 34 9 ~35 2 for such 
contractions. 

Decimalism Utility has not been sacrificed in order to force sub- * 
jects on the 1 decimal procrustean bed \ Decimals hav been uzed as ser- 
vants, not as masters. When subjects ar combined or separated into just 
10 heds, it has been from no necesity of the skeme, but becauz it seemd 
most useful, all things considerd. In many cases there wer orijinaly 
only 3 to 7 heds insted of 10; but uzualy, during years of testing before 
publication, it proved advizabl to divide sum of these heds, as it took no 
aded space or labor. On the other hand, there wer cases where more than 
10 heds seemd more natural; and, as any number up to 100 is provided 
for by ading one decimal", this was dun in most cases. As only 1000 sec- 
tions wer first printed, it was often necesary to put 2 or more closely allyd 
topics together under the same number, as must stil be dun whenever a 
library limits number of figures uzed to 3 ; but during 49 years use subdivi- 
sions hav multiplyd, til now nearly every topic has its own special number. 
The skeme givs us for each topic, as it wer, a case of 9 pijeonholes, with 
a larj space at the top; and we uze them as every practical business man 
uzes such pijeonholes about his desk. If, as in 220, there ar les than 9 
main topics, it is often convenient to uze the extra spaces for subdivisions. 
Thus we keep separate, under Old Testament, historic, poetic, and profetic 
books; and under New Testament, the Gospels, Epistls and Apocalips. 
Spaces ar there, and it is convenient to uze them for jeneral works on those 
groups — a reason that experience proves a good anser to the charj of 
lak of coordination, tho indention and typ in Tables make that charj 
baseless. Then in 280, having more than 9 topics, if we ar uzing only 3 
figures we put Congregational in same space with Presbyterian, and 
small denominations together in the last box, just as a business man puts 
his papers in his pijeonholes. If he insisted on having a different case 
made to order for each use, it wud cost over twice as much ; he cud not 
group them together or interchanje them, and they wud not fit offis shelvs. 

There has been perverse misapprehension of this feature, and critics 
oftenest stumbl over ' procrustean 10'. In fact, this is an element of use- 
fulness. A railroad also has the fault that it is procrustean in its path and 

(18) 



DECIMALISM 



in its times. It can not cum to yur door nor wait yur convenience, as did 
the stajecoach or carriaj ; it can not go to the fields for its loads of produce; 
it can not turn out for obstacls; and it is simply bzcauz it is procrustean 
that it can do its work so much better and quicker and cheaper. The 
paralel cud be fairly extended to many other cases, but any tho'tful 
mind wil recognize that the economy and eaz of working the Decimal 
sis tern ar larjly dependent on its being procrustean. To this we owe much 
of the great simplicity of the Relativ Index, many nemonic correspondences, 
and the useful o to indicate form and period divisions. Our intersecting 
lines of space and time in History, etc., of languaj and form in Filolojy 
and Literature, and scores of similar advantajes, depend wholy on ' pro- 
crustean 10 ', or else on sum other number equaly procrustean, but lacking 
the advantajes of exact correspondence to our arithmetic. 

Relativ location Economy and simplicity cald not only for the Sub- 
ject Index, but also for sum plan of consolidating the 2 sets of marks 
previusly uzed; one teling what subject a book treated, the other where 
the book was shelvd. By relativ location and decimal clas numbers we 
make our simpl arabic numerals tel of each book and pamflet, both what 
it is, and where it is. 

In fixt relation, to find book, pamflet, clipping or note is like finding a 
man when yu know his town, street, hous and room. 

In relativ location it is like finding a soldier if yu know his army, divi- 
sion, rejiment and cumpany. If John Smith is 3d man in 2d row of Cum- 
pany B, rejiment 69, 4th division, whether the rejiment is in camp, on 
parade or on march, his place is not determind by the bit of ground on 
which he stands, but by his relation to the rest of the army. If soldiers 
ar ded and in the cemetery they ar as eazily found by fixt as by relativ 
location. But if the army is alive and militant, as every library or private 
working colection o't to be, its resources shud be findabl whether in 
camp, on march or in action. 

In arranjing books on shelvs, the formerly common absolute or fixt loca- 
tion by shelf and book number is wholy abandond, relativ location by clas 
and book number being our chief feature. Accumpanying clas number is 
the book number, which prevents confuzion of different books on the same 
subject. 1 In finding books, numbers markt on baks ar followd, the upper 
being the clas and the lower the book number. Clas is found in its numeric 
order amung clases, just as shelf is found in fixt sistems. Shelvs ar not 
numberd, as increasing different departments, opening new rooms, and any 
arranjing of clases to bring books most circulated nearest delivery desk, 
wil at different times bring different clas numbers on any givn shelf. New 
books, as recievd, ar numberd and put in place, in same way that new 
titles ar aded to card catalog. 

Thus all books on any givn subject stand together, and no aditions or 
chanjes ever separate them. Not only ar found together all books on 
subject sought, but most nearly allyd subjects precede and follow, 

1 For suggestions regarding best forms of book numbers see p. 2g 5 -T > o 7 . 

(19) 



DECIMAL CLASIFICATION 



they in turn being preceded and followd by other allyd subjects as far as 
practicabl. Readers not having access to shelvs find short titles arranjed 
in same order in shelflist, and ful titles, imprints, aded subject entries, 
references, notes etc. in clast catalog. 

Parts of sets, and books on same or allyd subjects, ar never separated 
as they ar sure to be, sooner or later, in a library arranjed on fixt 
plan, unless it be frequently rearranjed and recatalogd, a procedure too 
expensiv except for very welthy libraries. Relativ sistem clas and book 
numbers remain unchanjed thru all chanjes of shelving, bildings or order 
of clases. 

Amung hundreds of points raizd by librarians as to its practical workings 
and usefulness, the only one in which it was not shown to be equal or superior 
to erlier sistems was that in this relativ location a book which this year 
stands, e. g. at the end of a certain shelf, may not be on that shelf at all 
another year, becauz of uneven growth of parts of the library. This slyt 
objection, however, inheres in any sistem where books ar arranjed by sub- 
jects, rather than by shelvs, windows, doors, and similar non-intelectual 
distinctions. 

Sizes on shelvs Most libraries hav abandond close distinction of sizes. 
It is true that this distinction saves a litl space, but at far too great a 
cost; for every distinction of sizes makes a paralel clasification. If books 
ar group t in 5 sizes, one must look in 5 places before he can be sure of having 
seen them all. 

It is better to shelv octavos and all smaller books together in 1 series, 
and arranje in paralel libraries only quartos and folios, which ar too larj 
to stand on regular shelvs, showing series in which any oversize book is 
put by a size letter prefixt to the book or clas number; e. g. 749 qA or 
q749 A shows that book A on Artistic furniture is too larj for regular 
shelvs, and so is placed in q or quarto series. Or uze a wood or pasteboard 
dummy to show location of a book not in its regular place. But, however 
solvd, size problems ar no more trublsum with Decimal than with any 
other clasification. 

Catalogs 

Any sistem of catalogs may be uzed with this skeme, but the 2 essentials 
of even the simplest sistem ar name or author catalog and shelflist. The 
chief uses of this sistem for catalogs ar for shelflists and for clast catalogs 
on cards. 

Name catalog In this, arranjed strictly by names of authors and of 
persons or places writn about, the clas number holds a subordinate place, 
yet is constantly useful. If printed, it appears in a singl colum as in the 
Relativ Index, and where there is no subject catalog one can rapidly pik 
out books on any topic by glancing down colum for clas number wanted. 

Shelflist Here clas number is again hyly important, as it makes this 
list the most useful form of brief subject catalog, giving author's name 
and brief title of every book on specific subject bearing that clas 
number. 

(20) 



CATALOGS 



Clast catalog In the clast card catalog the clasification is mapt out 
abuv the cards by projecting gyds, making reference almost instantaneus. 
Subjects ar arranjed in i, 2, 3 order of their decimal subject numbers 
exactly as in clas tables, and cards of each subject ar then subarranjed 
alfabeticly by authors (or, in sum cases, e. g. biografy or local history, 
by subjects) or cronolojicly, or by book numbers. 

The printed subject catalog on this plan is also most compact and satis- 
factory in use. Under each clas number ar givn the library's resources 
on that subject, the heding giving, for convenience, name as wel as number 
of subject; e. g. ' 513 Jeometry.' Jeneral notes ar printed in finer typ under 
jeneral heds, and a relativ index at the end shows just where to open the 
book to find any topic. As clas numbers ar put in place of paje numbers, 
this index servs for any catalog, list or library arranjed on this plan. 

Dictionary catalog The dictionary catalog is as eazily uzed with this 
sistem as with any other, and is at present on the crest of its wave of 
popularity. Its failure to meet skolars' requirements has often been pointed 
out. While far the best for an index, it stil leavs much need of a good clast 
catalog. But difficulties both of making and of uzing a clast catalog 
wer formerly so great that there was a conviction amung many librarians 
that notwithstanding its great advantajes, the idea must be abandond 
as impracticabl, while other eminent authorities ably argued that the 
poorest clast catalog was better than one unclast, and that any use of such 
a catalog was in itself a lesson in bibliografy. Now that the serius difficulties 
of making a good clast catalog hav been so larjly removed by the simpl 
arabic numerals and Relativ Index of this decimal plan, the merits of clast 
over the more common dictionary sistems ar dubly prominent. 

The Subject Index of this sistem is a skeleton dictionary catalog, cover- 
ing everything not fully coverd by the ' name catalog '. Insted of giving 
book titles under each hed, the number refers to all those titles simply and 
directly. The index may be made on any of the varius dictionary plans, 
with all the advantajes it may possess. To us, simplest seemd best. We 
giv only short heds with brief indication in doutful cases of viewpoint 
taken in assyning clas numbers. 

We therefore unite advantajes of dictionary and clast catalogs, not by 
mingling them and so losing much of simplicity of one and as much of 
excelence of the other, but by realy uzing both, each with its own merits. 
Only one set of titles is needed, for our clas numbers make this availabl 
for both catalogs. 

Advantajes 

Shelvs The sistem on the shelvs is the simplest form of relativ location. 
Many libraries hav adopted it for shelf arranjement, where catalogs recently 
printed, or larj investment in another plan, made it too expensiv to chanje 
anything else. For its great advantajes for shelvs see p. i9 4 -2o 4 , Relativ 
location. 

(21) 



DECIMAL CLASIF1CATION 



Shelflist By simply printing the shelflist at any time an admirabl 
subject clas list is made for any topic on which there may be present interest ; 
e. g. if a town contemplates a new water supply, interest is greatly stimu- 
lated, and everything about waterworks is wanted. The librarian has only 
to open his shelflist to 628.1 and 352.6 and print it. This great advantaj 
is gaind with but slyt variation from the form found best in its regular 
use as a shelflist for examination of shelvs to detect losses and misplace- 
ments. 

Accession book Where shelf mark colums ar uzed, tables of number of 
books aded on each subject ar redily made. A glance shows caracter, 
by subjects, of books aded during any givn period; for, wherever this clas 
number occurs, it tels not only where the book is shelvd but also what it is 

about. 

Pamflets These clas numbers applyd to pamflets, whether catalogd or* 
uncatalogd, hav proved specialy satisfactory. Number is writn on 
upper left corner, and pamflets ar shelvd in pamflet boxes, side by side 
with books on same subject, or they may be kept in vertical files or 
on special shelvs divided every 10 cm by perpendicular partitions, or, if 
preferd, each pamflet may be put in exact place as if bound. Litl expense 
is incurd, and yet entire pamflet resources of the library on any subject 
can be produced almost instantly. The immense advantaj es of this 
clast arranjement, both in economy and usefulness, wil be appreciated by 
every keeper of a pamflet colection. A name or author catalog is made 
on slips if time allows. The pamflets themselvs ar the best subject catalog. 
Placing all material under its clas number on regular shelvs, has the great 
advantaj of enabling anyone examining a subject to see all resources in 
1 place, so far as posibl. 

Sale duplicates The same arranjement is admirabl here. Duplicates 
ar so constantly chanjing that a catalog can hardly be afforded, and a 
subject arranjement on any other plan than this is difficult to maintain. 
Stil, it is very essential that there be sum means of knowing what duplicates 
there ar on any givn subject. By simply penciling clas numbers on books 
and arranjing these numericly, it is posibl to giv the information more 
quikly, cheaply and satisfactorily than in any other way. 

Charjing sistem Clas numbers may be uzed for charjing with the fol- 
lowing advantajes: Minutest statistics of circulation can be made by 
simply counting charjes and entering the number for each clas on a report 
sheet. If filing is dun by call numbers, as iether a primary or a secondary 
consideration, whereabouts of any book lent or amount of use of any 
subject is quikly found; file givs an up-to-date record of all books lent in 
any subject, e. g. cards filed under 52 show for Astronomy or those under 
822 for English drama just how many and what books ar out and who 
hav them. Such a circulation table, always at hand, and with no extra 
expense or labor, since it is a natural part of the sistem, is hyly prized by 
all interested in caracter of jeneral use of the library, while it can by 

(22) 



ADVANTAGES 



trifling labor be converted into a permanent record by entering on a 
report sheet. If a reader's card is uzed, caracter of the individual's reading 
is here shown and never before has so much attention as now been givn to 
educating readers' tastes. 

Subject references For these it has peculiar advantajes. Many uzers 
ar undertaking analises and cros references to an extent hitherto tho't 
wholy or almost imposibl. These few figures tel as clearly as a long hed- 
ing exactly what the reference is, while gain in eaz of use is even greater 
than in time and space saved in recording. The clearness and directness 
of the method aid wonderfuly in this work. References to transactions, 
or chapters in essays, may be made in the most compact and uzabl form. 
See also p. 37 1 -39 5 Bibliografic modifications. 

Recataloging or reclasifying When Amherst College in 1873 first adopted 
this plan and began to recatalog its library, it was found (as in hundreds of 
cases since) entirely practicabl to chanje to the new sistem gradualy, as 
means allowd, without interfering in any appreciabl degree with circulation. 
Methods employ d for thus chanjing without interrupting use must vary 
according to different conditions. The essential feature is enuf distinction 
between old and new call numbers to be eazily recognized by attendants. 
If old call numbers consist wholy of figures, the initial letter of the Cutter 
author numbers furnishes this requisit. All numbers of figures only ar 
then recognized as old, and all numbers containing a letter as in the new 
sistem. 

Adaptability The sistem is so flexibl that it adapts itself to almost any 
circumstances. It may be uzed with proportionate results in almost any 
one of its applications without the others. It may be applyd to pamflets 
alone, bringing order out of caos, and solving this vext and vexing prob- 
lem; or it may be uzed for catalogs, leaving shelf arranjement as before; 
or it may be applyd to shelvs, while the catalog is dictionary or any other 
typ. 

Arabic numerals Arabic numerals can be writn and found quicker 
and with les danjer of ccnfuzion or mistake than any other simbols. There- 
fore roman numerals, capitals and small letters, and similar simbols found 
in most clasification sistems ar entirely discarded, and by exclusiv use of 
arabic numerals thruout shelvs, and indexes, catalogs and other records, 
there is secured the greatest accuracy, economy and convenience. This 
advantaj is specialy prominent in comparison with sistems where author's 
name or the title must be writn, in calling for or charjing books and in 
making references. 

Endowment of special departments Another great advantaj is peculiar 
adaptability to special endowments. One specialy interested in any sub- 
ject can often be induced to endow that subject, thus providing for bying 
each year all the best publications. 

If John Doe is specialy interested in opera, the library says: 1 Giv us 
$1000 as endowment of 782, and we wil call it the ' Doe Library of Dramatic 

(23) 



DECIMAL CLASIFICATION 



Music.' There wil be found every book, pamflet, newspaper clipping, or 
manuscript that the library has or can get on this subject. Gifts from 
others wil be placed in the Doe Library, the donor's name being givn 
on the bookplate, and for jenerations to cum every person interested in 
opera wil be grateful for yur foundation \ In this way 782 is assynd to 
John Doe, and his pride is stimulated in developing it. If another man 
with larjer means and interest wil endow the whole subject of music 780, 
there is no difficulty or impropryety in including 782, the Doe Dramatic 
Music Library, as the 2d section of 780, the Roe Music Library. 

This is one of the most promising fields for development, for almost 
every library has amung its readers sum specialy interested, who if properly 
approach t wud endow sum topic, even if a small one, and this relativ 
location, with its definit number expressing just the ground coverd, may be 
of great servis in working up these special endowments. 

Summary To sum up its claims : It is comparativly inexpensiv; eazily 
understood, rememberd and uzed; practical rather than theoretic; brief 
and familiar in nomenclature; susceptibl of partial and gradual adoption 
without confuzion; convenient for arranjing pamflets, sale duplicates, and 
notes, and for indexing, and in keeping statistics and cheks for books off 
shelvs ; a satisfactory adaptation of card catalog principl to shelvs. It 
shelvs books compactly; uzes simpl and few simbols; can be expanded, 
without limit and without confuzion or wasted labor, both in catalogs 
and on shelvs or in catalogs alone ; cheks thuroly and conveniently against 
mistakes; admits redily numerus cros references; is unchanjeabl in its 
call numbers, and so givs them in all places where needed; in its Index 
affords an anser to the greatest objection to clast catalogs, and was the 
1st satisfactory union of the advantajes of clast and dictionary sis terns. 

Sugjestions to uzers 

Hold book in ryt hand and turn with left, then both clas numbers 
and index heds show most plainly on left marjins and reference is quicker 
when eye follows left pajes only. 

Numeration In thinking or speaking of clas numbers, to avoid confuz- 
ion always divide at the decimal point, and name it; e. g. read 942.27 
1 nine forty- two, point twenty-seven never ' ninety-four two twenty- 
seven '. If 'point' wer omitted, the ear myt redily interpret 270.2 
(two seventy, two) as 272, while ' two seventy, point two ' can never be 
misunderstood. 

Plan of book 

Tables First paje shows 10 clases into which all topics ar divided. 
Next paje shows 9 divisions of each of these 10 clases, in a birdseye view 
of the whole skeme on a singl paje. Then follows a sinoptic view 
of 10 pajes, one for each clas, showing the 9 sections of each division of 
each clas. 

(24) 



PLAN OF BOOK 



Following these sinopses is the complete clasification, which repeats 
in proper order, clases, divisions and sections, with all subsections. For 
convenience of uzers, who thus get fuller and clearer ideas of the field which 
each number covers, sinonimus terms, exampls, brief notes, dates and 
varius each words ar often aded to main heds. Therefore all references to 
numbers shud be lookt up in the ful tables of subsections, uzing summaries 
only when a merely sinoptic view is wisht. 

Index Next an alfabetic index of all heds refers by clas number to 
exact place of each in Tables. This Index includes also, as far as found, 
all sinonims or alternativ names for heds, and any other entries likely to 
help a reader find his subject more redily. Even a uzer who knows just 
where to turn to his subject in the Tables, may, by consulting the Index, be 
put on the trak of valuabl allyd matter which he myt otherwize overlook. 

Use of Tables and Index 
Familiarity with clasification Get a jeneral knowlej of the skeme by 
lerning the 10 main clases [yu wil soon know the 100 divisions also without 
special study], so that yu can tel to what subject a givn number belongs 
from its ist figure, without referring to Tables. Specific knowlej of minute 
divisions wil cum gradualy, but rapidly, from use. Assyn numbers by uzing 
Tables alone, and then always verify yur result by the Index. Thus 
yu wil more rapidly acquire knowlej of the Clasification and facility in 
its use. To do this, decide first to which of the 10 clases the subject belongs ; 
next, take that clas as if there wer no other, and decide to which of its 
10 divisions the subject belongs; then, in the same way, select section and 
subsection, thus running down yur topic in its groovs, which becum 
io-fold narrower at each step. As a chek against error, even tho familiar 
with the skeme, uze Index freely. 

Subject of a book To find this out, consult : 

1 Title, since it is jeneraly chosen to show what the book is about, 
but as many titles ar vague or misleading, never clas from title alone 
but always examin also 

2 Contents table, which is best gyd to true subject. If there is no 
contents table read 

3 Hedings of chapters, or marjinal topics 

4 Preface Unless alredy certain, glance thru this to each author's 
viewpoint and verify impressions gaind from title and contents 

5 Reference books If preceding means fail, consult reliabl bibliografies, 
clast and annotated catalogs, biografic dictionaries, histories of literature, 
cyclopedias, reviews etc. for information about caracter of book. 

6 Subject matter If 5 shorter methods abuv fail, examin subject 
matter of book itself, and if stil in dout, to avoid mistakes, put aside on 
an 1 under consideration ' shelf til yu can examin more thuroly or consult 

7 Specialists Experts ar uzualy glad to examin any new books in their 
departments, enuf to clas them, i. e. to define their true subject and rela- 
tions. Old ones they know where to put alredy. 

(25) 



DECIMAL CLAS1FICATI0N 



Be specialy careful when dealing with flexibl terms, e. g. child welfare, 
to make sure of the caracter of its application in that individual book. 

After deciding what the book is about, find this subject in Tables, 
iether thru Index or by uzing Tables directly, which for beginners is a 
longer process, seldom to be trusted without subsequent reference to 
Index; e. g. Pollock's Land laws myt naturaly be clast from Tables alone 
as '333, Land: ownership; ryts; rent which seems exactly to fit this book. 
Index, however, shows 2 numbers, both referring to land laws, but 
from different viewpoints; viz, 347.2, legal, and 333, economic. The object 
of this book, as seen in the preface, is to giv a popular presentation of 
English statutes pertaining to landholding, not to discuss history and theory 
of land laws from economist's viewpoint. It should be clast '347.2, Realty 
which myt hav been mist but for Index. 

Assyning clas numbers 1 Practical usefulness controls. Put each boolc 
under the subject to the student of which it is most useful, unless local 
reasons ' attract ' it to a place stil more useful in yur library. See p. 27*. 

2 Content or real subject of which a book treats, and not form or acci- 
dental wording of title, determins its place. Following this rule, put a 
filosofy of art with Art, not with Filosofy; a history of mathematics with 
Mathematics, not with History; for filosofy or history is simply the form 
which these books hav taken. Their true content or subject is Art or 
Mathematics, and to the student of these subjects they ar most useful. 
(See also p. 14 6 ) 

3 Always remember that the question is not ' where wil one probably 
look for a certain book ', but ' under what subject is the book of greatest 
value ' ; e. g. it is of litl consequence whether ' one wud be apt to look ' 
under 595.1 for Darwin's Formation of vejetabl mold, but of much conse- 
quence that one studying erthworms shud find that book in 595.1 Worms, 
since it is chiefly valuabl as a study of erthworms' habits. Anyone want- 
ing that special book shud look for it in catalog under Darwin. 

4 Assyn every book to most specific hed that wil contain it. This varies 
in different libraries according to number of figures uzed, e. g. specific 
hed for ' compulsory vaccination ' is 614.4738; but in a library uzing only 
3 figures, ' most specific ' number posibl is 614, which must take every- 
thing on Public helth. 

Sumtimes a library unwizely puts all books of a division together, 
if but few; e. g. all mathematical works ar markt 510. It takes just as 
many figures and in most cases just as much labor and if a man wants 
the 1 calculus in the whole library he has to serch thru perhaps 100 volumes 
in 510, when otherwize he wud instantly find it standing alone as 517. 
See also p. 28 1 , Number of figures in clas number. 

5 ' Predominant tendency ' or obvius purpose of a book uzualy decides 

its number at once. Stil a book often treats of 2 or more subjects. In 

such cases put it where it wil be most useful, and make aded entries for 

all subordinate subjects. For a clast catalog giv the aded entry numbers 

on both bookplate and main subject card as wel as on aded entry cards. 

(26) 



ASSYNING CLAS NUMBERS 



It is a markt advantaj that these aded entries, notes etc. may be made 
from time to time at convenience. It is necesary at first to determin 
only predominant tendency of book in order to clas it; aded entries ar 
made whenever found desirabl. 

Supply these numbers indicating more closely caracter of book as 
rapidly as posibl, and invite all specialists, in connection with their reading, 
to call attention to every desirabl aded topic notist. The numbers take 
litl room, ar eazily aded, and in most cases ar very valuabl. 

6 If 2 subjects hav distinct paje limits, jeneraly clas under ist and make 
analitic entry under 2d; but if 2d is decidedly more important or much 
greater in bulk, clas under that, with analitic entry under ist. Always 
put a book under ist subject, unless there is good reason for entering it 
under another. 

7 Consider not only scope and tendency of each book, but also nature 
and specialties of each library. 

Any subject of which a library makes a specialty naturaly 1 attracts ' 
allyd subjects. This influence is strongest in minute clasing. To admit 
this variation, many subjects hav in this skeme 2 or more places, according 
to these different sides; e. g. a book on ' skool hyjien/ which a medical library 
puts under 613, has also a place in 371.7, where education specialists require 
it. 

8 If a book treats of a majority of the sections of any division, giv it 
division number, insted of most important section number with aded 
entries. Unless sum one section is so prominently treated as to warrant 
placing the book in it, clas a book covering 4 or more sections under divi- 
sion number; e. g. clas a volume on lyt, heat and sound, under hed most 
fully discust, with aded entries for the others; but if it treats also of 
mekanics, hydrostatics and neumatics, clas as 530, or jeneral fizics, tho no 
mention be made of electricity, magnetism or molecular fizics. 

9 When a book deals with 2 consecutiv and closely allyd subjects, jen- 
eraly clas with ist and regard this as including 2d, but if 2d is decidedly 
predominant, clas with this and iether disregard ist or make aded entry, 
according to importance of that portion. 

10 To secure uniformity, make for future reference ful notes of all 
difficulties and decisions; for it is more important to put books on same 
subject together than to put them in a more nearly absolutely correct 
place. These notes shud be writn on broad marjins of the Clas Tables 
or in an interleavd copy or on P slips arranjed by clas numbers like a 
clast catalog. 

1 1 Keep colected works, libraries etc. together, and assyn, like individual 
books, to most specific hed that wil contain them; or assyn to most promi- 
nent of varius subjects treated, with aded entries for others; or, better, 
separate and clas parts as independent works. 

This last practis constantly grows in favor, and many librarians now 
larjly disregard uniform bindings and ' series ' lettering, and, unless con- 
tents of volumes ar so connected that they can not be separated, clas 
each under most specific hed that wil contain it. 

(27) 



DECIMAL CLASIFI CATION 



12 Clas translations, reviews, keys, analises, ansers and other books 
about specific books with orijinal book, as being there most useful. 

Number of figures uzed in clas number Decide this according to cir- 
cumstances in each library. Small libraries often uze minute subsections 
beyond 3 figures only in certain divisions like Travel, 913-919, where 
closer jeografic division is specialy needed, and in 400 and 800, when a 4th 
figure is needed to separate different languajes. 

In very small colections 2 figures myt do til growth required further 
division ; but it is economy, and saves handling books again, to uze at least 
3 figures at first, even in smallest colections. In larjer or rapidly growing 
libraries all subdivisions may be uzed for same reazon, tho number of books 
may not then seem to justify it. Whether there ar 1 or 1000 books on any 
topic, they take no more shelf space if clast minutely, and work is dun 
once for all. When larj accessions cum, even if a century later, this number * 
wil not hav to be alterd. A library having but 20 books on Education 
myt think it unwize to uze the ful skeme, but the whole 20 wud go on 
a singl shelf, and take no more room, and the Index wud refer more 
accurately to what was wanted. Number of books yu hav on any subject 
has in this sistem no special weight. In relativ location, any number of 
consecutiv topics without a book wastes no space on shelvs or in catalogs. 
Numbers ar merely skipt. This not only does no harm, but has great 
negativ value, as looking for a number and finding it blank or skipt shows 
that yu hav nothing on that subject — information 2d in value only to find- 
ing sumthing, for one need no longer serch. 

The practical objection to close clasing is that it givs a longer number, 
when this is uzed to charj by in a lending library. In a reference library 
ful subsections shud always be uzed. Where short numbers ar imperativ, 
giv ful clas number on another part of the bookplate, not to be uzed in 
charj ing, but as a gyd to contents. Thus when a clasifyer has once examind 
a book and found out just what it is about, he records it to benefit others. 

Bilding numbers 

Jeografic divisions In dividing by cuntries according to note 1 Divided 
like 930-999', found so often in Tables, ad only the number following initial 
9, for this 9 means not locality but simply clas 9, History; e. g. 942, history 
of England, analyzd is 9, history, 42, England (4 Europe, 2 England). 
If jeolojy of England is wanted, ad to 55 (jeolojy number) 42 (number for 
England) and yu hav 554.2. History of N Y state is 974.7 of which 747 
is locality number; 353.9747, number for N Y state administration, is 
bilt by ading to number for state administration, 353.9, number for 
N Y state, 747. 

Languaj and literature In 890, where directed to 'divide like 490,' 
note that 890, Minor literatures, and 490, Minor languajes, correspond 
exactly, so that only figures following 49 ar to be aded to 89 to bild a minor 
literature number; e. g. Polish languaj is 491.85; ading 185 to 89, Minor 

(28) 



BILDING NUMBERS 



literatures, gives 891.85 Polish literature. In brief, to form literature 
from filolojy numbers substitute 8 for 1st figure, 4; e. g. Sanskrit languaj 
491.2, Sanskrit literature 891.2. Under 490, the filolojic divisions (diction- 
aries, grammar etc.), and under 890 the form divisions (poetry, drama 
etc.) shud be uzed only when clas number represents a specific languaj 
or literature, e. g. 491.7 Russian, but not 497 North American, awaiting 
further division by languaj. 

If directed to ' divide like main clasification as in 016, number for 
required subject is aded exactly as it stands in Tables; e. g. bibliografy of 
Polish poetry, 016.89185 1. 

Combining numbers in a way not printed in Tables must be dun with 
great care or confuzion results. Many uzers, fascinated with the posi- 
bilities of the sistem, make combinations more injenius than useful; e. g. 
' The horse's foot and how to shoe it ' was once markt 636.1682, i. e. 
blaksmi thing number, 682, aded to horse number, 636.1, making a 
long, useless number. Horseshoeing is now in Tables as 682.1, while 636.168 
means ' American ponies \ 

Often a clasifyer ads a figure to show sum distinction. It seems short 
and desirabl, but later he may find he has shut himself off from uzing sum 
other division greatly preferd. For his personal aditions, letters or other 
simbols not numbers shud be uzed. Every aded simbol must be clearly 
writn in Tables and Index. Never trust memory for decisions. 

See also p. 32 1 ~34 9 , Letter or simbol notations for chanjes or aditions. 

Book numbers 

The call number of a book (number by which it is cald for) jeneraly 
consists of both clas and book numbers. The same clas number applys to 
all books on same subject; the book number distinguishes each individual 
work from all others in that clas, and is the same for all volumes or copies 
of same work. When a specific volume is wanted the number for that 
volume must be aded to clas and book numbers to complete the call number. 
Most important methods of assyning book numbers ar: 

Author numbers Invention of translation sistems by which a name is 
represented by its initial, with remaining letters translated into numbers, 
e. g. Freeman, F85, has led most libraries to arranje books under each 
clas number alfabeticly by authors, or in local history by towns, or in 
individual biografy and bibliografy by biografees and bibliografees. This 
keeps together all works by same author or on same town or same biograf ee , 
etc. and even in larj clases enables one to find any book redily without con- 
sulting catalogs. One great advantaj is that same author has same book 
number in every subject; i. e. figures ar ' significant ' like our clas numbers, 
and translate themselvs into names. Great practical nemonic convenience 
results from this form of book number. Most widely uzed of these trans- 
lation sistems is C. A. Cutter's, known as ' Cutter numbers '. 

(29) 



DECIMAL CLASIFI CATION 



Special author tables A 2d method, for authors having special 

numbers, e. g. Shakspere, 822.33, or Milton, 821.47, is uniform use for 
such authors, of book numbers A-N, with O-Z assynd on basis of their 
individual work, as ilustrated on p. 987-88. 

Time numbers A 3d arranjement of books under clas numbers is crono* 
lojic by date of 1st publication. Its advantaj is in presenting historic 
development of subject, the book writn erliest being on the left, the latest 
work on the ryt, and then of any givn book it is evident that all those on 
the left wer writn before it, all those on the ryt after it. In syence and useful 
arts this has special value, while in literature author arranjement is better. 
W. S. Biscoe's translation sistem of dates givs a more compact and satis- 
factory mark for year than date writn in ful. 1 

Accession order A 4th arranjement, simpler but otherwize les desirabl, 
is in accession order; 1st book put in a clas being numberd 1, the 2d '2, 
the 3d 3. 

It is entirely practicabl to uze 2, 3 or all 4 of these methods at same 
time in same library, one peculiarity of the sistem being the eaz with which 
it may be adapted to almost any special circumstances. The advantaj es 
of the cronolojic numbering ar most markt in syence and useful arts; the 
alfabetic is best in clases where names of authors or subjects outrank 
dates; and special author numbers in cases where clas number alredy 
indicates author, so corresponding indication in book number wud be 
useless duplication; while the old accession-order plan is good in special 
colections which must be kept separate and ar no longer aded to, since 
here the extreme simplicity of i, 2, 3 order is secured with no sacrifice. 
It is stil better, if this last method is uzed, to adopt A, B, C, insted of 1, 
2, 3, as 26 insted of 9 books may be markt with 1 caracter, and chiefly 
becauz it is hyly desirabl that each book number begin with a letter, which 
can not be mistaken for end of clas number if writn on same line; e. g. 
1st book under 513, if numberd 1, myt be so writn as to confuze with sub- 
section 513.1, but 5 13 A cud not be misinterpreted. If figures ar uzed, 
take care to write them as a fraction or with separating dash; e. g. 513 
or 513-1. 1 

Variations practicabl in adjusting to special local 
requirements 

Sum uzers assume that adopting the Decimal Clasification and Relativ 
Index carries with it other parts of the sistem uzed by the author at 
Amherst, Wellesley or Columbia colejes or in New York State Library. 
In fact, the plan in each differd sumwhat from all the others, and many of 
the thousands of public and private libraries now uzing it hav adopted stil 
other variations; for special constituency, circumstances and resources of 
each library must be considerd in deciding what is best for it. This decision 



» For ful explanations and table of Biscoe numbers see p. 984-85. 

(30) 



VARIATIONS FOR SPECIAL LOCAL REQUIREMENTS 

shud be made by one familiar, not only with the library and its needs, 
but also with all methods of any merit and with comparativ eaz and cost 
of introducing them into any givn library. 

Cautions Having decided to adopt this sistem in its decimal form as 
workt out and printed, determin whether to adopt certain variations, 
noted in 1-5 below as practicabl, and in sum cases useful and desirabl. 
The inexperienst uzer is very likely to feel entirely competent, without 
reading more than a singl paje of the Tables, regardless of its bearings on 
hundreds of other places, and without so much as looking at the author's 
explanations, to institute a series of 'improvements'. Experience shows 
that nothing cud be more disastrus. It seems a simpl matter to put 
a topic a line hyer or lower, but in sum cases this may affect over 100 
Index entries, and there is no posibl way to be sure of correcting them except 
by examining each of 40,000 heds. Proposed chanjes, carefuly studid out 
and submitted as improvements, ar frequently shown by our old records 
to hav been adopted and uzed in the exact form proposed til unforeseen 
considerations forst us to chanje to the form as printed. Even after years 
of experience one is not safe in pronouncing on an apparent improvement 
without consulting voluminus records of previus experiments. 

Even sum who hav uzed the sistem longest hav been misled into adopt- 
ing chanjes which on tryal they wer compeld to reject, going bak to 
orijinal form at cost and confuzion of 2 chanjes. In so apparently simpl 
a thing as introducing subdivisions on blank numbers, mistakes ar often 
made; and when too late to correct them the makers regret their neglect 
to consult the editor and secure advice and cooperation of those most 
familiar with the manifold interrelations. Even wer the independent 
divisions equaly good, they do not agree with those which wil later be 
printed in Tables and Index, so that every copy of the printed skeme 
wil hav to be corrected in manuscript before it is uzabl in that library. 
The only safe rule is to make no chanjes or subdivisions without submitting 
them to the editor, who wil gladly advize on such matters without charj, 
not on the ground of any superior wizdom, nor even becauz of larjer experi- 
ence in this special work, but becauz in this way only can it be lernd if 
corresponding subdivisions hav been alredy assynd sumwhat differently. 

A uzer who adopts printed form avoids criticizm sure to be aimd at 
any posibl skeme. The moment he makes 1 1 improvement ' he must 
defend all his heds or alter them to suit each critic. Much time is saved by 
saying that the skeme is uzed as printed, and blunders ar the author's, 
not the uzer's. A list of chanjes made by others without consultation was 
writn for this caution, but is omitted lest it seem invidius. They ilustrate 
how eazy it is for able men to make what no one questions after explanation 
to hav been outryt blunders, in * improving and ading ' to the printed skeme. 
We ar always grateful for sugjestions from anyone, and, having alredy 
spent so much time in efforts to improve this sistem for the common good of 
all uzers, invite cooperation of those interested in completing needed sub- 
divisions and eliminating any errors that remain in iether Tables or Index. 

(31) 



DECIMAL CLASIFICATION 



Sugjested variations 

The following brief notes show the most important variations found 
practicabl in the ' relativ index and location sistem,' oftener cald the 
Decimal Gasification or ' Dewey sistem or oftenest simply 'DC. 
For its essentials see p. g 4 . 

i Letter or simbol notations for chanjes or aditions To protect other 
uzers from confuzion, the publishers insist, as entitled to by copyryt, 
that D C numbers shal not be printed with chanjed meanings or aditions, 
without sum clear indication of the fact in the number itself. If reazons 
which led to adoption of form printed ar not conclusiv to another, we 
wish to remove any obstacls to his use of the sistem with such chanjes as 
shal satisfy him. This can redily be dun by uzing a letter or sum other 
caracter than the 10 dijits, to mark chanjes; e. g. if yu wish a different set 
of subdivisions under any number, make it out to suit, and letter it a, 
b, c, etc. It wil arranje in its exact place and exact order without difficulty, 
and no other uzer of the sistem wil be confuzed by yur forms. In Index, 
cancel i, 2, 3, etc. yu. hav discarded, and write in a, b, c, etc. adopted. 
Whenever yu uze our exact numbers, uze also our exact and universal 
meanings for them as indext. For any aditions or chanjes of yur own, 
uze letters or simbols of yur own which can not be mistaken for ours, uzing, 
of course, our figures to the place where difference begins; e. g. if yu want a 
new heding next to 551.34, Icebergs, it can not properly go as decimal 1. 
Mark it 551.34a, and it arranjes as wisht. If yu wish to chanje a hed from 
one place to another, cancel it where it stands, and leav that number blank 
in Tables. Then insert the hed in its new place as abuv, as if it had never 
been in our Tables. Unuzed decimals ar often alredy appropriated for 
authorized subdivisions, tho they may not be printed til several editions 
later. 

This plan of introducing letters or other simbols wherever each uzer 
pleazes, wil giv all needed freedom to the personal equation and desire 
for ' orijinality \ and meet all real wants for peculiar clasification in 

peculiar cases. 

Fiction In sum cases it is uzualy best to modify clas numbers by 
letters as abuv. In popular libraries half the circulation is often fiction. 
It is a great saving to omit clas number entirely and uze merely book 
number, it being understood that no clas number means 'fiction'. Sum 
libraries go stil further and for fiction omit book number as wel as clas 
number. Sum even omit book numbers altogether. 

Juvenils After fiction, great circulation makes juvenils a good place 
to economize, if they ar kept separate, as is uzualy desirabl in popular 
libraries. Books ar clast as if for adults (except that a short number 
may be uzed) J being prefixt to show their special caracter. This givs J 
alone as clas number for juvenil fiction; J942 is a child's history of 
England. These books ar arranjed in a paralel library by themselvs, 
so J942 cums between J941, juvenil history of Scotland, and J943, juvenil 
history of Germany. 

(32) 



VARIATIONS FOR SPECIAL LOCAL REQUIREMENTS 



The separate J library can at any time be abandond by distributing J 
books amung the regular clases, iether ignoring J entirely, or preferably 
by putting all J books by themselvs at end of each clas number. In 
former case, if shorter numbers hav been uzed for juvenils than for 
adults they shud be extended to correspond ; in latter case, numbers may 
iether be extended and the books shelvd at end of exact subdivision, or 
the shorter numbers may be retained and the books groupt at end of 
entire section, e.g. all juvenil works on English history may be kept 
under short number J942 and shelvd after all adult works on English 
history, both 942 alone and 942 with subdivisions. 

There ar thus 3 methods: 1, to hav a separate J library; 2, to hav 
J books by themselvs at end of each clas number; 3, to hav J books in 
alfabetic order amung other books on same subject. In this last case 
J is useful only to call attention plainly to their juvenil caracter. 

Unless shorter numbers ar uzed for juvenils than for adults the same 
marking is uzed for all these plans, and one can be chanjed to another 
by simply distributing books the other way and teling attendants. 

Biografy For this larj clas, opinions differ as to best treatment. Beside 
the plan printed in Tables 2 others ar widely uzed. 

1 Put all biografies in one alfabet of names of persons writn about, 
marking all books simply B for clas number, and indicating the subject 
or biografee by a Cutter book number; e. g. life of Grant, B G76. This is 
most compact for charjing, and is preferd in popular libraries of larj circu- 
lation. 

2 Distribute biografy as far as posibl to subjects it ilustrates, leaving, 
of course, under 920 lives not bearing specialy on any subject; e. g. all 
lives of musicians go under 780 and its subdivisions, life of Wagner being 
782.2 insted of 927.82 as in Tables. Even in this arranjement it is better 
to indicate that it is biografy, putting B in place of biografy figures 92; 
e. g. mark Wagner's life B782.2 (927.822). Then it arranjes iether with 
782.2 or with biografy, as preferd, thus giving exactly the arranjement of 
the printed clasification, without chanjing a figure. 

Paralel libraries This treatment of fiction, juvenils and biografy ilus- 
trates the principl. Its other chief application is for languaj colections. 
Some libraries hav a constituency not reading English, and so need a 
paralel library in Italian or Swedish, etc. This is most eazily made by 
simply prefixing languaj initial to clas number. If arranjed in one series 
of subjects this initial is ignored, or all books in the special languajes 
may be groupt under initial letters at end of each clas number. The 
paralel library is made by simply putting together all books having same 
languaj initial and then arranjing by clas numbers. Initials uzed ar F, 
French, G, German, I, Italian, Sp, Spanish, Sw, Swedish, Dn, Danish, Du, 
Dutch, N, Norwegian, W, Welsh, A, Arabic, etc. Where only 1 languaj is so 
markt in a givn library, jeneraly only 1 letter shud be uzed, so as to avoid 
an extra letter in charjing; e. g. S wilanser for iether Spanish or Swedish if 

(33) 



DECIMAL CLASIF1 CATION 



uzed in only j sense. A prefixt letter may, however, hav been uzed with a 
different meaning, e. g. R for Reference, necesitating more than i letter for 
the languaj prefix, even if only I languaj is represented by the initial, 
e. g. Ru for Russian. This plan has proved very satisfactory in actual use. 

Combining languaj and literature The same principl can be applyd also 
in combining each languaj with its literature, if it is preferd to abolish 
the clas Filolojy, and make it simply an appendix to Literature; and the 
reverse wud hold true if a filolojist wisht to abolish Literature and make 
it an appendix to Filolojy; e. g. uzing 82f for English filolojy, and ading 
filolojy subdivisions, English dictionaries wud becum 82I3, English 
grammars 82f5, etc. arranjed iether just before or just after English litera- 
ture, 820, 821, etc. For a better plan see p. 35 9 ~36 6 , Broken order. 

Reference library To separate books most needed, the best plan is 
to mark R before clas numbers, and arranje books together as an R library. 
When books ar to go into the jeneral colection again, draw a line thru this 
letter. 

In the same way it frequently happens that a jeneral private library is 
givn on condition that it be kept together ; e. g. Phoenix library of Columbia 
University. This has P prefixt to clas number, and thus is a paralel library 
by itself. An initial is better than a * or similar mark, for it helps memory 
and is just as brief. The same plan applys if the library has an ' inferno ' 
for books not uzed without permits, or for distant rooms where books worth 
keeping but seldom cald for can be arranjed in a paralel storaj library. 

Stil another provision is made in 080, 8 being regular number for jeneral 
colections (as in 508, 520.8 etc.), for those special libraries which can not 
be separated becauz of binding or conditions of gift; but insted of the 
3 figures in 080, a singl letter, as described abuv, indicates the special col- 
ection, and it is eazy to lern location of the few special colections of any 
one library. 

Omission of initial o in the clas ' Jeneral works ' has been tryd; e. g. 
51 insted of 051 for an American periodical, but is not advized, for the 
eye gets so in the habit of reading as Syence any number beginning with 
5, that there is a mental hich if, e. g. jeneral periodicals ar writn 51, etc. 
insted of 051, etc. Another reazon is that the 1 and 2 figure numbers 1-99 
ar thus left availabl, and can be assynd to special use without confuzion 
with Tables or Index, for initial o is there printed for all numbers before 
100. Yet in clasification it sumtimes happens that the 1st 2 figures ar 
obvius at a glance, but time must be taken to determin the 3d. It is 
convenient to write these 1st figures, but if a mathematical book recievs 
its 1st 2 figures (51), this unfmisht number is likely to be confuzed with the 
2-figure number 51. This danjer may be larjly avoided by writing the 
decimal point after a blank; e. g. 51 ., to show that a figure is omitted. 

2 Contractions for specialists The sistem is often uzed by specialists 
for very minute work, where decimals run out to 6 or more places. 
Theoreticly it is better to write all these figures, thus showing relation to 

(34) 



VARIATIONS FOR SPECIAL LOCAL REQUIREMENTS 



the universe of knowlej, but there is no practical gain to justify the labor 
if a great quantity of slips must be numberd. A specialist working on 
1 Swedish poetry of the aje of Gustavus ' can uze a singl letter insted of 
the ful 839.715 and save 5 caracters in numbering each note; or a dash 
may be writn for all but the last figure, thus 1 — 5 A body of such notes 
can be inserted together in their place in an index at 839.715, with a colord 
card to mark the special groups, with litl danjer of confuzion. Stil a stickler 
for theoretic completeness wil write a ful index number for each separate 
slip. 

3 Use of alfabet or cronolojy for final subdivisions While our plan is 
decimal as distinguisht from ' dictionary ' we always alfabet wherever 
that is more useful. Indeed, the main feature of our plan is its alfabetic 
Relativ Index. Frequently in minute divisions it is economy to arranje 
alfabeticly or by dates without uzing a translation sistem. This is specialy 
true in index rerums and notes of specialists. After numbers hav been 
uzed as far as that is the most useful form, then iether the name chosen for 
hed or the year can be inserted at the end; e. g. towns in a givn state, 
individual birds or insects cuming under one number, names of men 
writn about in biografy, etc. Sum may prefer to adopt this plan in places 
where we hav chosen a grouping; e. g. in chemistry, to put all metals in one 
alfabet under 546.3, insted of uzing numbers 5 46. 3-. 99. If this chanje is 
wisht, a more complete one wil probably be better: put all elements, 
metallic and nonmetallic, in 1 alfabet under 546. Such use of the alfabet 
cauzes no confuzion with the Index, as it simply subdivides more closely, 
unless, as in the case of 546.3, the alfabet replaces heds alredy printed. 
In this case, cancel all subsections in the Tables by drawing a line obliquely 
thru heds discarded, and mark in marjin 1 Alfabet by elements,' e. g. 
546.3 Metals Alfabet by elements 



Then find each of these heds in Index and cancel all figures after 546.3, 



This plan has special value in this place, as new elements ar discoverd 
from time to time, and can redily be inserted in alfabetic place. Stil 
many chemists think it valuabl to hav similar metals groupt together for 
convenience of study, and to cover books writn on the group as a whole, 
and also think it important to hav a number for rejected elements, becauz 
literature and references about them remain, and must be provided for. 
New elements may be inserted, as explaind on p. 14 1 . 

4 Broken order Another common and often desirabl variation for shelf 
arranjement is to break sequence of numbers, to get most-uzed books 
nearest delivery desk. Theory keeps numbers in strict sequence; but a 




Potassium, inorganic chemistry, 546.3^ 
Rubidium, 546. 3 & 



(35) 



DECIMAL CLASIFICATION 



hyer rule everywhere is ' sacrifice any theory for a substantial gain \ 
Practicaly there ar few libraries where it is not best to break order of 
clases. Often divisions ar best arranjed out of numeric place; e. g. 520 
Astronomy maybe wanted in a room accessibl at nyt; fiction, juvenilsand 
biografy ar always wanted near the delivery desk in a public library, and 
in strict order ar as likely to cum at the most distant point. Numberless 
local reazons may make a broken order desirabl. There need be no hesi- 
tation in adopting it if enuf is gaind, but there shud be charts clearly 
showing where each division starts; e. g. after 430 ' Preceding 830 '; after 
520 ' In observatory \ it being necesary to specify room for books entirely 
removed from jeneral library arranjement. The paje of 100 divisions is 
furnisht by the publishers, on cards with wide marjins, for just this use. 
Opposit each division is markt its beginning on the shelvs, and it is eazy 
to vary the order as much as necesary, tho of course the nearer the divisions 
run in regular order, 000-999, the eazier it is for a stranjer to find his way 
about. Variations in order of sections ar les wize and seldom necesary, 
but if made, a wood or cardboard dummy in regular place shud hav 
markt on its side the actual location of any section removed. 

This broken-order plan is best for bringing together filolojy and litera- 
ture of each languaj without altering numbers or prefixing any letter. Let 
420 be shelvd just ahed of 820, 430 ahed of 830, and so for all languaj es, 
making the jeneral note that all 400s ar shelvd just ahed of corresponding 
800s, and remembering that after main languajes 4 or more figures ar 
required to indicate languaj alone, so Portuguese filolojy goes between 
868 and 869, Russian between 891.69 and 891.7, and Welsh between 891.65 
and 891.66. 

5 Pro and con division of topics It is very useful in many cases to 
separate books on a topic with strongly markt sides, so iether set of views 
and arguments may be seen by itself. This has been dun in sum cases 
by subdivision, e. g. 337 Protection and free trade. In others it is equaly 
useful, and can be indicated by an aded mark, e. g. 324.3 Woman suffraj. 
The number may be uzed for jeneral works, giving facts etc. and advocates 
and opponents may be separated by + and — for positiv and negativ, or 
by p and c, the initials for pro and con, which tho short, ar too long for a 
circulating library to uze in charjing but may be disregarded for that pur- 
pose if book numbers ar so assynd as to distinguish. In reference libraries, 
on cards, etc. most wil prefer to write out pro and con, to mark the 2 
groups. The order on shelvs is, of course, alfabetic, viz, 3 4.3, 324.3c, 
324. 3p; or if -f and — ar uzed, the uzual order is followd: +, — . 

These 5 notes sugjest the ranje of variations which may be made, and 
ilustrate D C adaptability to widely different conditions. For book 
numbers, which decide the order of material after it is groupt into its final 
clases, see p. 29 5 -3o 7 . 

(36) 



INSTITUT INTERNATIONAL DE BIBLIOGRAPHIE 

Bibliografic modifications 

After study of all other availabl sistems the Decimal Clasification was 
adopted in 1895 by the newly organized Institut International de 
Bibliographie (known as I I B) as best adapted for its projected universal 
subject bibliografy to cover ultimately all subjects in all languajes in all 
periods of the world's history. 
Determining factors wer : 

1 Decimal Clasification was of topics, independent of languaj or exact 

sinonim by which exprest 

2 Its notation was in itself the only international languaj, since it consisted 

solely of arabic numerals, uzed by all the world 

3 Its decimal principl allowd indefinit intercalation 

Overdetaild as the Clasification alredy seemd to many librarians, lak 
of subdivision was the Institute's 1st difficulty and it urjd us at once to 
enlarj the Tables. State Library duties at that time made concentration 
on this imposibl, but we promist cooperation and criticizm if I I B wud 
draft required extensions. When its remarkably rapid work precluded 
even adequate criticizm, it was authorized to publish its tables and assured 
that the American revision wud vary from them as litl as practicabl. 

Obviusly, bibliografic and jeneral library use ar so different that in sum 
cases what is clearly best for real needs of skolarly specialists, where any 
simbols can be uzed on index cards, wud be quite impracticabl for a 
public library, which must hav simbols that can be markt on the bak 
of books, redily uzed by the unskild public in writing call slips, and rapidly 
handld by low-priced runners and yung clerks. Sum differences between 
I I B tables and this edition wil, in their future editions, appear as here givn. 
Others result from serius objections to the I I B clasification. We expect 
agreement wil soon be reacht, as both Institute and author plan to 
harmonize the few diverjences as rapidly as posibl. 

I I B has devized and uzes injenius simbols, expressing many interrela- 
tions and greatly increasing numbering capacity. But these new simbols 
ar tho't by many too complex for ordinary shelf or catalog use, tho 20 
years use by I I B with unskild clerks has proved that this objection is 
more fear than result of fair tryal. They ar givn here broadly for personal 
notes of specialists and other close clasifyers, to whom their vast practical 
advantajes wil strongly appeal, and as a key to notation on I I B bibliografic 
cards. Elaborate details and explanations ar in Classification decimale, 
Brussels, 1905. Obviusly these simbols allow subdivision of the same 
number in many different ways without confuzion. 

1 Accretion syn -|- This simplest of simbols, equivalent to 'and', 
indicates exactly what it sugjests, that the articl so numberd treats of all 
subject numbers connected by + ; e. g. 637 -f- 614.32 a work concerning 
dairies and also on inspection of dairy products. 

(37) 



DECIMAL CLASIFICATION 



2 Cupling syn - This is uzed for cupling to a subject a series of sub- 
divisions common to a group of subjects, as 400 Filolojy (e.g. 45-3 Italian 
dictionary), 800 Literature (86-2 Spanish drama), 546 Inorganic chemistry 
(546.72-3 Oxids of iron), but only where such use is specificaly mentiond 
in the Tables, as confuzion wud otherwize result. This syn is so similar 
to that ccmmonly uzed for ' to and including ' that when it is uzed with the 
Institut meaning it is advizabl to uze word ' to ' for the other meaning. 

3 Relation syn : This is most useful simbol of all, as it involvs no 
chanje of number except omission of final o by those preferring shortest 
form. It indicates merely that subjects so connected ar considerd in rela- 
tion to each other, thus affording means of expressing almost limitless inter- 
relations: e. g. ethics in relation to fine arts is 17:7 (or, better, in ful 170: 
700). Vice versa, art in its ethical aspect is 7:17; order of numbers before 
and after colon depending on emfasis, or on subject with which they ar 
to be arranjed. 

4 Form syn (o) Form or jeneralities ar exprest by a parenthetic 
number beginning with o. This is further subdivided as follows: 

(o:) Form simbol; e.g. 335(0:843) means Socialism treated in form of a 
French novel. 

(00) Subdivisions peculiar to a subject; e. g. for history it means sources. 
It is further subdivided and in sum cases modif yd by a hyf end figure ; 
e. g. 9(44) (001-3) means Catalog of official sources of French history, 
(001) meaning official sources and -3 meaning catalogs, indexes, lists etc. 

(01) -(oq) ar the same as our regular form numbers 01-09. Obviusly we 
can not replace our long establisht simpl form numbers by sumthing 
so much more complex that it is impracticabl for shelf use. 

5 Universality syn 00 The mathematical syn of infinity is uzed with 
place and time syns to mean ' Without limitation ' : with place syn 
(see 6 below) it means 1 including all places e. g. 9 ( °° ) History of all 
cun tries; with time syn (see 8 below) it means ' covering all periods 
e. g. 9 ( 00 ) " 00 " History of all cuntries at all times. 

6 Place syn (3) -(9) These replace our regular cun try subdivisions 
found in 930-999, but do not conflict, as I I B merely leavs D C 930-999 
vacant, and writes History of France 9(44) insted of 944. Other auxiliary 
place numbers indicating jeneral rejion, direction, jeolojic place, prehistoric 
time, etc. ar also provided in place curvs. 

7 Languaj syn = This syn preceding languaj numbers as found 
in 400 Filolojy, indicates subdivision by languaj; e. g. 523.5=9185 means 
a work on meteors, in Polish, 91.85 being filolojy number for Polish 
languaj in 400. 

8 Time syn " " Numbers denoting time division ar writn in quotes. 

I I B skeme givs an elaborate time-division sistem based on exact dates; 
e. g. u 1922 ". 

(38) 



BIBLIOGRAFIC MODIFICATIONS 



9 Jeneral points of view syn oo Each of the following numbers for 
point of view has also a series of subdivisions : 

001 Speculativ: idea, purpose, plan etc. 

002 Realization: execution, construction etc. 

003 Economic: industrial production, cost and sale prices, etc. 

004 Servis and use : workings, administration 

005 Equipment and apparatus 

006 Bildings and establishments : details of organization and servis 

007 Special personnel 

10 A to Z Alfabetic arranjement by name of person, place or thing is 
indicated according to circumstances by initial or whole name. 

Sequence of these simbols in clas number may be varid by uzers to 
produce any special arranjement wisht, but unless distinct notis of this 
is givn, sequence is arbitrary in the following order: 

( ) " " = : - A-Z 
e. g. 9(44) "17 " = 2 History of France in 18th century, writn in English. 

Other uses 

Tho this sistem was devized 1st for library catalog and shelf arranje- 
ment, 49 years hav developt many new applications. Nearly every adminis- 
trativ department feels directly the great economy, and in every field 
of literary activity this clasification has been found a great laborsaver, 
whose practical usefulness has exceded the most sanguin hopes of its erly 
f rends. 

Bookstores The plan is a great convenience to both dealers and 
customers, when applyd to miscelaneus stok. Very often a much wanted 
book, specialy if not recently publisht, is reported ' not in stok when D C 
arranjement by subject wud hav reveald its place at once. Specialists 
often find on shelvs books they wud never hav orderd, but ar glad to 
by after examination. Experience proves it profitabl for a dealer to 
arranje his books so each person may find what he is interested in without 
examining entire stok. 

Offis files A great file of papers is like a library in miniature. Experi- 
ence the world over proves that while alfabetic and numeric sistems ar 
invaluabl for many purposes, complete usefulness demands close clasing 
as material grows. The best plan is to combine simplicity of numeric and 
utility of clast as in this Decimal Clasification and Relativ Index uzed 
by most libraries. The simplest posibl printed index of 40,000 heds tels 
instantly by what number to mark or to find any paper. Insurance is 
markt 368. This means: clas 3, Sociolojy; division 6, Associations and 
institutions; section 8, Insurance. Fire insurance is 1st subdivision, so 
every paper about fire insurance is markt 368.1 and goes in the drawer in 
numeric order, where it can instantly be found by the printed Index, 

(39) 



DECIMAL CLASIFICATION 



49 years use in a score of cuntries has proved this numeric sistem, with 
its Relativ Index, a marvelus laborsaver. Clasification is a necesity if 
all material on any givn subject is to be redily found. The labor of making 
one's own clasification is uzualy prohibitiv, if wel dun. By adopting the 
skeme in jeneral use by libraries this labor is saved and numbers ar in 
harmony with those of thousands of other catalogs and indexes in which 
the same number has the same meaning; for, as pointed out at a recent 
international congress, these numbers ar an international languaj of per- 
fectly definit meaning amung all civilized nations; and also cheapest and 
quickest in application. 

A successful man is uzualy a clasifyer and chartmaker. This applys as 
much to modern business as to syence or libraries. Hyer education differs 
from elementary in studying not mere facts, but their relations to all other 
facts. Alex. Bain wizely said ' to lern to clasify is in itself an education '. 
The man of much business or affairs must study every problem in its mani- 
fold relations; i. e. must clasify and make charts of his results. Without 
these he is like a sailor in stranje waters, sooner or later shiprekt unless 
he uzes charts to find safe channels as wel as to avoid roks and shoals.. 
A larj business or work unclasifyd or uncharted is not a worthy organiza- 
tion but mere material from which a clever brain may construct one. It 
differs in efficiency from the ideal as a mob of men differs from a wel dis- 
ciplind army. Piles of brik and mortar ar not a tempi any more than heaps 
of typ ar Shakspere's works, tho if ' clasifyd ' and set, each in ryt relation 
to the rest, the transformation is bro't about. 

Scrapbooks The plan has proved the best for keeping newspape 1 " 
clippings. Uze manila sheets of uniform size (we find 25x20cm best). 
Write clas number of subject in uzual place on paje, and mount clippings 
on sheets as in a common scrapbook. These sheets ar arranjed 
numericly like a clast card catalog, sheets of each clas being further arranjed, 
when desirabl, under alfabetic subheds. When one sheet is ful, insert 
another at the exact place. Thus perfect clasification is kept up without 
blank sheets, and at smallest outlay of money and trubl. Scraps thus 
mounted ar shelvd iether in manila pamflet cases or in patent binders, 
or ar kept in vertical files. 

Index rerums These ar best made on standard P size (7§xi2§cm) 
cards or slips. Lyt weight catalog card stok is best for private indexes, 
etc. It costs only half as much as hevy bristol, takes only half room, and 
handls eazily. 

I 1 Where durability and convenience of handling ar les important than 
cheapness uze common hevy writing paper. Novises often greatly diminish 
usefulness of the card sistem by uzing ordinary machine-cut cards or slips 
varying in hyt so much as to make quik and accurate manipulation imposibl. 
Extreme variation to be tolerated is 1 mm or - 2 L 5 - inch. This wil be under- 
stood by placing a 7.4cm card between two 7.5cm cards. In rapid turning 
ringers make a brij ?across_taller cards and mis the lower one entirely' 

(40) 



OTHER USES 



Cards must be accurately cut or they lose half their value and in many 
cases necesitate recopying material at a cost io-fold greater than to hav 
thrown away imperfectly cut cards or slips at the outset. 

Clas number is writn in upper left corner, any alfabetic subject hed fol- 
lows at ryt, and notes fil card below. Cards ar then filed in order of clas 
numbers, the cards of each clas being further arranjed like scrap sheets, 
according to any alfabetic subheds. 

Paper the size of scrap sheets, 2 5x20cm, arranjed and stored the same way 
may be uzed insted of cards. This has the advantaj of a ful letter paje in 
syt at once, and holds over 5 times as much as card. While the sistem can 
be applyd to slips or sheets of any size, there ar literaly hundreds of acces- 
sories and conveniences exactly adapted to these 2 sizes, which ar uzed 
10-fold more than all others combined; so it is folly to begin on another 
size, and lose the advantajes of this uniformity. If intermediate sizes 
must be had, the best ar Billet 15x10cm, Note 20x1 2§cm, and Ms. 25x15cm. 
Often uzers of sum other size finaly find it profitabl to chanje to iether 
P, 7§xi2§, or to L, 25x20cm, even at cost of rewriting many notes. 

Note books ar best in this last form. A much poorer method is to take 
a bound blank book, and assyn clas numbers in order, giving about the 
space it is tho't each wil require, and, when pajes so assynd ar ful, note at 
bottom where the rest of the material may be found. This has all objections 
of old fixt location as compared to relativ, and wil hardly be adopted by 
any person who has ever seen loos-leaf simplicity and economy. 

Scores of devices for convenient handling and storing of these slips and 
sheets and of pamflets ar manufactured. The ful descriptiv and ilustrated 
catalogs of Library Bureau, Boston, giv details. 

Topical indexes Clas numbers ar uzed to index books red. Simpl 
numbers take the place of a series of words and results can be handld, 
arranjed and found much quicker. Such entries may be kept separate or 
combined with index rerums. 

Advantajes for making topical indexes of colected works, periodicals, 
transactions etc. wil be evident to every indexer or librarian. These 
consolidated indexes may be arranjed together with the card catalog of 
the books, or by themselvs, as seems best in each case. 

These ar only a few of the sistem's varied applications. Enuf hav been 
mentiond to show its wide adaptability to wants of librarian, student and 
business man. 

Separates 

There is growing use by specialists who wish very detaild tables of their 
subjects, but only so much else as wil show perspectiv of these subjects 
in the jeneral skeme and provide for broad clasification of other material 
on the same plan. As fast as demand wil cover expenses, any subject 
elaborated wil be publisht separately with jeneral explanation, directions 
for use, 3-figure tables for other subjects, and ful index; e. g. normal skool 

(41) 



DECIMAL CLASIFICATION 



libraries specializing on education wil want the elaborate 370 skeme but 
may not need to carry clasincation of other subjects beyond 3 figures; 
electric engineers may hav no use for 370, but wil need all details of 621.3, 

with only 3 figures for other subjects. 



This brief account has probably faild to meet sum objections which 
may be raizd and could eazily be anserd. 

Tho much elaborated and in sum few points alterd, the essential caracter 
of the plan has remaind unchanjed from the first. Revision and expansion 
constantly in progress involv many new interrelations. As extensiv advance 
testing of new skemes is not always posibl practical applications ar sure 
to develop unnotist faults. Clasifyers ar therefore askt to uze new tables 
criticaly and report defects of any kind, with proposed remedies and any 
needed subdivisions, also any heds needed for the Index. All such criticizms 
ar a decided help and favor. 

Aknowlejments 

The labor on Clasification and Index has been wholy beyond apprecia- 
tion of any who hav never attempted a similar task. 

In his varid reading, correspondence and conversation on the subject, 
the author has doutless recievd many sugjestions and gaind ideas which it 
is now imposibl for him specificly to aknowlej. The Nuovo sistema di 
catalogo bibliografico generate of Natale Battezzati, of Milan, adopted by 
the Italian publishers in 187 1, tho he copid nothing from it, more than 
any other singl sistem stimulated his study of the problem. The plan of 
the vSt Louis Public School Library and that of the Apprentices' Library 
of New York, which in sum respects resembld his own, wer not seen til 
all essential features wer decided on, tho not givn to the public. In filling 
the 9 clases of the skeme, the inverted Baconian arranjement of the St 
Louis Library was followd. The author has no wish to claim orijinal inven- 
tion for any part of his sistem where another has been before him, and would 
gladly make specific aknowlejment of every aid and sugjestion wer it in 
his power. Tho at its start a litl book, it came not forth except by 
grievus labor. 

Much valuabl aid has been renderd by specialists, who hav assisted 
greatly in developing tables. Amung these ar many wel-known skolars, 
and to all most cordial aknowlejment is made. Without such assist- 
ance, the present development cud not hav been attaind, for many 
minds wer necesary to supply teknical and special lerning absolutely 
essential in filling minute heds. Indeed, in many subjects the author's 
share has been limited to modification necesary for teknical adjustment 
to his skeme, of material prepared by specialists. To many prominent 
librarians we ar indetted for valuabl sugjestions and appreciativ criticizm. 
While these frends ar in no way responsibl for any remaining imperfections, 
they should hav credit for many improvements made in these 49 years 

(42) 



AKNOWLEJMENTS 



of revision, during the ist 3 of which the skeme was kept in manuscript, 
that its many details myt be subjected to actual tryal, and modifyd where 
improvement was found posibl. 

We ar under deep obligation to the Institut International de Biblio- 
graphie for its great volume of valuabl work, covering almost the whole 
ranje of subjects, and also for its advice and criticizm during progress of 
our own expansions. To Dr C W Andrews, John Crerar Librarian, 
Chicago, and to the American Library Association D C committee, of 
which he is chariman, we ar greatly indetted for interest an 1 advice. 

W S Biscoe From ist publication to the present, the most extended 
and valued assistance has cum from my colej clasmate, associate and 
frend, Walter Stanley Biscoe, my ist assistant in Amherst College 
Library, in charj of which he succeded me, resyning to accept again in 
1883 the place next me in Columbia College Library, and again resyning in 
1889 to becum librarian in charj of clasification and catalogs in New York 
State Library. This book is witness to the rare unselfishness with which 
he has givn time taken from rest and recreation to this work, in which 
he shared my interest and faith. 

May Seymour Except a year in charj of clasification in the Osterhout 
Library she was with me 34 years, from her entrance to the ist Library 
School clas in 1887 til her deth, June 14, 192 1. At New York State Library, 
clasification was her department til she was made director's assistant. 
For 32 years every item of work on new editions past thru her hands. 
For each edition she did all editorial and much constructiv work, secured 
expert cooperation, cald attention to faults or omissions, and sought 
the best availabl compromize where doctors disagreed, devoting to this 
vast labor rare skolarly industry and a loyalty for which no words of thanks 
can be adequate. She shared my faith in its immense usefulness, did the 
hardest work, and deservs the gratitude of all who profit by this- invaluabl 
laborsaver. I often askt that her name appear on the title-paje of the 
book to which she gave so much, but she persistently refuzed. 

Her place as editor is taken by one of her own choosing, Miss Dorcas 
Fellows, who more than anyone else had workt closely with Miss Seymour 
for 25 years. With hedquarters in New York State Library at Albany, 
where she has the best facilities for her difficult work, she wil giv future 
editions the benefit of cumulativ experience in which she has so larjly 
shared. D C uzers ar congratulated that Miss Seymour's position is held 
by the one she chose as best adapted to carry on her work. 

Future of D C 

Miss Seymour had a stedily growing wish to make the D C a permanent 
force for education, by greatly improving its ful, abrijd and outline edi- 
tions, and by printing cheap special editions (indext) for many prominent 
divisions; e.g. education, medicin, enjineering, agriculture. As a memorial 
to her, all copyryts and control of all editions hav. been givn to the Lake 

(43) 



DECIMAL CLARIFICATION 



Placid Club Education Foundation, in establishing which she had been 
warmly and activly interested, and which was charterd by the University 
of the State of New York, Jan. 26, 1922, with these objects: 

1 as an educational institution, to restore to helth and educational 
efficiency teachers, librarians and other educators of moderate means, who 
hav becum incapacitated by overwork; to establish, maintain and aid 
skools. libraries or other educational institutions, specialy at Lake Placid ; 
and to institute, organize or foster other movements to advance public 
welfare thru education, by means of the Foundation pres, conferences, 
forums, addresses, gyded reading, and similar ajencies '. 

To this Foundation was at once givn all voting stok and surplus of 
Lake Placid Co. (which owned the 8000 akers and 335 bildings of Lake 
Placid Club), thus assuring permanent financial support, which has 
alredy been further increast to $529,000 by bequests from interested 
f rends. Under Foundation auspices future editions of the D C wil be 
publisht, on absolute condition that entire reciets abuv necesary expenses 
be uzed forever solely for improving the D C and extending its usefulness, 
thereby preventing posibility that the work shud ever be uzed as a source 
of iether individual or institution profit. ADC committee of the most 
interested Foundation trustees, in consultation with committees of the 
American Library Association and Institut International de Bibliographie, 
and with editors and collaborators, wil insure observance of the abuv 
condition. 

Melvil Dewey 

Lake Placid Club N Y 
Aug. 31/1922 

Previus editions hav been dated Amherst College Library, June 10, 
1876; Columbia College Library, Aug. 10, 1885, and Aug. 30, 1888; New 
York State Library, Dec. 25, 1890; Lake Placid Club, Ap. 10, 191 1, Ap. 
to, 1913, Oct. 1, 1915, Aug. 11, 1919. 



(44) 



SIMPLER SPELING REAZONS AND RULES 

Reazons 

Uzers of the Decimal Clasification ar entitled to kno why the author 
feels compeld to recognize practicaly the urjent claims for reform in 
English speling, by adopting enuf of many needed chanjes to call every 
reader's attention to the crying situation. 

Many wil be annoyd and sum wil ridicule, but since 1872 I hav constantly 
studid, with very unuzual opportunities, the need and practicability of 
this reform. From its founding in 1876 at the Philadelphia Centennial, 
I hav been secretary of the Speling Reform Association. I servd several 
years on the advizory committee on speling and pronunciation for our 
greatest and best English dictionary, the Standard. While executiv 
ofhser of the University of the State of New York, which has charj of all 
hyer education, I uzed my great opportunities for studying relations of 
speling to education. As a trustee and on its Executiv Board I hav shared 
activly from its orijin in Simplifyd Speling Board work, to which Andrew 
Carnegie gave (up to his deth) $10,000 to $25,000 yearly to spred correct 
knowlej about English speling and the great need for its improvement. 
I also servd on the National Education Association committee which, 
jointly with committees of the American Filolojic Association and Modern 
Languaj Association, during 10 years careful study, made the key alfabet 
now uzed in the entire series of Standard dictionaries and in all books 
based on them. I was president of the Efficiency Socyety and also of the 
National Institute of Efficiency, and chairman of the committee of each on 

1 Efficiency in English writn and spokn '. It is therefore not an advocate 
of a new fad who speaks, but one who has for over 50 years kept in tuch, 
personaly and by correspondence, with others studying this matr, not 
only in many American states but also in Canada, Great Britain, India 
and Australia, and with many in non-English speaking cun tries. 

In the past \ century the most competent jujes hav cum to almost 
unanimus agreement as to imperativ need for radical improvement. On 
this point great universities, editors of all great dictionaries, leading edu- 
cators of the English world, and recognized leaders amung students of 
English all agree. It has been publicly stated in larj meetings of languaj 
skolars that there was no recognized authority on English living who did 
not now believ in the urjent need of speling reform. 

But as to the best method, there ar 3 skools with their varius combi- 
nations. All agree that there is only 1 entirely satisfactory goal; i.e. 
just 1 distinct syn for each of 40 distinct sounds, and just 1 sound for each 
of these 40 syns. But we now hav over 400 simbols or combinations 
to represent these 40 sounds. ' Shay ' has only 2 simpl sounds. The 
sh is speld in 20 ways and the a in 24 ways; i.e. this simpl word of only 

2 sounds may be speld 480 ways in exact analojy with other English 
spelings. Webster's Dictionary says Shakspere's name was speld 30 ways; 

(45) 



DECIMAL CLASIFICATION 



the Mainwaring family records sho 130 variations in their name; 
and A J Ellis made over 6000 spelings of ' scissors all justifyd by dic- 
tionary analojies. Booker Washington told me that they wud not graduate 
from Tuskegee one who cud not spel and pronounce correctly this sentence: 
' Though the rough cough and hiccough plough me through I ought to 
cross the lough \ We markt agenst each letr all the different ways of 
pronouncing it in English. By simpl permutation this showed over 
16,000,000 ways in which this sentence cud be pronounst. Then we markt 
agenst each sound all the different ways of speling it and proved that there 
wer 66 decilion (66,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000) ways of 
speling the sentence, each justifyd by analojy. Yet he was soliciting 
mony to teach those poor colord students just which of this infinit varyety 
must be uzed before he cud graduate. 

One group believs in ading 6 new consonants for ch, ng, sh, zh, th and' dh, 
and 11 new vowels; for as c, q, and x duplicate s, k and ks or gz we hav 
only 23 letrs toward the 40 needed in a perfect English alfabet. These 
letrs wud then be uzed with as invariabl meanings as Arabic numerals 
and we shud be rid of varius devices for expressing sounds for which we 
hav no distinctiv letr; e.g. for the word ' fyn ' we ad e to ' fin ' and say 
that 1 servil e ' is silent where writn, but means that the i in erlier part of 
word is not i, but the difthong at, combined of the sounds of a in ' ar ' 
and i in ' it \ This is exactly analogus to writing 4537 and saying that 
7 is silent but means that the 5 is realy 9, so the number is 493. We 
ar so uzed to these absurdities that we recognize their folly only when 
translating them into an exactly similar case with Arabic numerals. 

When these wer introduced into English the identical arguments put 
forward today agenst syentific speling wer urjd agenst the stranje Arab 
caracters. Men said, 1 Every child knows at a glance that V is five, but 
who cud understand 10 ? ' which they printed lying on its face. 

No one questions that complete reform is best. Most skolars, however, 
think it impracticabl to do it all at once except amung a limited clas, 
becauz of difficulty of introducing new letrs on typwriters and for printers. 
We hav evolvd i, j and y from 1 letr, and u, v and w from v, and skolars 
say we shal in time in same way, evolv the other new letrs needed. 

The Simplifyd Speling Socyety of Great Britain attempts to solv the 
problem without any new letrs by uzing digrafs, as we hav alredy dun 
for ch, ng, sh and th. This has the advantaj that every typwriter and 
printer is fully equipt for new speling. It has the great disadvantaj that 
it lengthns many words and offends the eye much more than new letrs. 
It is as absurd to use c and h to represent a sound which has niether c nor h 
in it as it wud be to uze 74 to represent 5. 

The Simplifyd Speling Board (American), supported by Andrew Carnegie 
til his deth and now working on its own resources, decided that the most 
practical plan was to list a limited number of most needed chanjes to urj 
for immediate jeneral adoption, thus expediting the stedy growth toward 

(46) 



SIMPLER SPELING REAZONS 



syentific speling shown by the history of English. This method is eaziest 
but involvs glaring inconsistencies; e.g it drops i of dubl consonants final 
in most cases, speling mis, dol, tel, but leavs all, roll, hiss, of becauz they 
wud be mispronounst by most peopl if shortnd. 

i word is speld perfectly like * fel \ perhaps the next is improved in only 
i silabl like ' knowlej and the next may be worst of the 3 and not chanjed 
at all becauz we lak necesary new letrs. S S S (English) is consistent for 
it spels each word foneticly, and this entire consistency appeals to sum 
so much that they endure longer awkward forms. S S B (American) 
offends the eye much les and skortns nearly every word it chanjes, but has 
the fault of incompleteness. 

The 5 reazons for speling reform ar: 

1 Disgrace of having what experts agree is the most illojical, unsyentific, 
unskolarly and altogether worst speling of any languaj in the world. 
While this greatly discredits the peopl that hav becum greatest in all 
history, it is least of the 5 reazons. 

2 Criminal waste of mony Careful count of many English selections 
shows that 15% or 1/7 of the letrs wud be saved by strictly syentific spel- 
ing. This means waste of 1/7 total cost of everything connected with 
writing or printing English: stationery, time, composition, proofreading, 
paper, ink, preswork, binding, transportation. Not only ar these countless 
bilions wasted each year, but there is enormus waste of time in hesitating as 
to ryt speling, consulting dictionaries, interrupting train of tho't, which 
fairly translated into mony makes a staggering total. 

3 Criminal waste of skool time A committee of expert educators, 
after munths of consideration, agreed that on the skool life of a child going 
from kindergarten to university we cud save 3 years if we cud eliminate 
speling books and everything connected with them, as is dun in completely 
fonetic cuntries, where speling is merely pronouncing a word letr by letr, 
so anyone can spel if he can speak. This waste is not alone in speling clases, 
for in all other studies speling is a continual handicap and wastes time 
not only in skool days but all thru life. 

4 Adling brains Any student of child sykolojy knows that one cud 
hardly devize a more dedning process to a normal brain than to teach 
such words as bone, done, gone; love, move, rove; lose, close; or worst of all, 
Though the rough cough and hiccough plough me through I ought to cross the 
lough. If the brain works normaly the child surely pronounces the vowels 
of the later words like the 1st. If * though ' is ' tho surely 1 rough ' 
is ' ro ' and ' cough ' is ' co.' Long before he reaches the 8th word he is 
redy to believ any absurd thing that is told him, and finds in English it 
is a matr of personal introduction to each individual word before there is 
any safety as to how it may be speld or pronounst. Ex-president Hill, 
of Harvard University, declared that no man ever had or ever cud spel 
and pronounce every word of English correctly, as it was beyond human 
posibility to becum intimate enuf with all the § milion words in the latest 
dictionaries. 

(47) 



DECIMAL CLASIF1CATI0N 



An associate city superintendent of skools in New York says: 
' Next to lerning by imitation, the child must be taut to lern by associa- 
tion and analojy. He develops strength of mind by exercize of jujment. 
He must reazon from known facts in the solution of his litl problems. If 
he cums to a new printed word and halts, the teacher asks him to think of 
the oral word for which it stands. Having lernd that ' puf ' and ' muf ' 
stand for wel-known oral words, he is staggerd at ' rough ' and ' enough 
frequently uzed in conversation. Having lernd that these caracters stand for 
wel-known spokn words which he wrote ' ruf ' and ' enuf ' from his knowlej 
of ' puf ' and ' muf ' he is again confuzed when the teacher tels him that 
1 dough ' is the speling of the wel-known word his mother uzes when 
speaking about bred-making, and that ' cough ' stands for the malady so 
prevalent in the nursery during winter time. 

The staje of the child's tuition during which all the similar incongruities 
of our speling must be masterd, occupys many years of skool life, and 
the process has wel-ny produced a disbelief in reazon as a means of lerning, 
and a total lak of confidence in inference. The result of falling into absurd 
and ridiculus situations thru exercize of his jujment, appears in a hesi- 
tancy or fear of drawing any inferences upon data relating to other fields 
of knowlej. The child has lost faith in his own conclusions with respect 
to problems in arithmetic, biolojy, jeografy, history etc. To what extent 
of subject matr and time the skool child has suffer d irreparabl los, by 
failure to aquire confidence in exercize of his jujment as a result of his 
erly stultification during process of lerning to master speling of common 
words, may never be determind.' 

5 English as world languaj Except for its scandalusly complex spel- 
ing, English is betr fitted than any other languaj for universal use. It 
is practicaly grammarless. Pedants hav sadld us with an adaptation of 
Latin grammar which is almost useless. English has strength, simplicity, 
conciseness, capacity for taking words freely from other tungs, and best 
of all has the greatest literature the world has yet produced. Great 
German filolojists hav said ' it is lucky for the rest of Europe that the 
English do not realize that only its absurd speling stands between their 
languaj and erly world empire '. If we chek over the past 5 centuries 
the growth of English is astounding. Once Portuguese with its great 
Brazilian cuntry had sum chance, or Spain with South America, but 
French came to be the languaj of diplomacy and more than any other, 
the world languaj. Each century Germany, with its hy birth rate, gaind 
rapidly and soon past France. Russia with its countless milions came in as 
a leading competitor, but each century the most significant and remarkabl 
growth was English. Long it was English, German, French; then English, 
German, Russian. The great war sadly handicapt all other competitors 
just when it greatly improved the position of English. 3/5 of the world's 
business mail is now in our languaj and this ratio grows yearly. Recent 
prominent French jurnals hav frankly publisht to their peopl the need 
for every Frenchman to lern English becauz it was alredy the world's business 
languaj and rapidly growing. The far-syted Carnegie made his great 
gifts for simplifyd speling for 2 chief reazons. He had givn the Peace 
Palace at the Hague, and recognized that a common tung was the greatest 

(48) 



SIMPLER SPELING REAZONS 



protection agenst war. His study of history taut him that race, color, 
relijion and jeografic location had les influence than a common tung in 
binding peopl together. Our fraze, ' He doesn't speak the same languaj ', 
indicates hopelessness of agreement. He knew that no force wud contribute 
so much to world peace as spred of a common tung. He knew that this 
wud carry Anglo-Saxon ideals of liberty and tolerance thruout the world. 
The canny Scot knew also that it wud do more than all else combined 
to extend and strengthn our commerce. 

Can anyone not blind to human welfare face these undouted facts 
and not feel bound to help on wherever practicabl a reform that many 
educators and publicists recognize as more important, and as having more 
far-reaching results for America and the world than any other? The 
solution to most of our social problems lyz not in lejislation and police, but 
in education of the masses so that they wil kno and prefer the ryt. Such 
education must be chiefly thru reading, for the great mas of peopl can be 
in skool only long enuf to lern to take from the printed paje the author's 
meaning. Their real education must be not in the few skool days in youth, 
but all thru life and cuming chiefly from reading books, magazines and 
papers. Those who believ in working for a betr world must see that the 
first great step is to take from the path of education this greatest stumbling 
blok, for our speling not only wastes milions of years for every jeneration, 
but dedns and dwarfs childhood's brain by its gross absurdities. Can 
anyone not a selfish moral coward, knowing these facts, refuze to help 
get rid of the incubus by uzing at least a few of the shortr, betr forms in 
his own writing? 

Disregard of pedants rules Thomas Jefferson said ' Where strictness 
of grammar does not weakn expression it shud be attended to, but where 
by small grammatical neglijences the enerjy of an idea is condenst or a 
word stands for a sentence, I hold grammatical rigor in contempt \ 

Study of the past 5 centuries shows how greatly English has been 
simplifyd and improved and how absurd is the frequent comment of those 
ignorant of the life history of English that ' languaj can't be chanjed by 
conscius efforts of its uzers '. Of thousands of improvements made in 
the last 500 years every one was uzed first by sumone who saw the need 
and had the moral curaj to be a pyoneer and disregard rules of pedants of 
his day. The greatest need of the English world is to simplify its languaj, 
specialy in speling, so it may be uzed by all nations. It is disgrace to be 
blind to the facts or to be too cowardly to uze sum at least of the needed 
chanjes and so risk criticizm or ridicule of the ignorant. The great func- 
tion of English is to convey author's tho't clearly and ccnnpactly to reader s 
mind. 

Arabic figures ar the simplest simbols known to man. It is silly to 
write out ' eighty-eight ' or 'LXXXVIII ' for the simbol 88 ; or to 
write ' three hundred seventy-eight ' with 24 letrs when 378 is r/8 as long 
and vastly clearer. Modern pressure for space and economy has led many 

(49) 



DECIMAL CLASIFICATION 



prominent jurnals to substitute figures for words, but most of them stil 
fear the silly pedants dictum that figures must not begin a sentence. But 
figures ar winning their way, specialy in hedings, and our descendants wil 
wonder at our stupidity which so long prevented ful use of i of the 
world's greatest laborsavers. It is like continuing wigwag signals after 
invention of telefone and wireless. 

30 years ago I advocated dropping useless al from academical, grafical 
etc. Persistent use was copid by others til now many of our best writers 
avoid the foolish al and get stronger as wel as shortr words. When ading 
adverbial ly we shud stil omit al and say graficly, academicly etc. In fact 
very few peopl pronounce the al in common speech. If we adopt Thomas 
Jefferson's standard we shud expedite greatly many needed improvements 
in our great mother tung. 

Consistency This is the hobgoblin bugbear of litl minds. If a printer 
sets typs which realy shud be omitted or chanjed we often avoid labor of 
correction; for consistency with other spelings is les important than to 
break down by combined efforts of skolars and men of affairs the immense 
and stubborn, pedantic, foolish prejudis which sees sumthing sacred in 
the common speling of a word, while it thinks litl of constant variations 
in its pronunciation. Many who wud gladly help the cauz ar too busy 
with larj affairs to spend time in looking up rules. They shud simply 
spel betr whenever they think of it and not be trubld if on the next paje 
they forget to simplify. Hav Thomas Jefferson's curaj and hold pedantic 
consistency in contempt. 

Conciseness We shud uze shortest forms of expression consistent 
with clearness. The 2d forms belo ar as much stronger and betr as they 
ar shortr: 

this has been found to be an encurajment to good work — this 

encurajes good work 
extend an invitation — invite 
take into consideration — consider 
the purchase of — bying 
purchasing ajent — byer 
a larj number of — many 
due to the fact that — becauz 
sum of $10,000 — $10,000 
in a prudent manner — prudently 
put in an appearance — appear 

the twenty-eighth day of May in the year of our Lord one thousand 

eight hundred and ninety-nine — 28 May 1899 (p vs 79 typs) 
it is often the case that authors fail — authors often fail 
giv the boundaries of — bound 

Can it be dun? Absurd spelings like old ' fysshe ' and ' dogge ' for 
' fish ' and ' dog ' ar slufing off useless letrs as a tadpole loses its tail, or as 
scum rises from boiling sap in a maple orchard. Samuel Johnson in 1755 

(50) 



SIMPLER SPELING REAZONS 



printed a dictionary which greatly delayd this natural process. Uzing 
niether rime nor reazon he embalmd in a book, with the weight of his 
great name, simply the usaje of London printing offises, which wer run 
almost wholy by Dutch and German printers, many of whom knew no 
English. He laid down as a sacred law, 1 Uphill with 2 Is' but 1 downhil 
with 1 ', and endless similar absurdities, at which we laf, but we hav made 
1 downhill ' as difficult as his 1 uphill ' and stil look askance at one who spels 
1 til ' as he does ' until '. Our greatest filolojist, William D Whitney of 
Yale, editor Century dictionary, wrote to our 1876 International Conference 
on Speling Reform a concise statement which has been very often reprinted, 
and I think never questiond by any competent authority: ' The true and 
sole offis of alfabetic writing is correctly to represent spokn speech.' 

Many chanjes wer merely corruptions resulting from slipshod pronuncia- 
tion and lak of accurate speling, which wud hav been a relyabl gyd. 
Always many chanjes ar inevitabl in any languaj, as its words and idioms 
gro, dy or chanje, in pronunciation, speling and meaning. To continue 
old spelings after words hav chanjed is as absurd as to continue old price 
quotations ins ted of following the market. Englishmen ar conservativ 
but we hav substituted (but only long after other nations) arabic numerals 
for the clumsy I, V, X, L, C, D, M ; we hav a reazonabl and uniform way of 
writing music; we ar soon (again last of civilized nations) to uze interna- 
tional metric mesures, thereby saving countless milions. Practical busi- 
ness wil not much longer endure the costly tirany of the \ educated and 
wholy unbusiness-like and inefficient pedant. So if the intelijent wil do 
their duty we shal expedite greatly the stedy growth of English toward 
simplicity, strength and efficiency. That infinitly desirabl process can 
be bro't about only by pyoneer adoptions by those who hav both knowlej 
of the great need and curaj to lead in a cauz bound to be unpopular with 
those ignorant of fonolojy and of the vitaly important reazons which hav 
compeld all dictionary makers and great English skolars to declare in 
favor of simpler speling. 

Rules 

We print belo 7 of the best known codes for convenient reference when 
one wishes to decide with what chanjes he wil start his betr speling. 
All wil doutless uze the 12 words and most wil be glad to adopt S S B 30 
words chozen with great care by leading skolars as the best small beginning 
for the averaj man. These ar simply sampl words. S S B alfabetic 
rules represent expert jujment of distinguisht filolojists as to chanjes 
desirabl and practicabl to recommend for erly jeneral adoption. These 
ar followd by 18 rules, which comprize an erlier list and, forming the 
basis of the alfabetic list, larjly duplicate it but ar included here for 
convenience of those who wish a selection of the most important. A 
compact dictionary list of all English words coverd by S S B rules wil be 
sent on application. 

(5i) 



DECIMAL CLASIFICATION 



The 5th code is our D C rules, uzed in adition to S S B rules, by those 
willing to pyoneer stil faster. The 6th code, a selection from U S Jeografic 
Board rules, and the 7th, the 10 joint rules of American and English 
filolojists, ar aded for reference and to sho by repetition in different codes 
how closely the best authorities ar in harmony. 

To all governd by reazon rather than by vizual prejudis the objection 
to simpler speling that ' it looks queer ' wil be more than offset by the 
arguments, both skolarly and practical, in its favor; while those who 
shrink from uzing simpler forms thru fear of being regarded iliterate may 
find curaj thru knowing that the movement is supported by the most 
eminent filolojic authorities. 

N E A 12 words 

The National Education Association in 1898 adopted for use in all ots 
official correspondence and printing the simplifyd spelings widely known 
as ' the 12 words ', catalog, decalog, demagog, pedagog, prolog, program, 
tho, altho, thoro, thorofare, thru, thruout. In 19 16 it adopted rule to 
simplify ed to t when so pronouns t, in past tenses of verbs. 

S S B 30 words 

This list was chozen with special reference to correspondence, and 
includes the 5 typ-words, catalog, program, tho, thoro, thru, of the 12 words 
adopted, as noted abuv, by the National Education Association in 1898, 
for use in all its official publications and correspondence. 



ad 


buro 


fixt 


reciet 


(al)tho 


addrest 


catalog 


giv 


reciev(d) 


thoro (ly, 


anser(d) 


det 


hav 


shal 


thru (out) 


ar 


engin 


insted 


shipt 


twelv 


askt 


enuf 


liv(d) 


tel 


wil 


bil(d) 


fil(d) 


program 


telefone 


yu 



Simplifyd Speling Board alfabetic rules 
ae, ce, initial or medial. Spel e; e.g. esthetic, medieval, fenix, maneuver, 
subpena; but alumnae, striae etc. 

ae, oe ar now uzualy writn ae, oe. Other cases of ae, oe, medial, as in canoeist, 
Gaelic, subpenaed etc. ar not affected 

bt pronounst t. Drop silent b; e.g. det, dettor, dout, indetted, redout 

Retain b, if pronounst, in subtil(e) 

ceed final. Spel cede; e.g. excede, procede, succede 

ch pronounst like c in car. Drop silent h except before e, i, y [or uze 

k]; e. g. caracter, clorid(e), corus, cronic, eco, epoc, mekanic, 

monarc, skolar, skool, stomac, tecnical; but architect, chemist, 

monarchy, or arkitect, monarky 
dubl consonant before e final silent. Drop last 2 letrs; e.g. bagatel, 

bizar, cigaret, creton, crevas, gavot, gazet, giraf, gram, program, 

quadril, quartet, vaudevil 

(52) 



SIMPLER SPELING RULES 



dubl consonant final. Reduce dubl to singl, but in -// only after a short 
vowel, and in -ss only in monosilabls ; e.g. ad, bil, bluf, buz, clas, 
dol, dul, eg, glas, les, los, mes, mis, pas, pres, shal, tel, wil, but 
not al for all, rol for roll, needles for needless, etc. 
Retain gross, hiss, off, puss 

e final silent. In the following cases drop e: 

a) After a consonant preceded by a short vowel strest; e.g. bad (bade), 

giv, hav, liv, centiped (when so pronounst) 

b) In ar(e), gon(e), and in wer(^) when not pronounst to rime with 

'.there ' 

c) In the unstrest final short silabls ide, ile, ine, ise, ite, ive, pronounst 

as if speld id, il, in, is, it, iv; e.g. activ, bromid, comparativ, definit, 
determin, examin, favorit, hostil, iodin, infinit, nativ, opposit, positiv, 
practis, promis, textil 

The ordinary use of e final after a singl consonant is to indicate that the preceding 
vowel has a pronunciation different from that which it wud normaly hav if the con- 
sonant in question wer final, as in bar, bare; hat, hate; her, here; them, theme; sir, 
sire; bid, bide; con, cone; run, rune. Hence the e final is retaind in such words as 
arrive, care, confuse, fine, mile, polite, ride, rode, and also in bromide, iodine, etc., 
when pronounst with the i of line, side 

d) After lv and rv; e.g. involv, resolv, twelv, valv; carv, curv, deserv, 

serv 

e) After v or z when preceded by a digraf representing a long vowel or 

a difthong; e.g. achiev, believ, deciev, freez, gauz, leav, reciev, 
sneez 

/) In oe final pronounst o; e.g. fo, ho, ro, to, wo 

Retain e in inflections -oed, -oes; as foes, not fos, hoed, not hod 
ea pronounst as in head or as in heart. Drop the silent letr; e.g. bred, 
brekfast, hed, helth, hevy, insted, lether, plesure, welth, wether; 
hart, harry, harth 

ed final pronounst d. When the chanje wil not sugjest a wrong pro- 
nunciation, drop silent e, reducing a preceding dubl to a singl 
consonant; e.g. anserd, cald, carrid, delayd, employd, examind, 
fild, followd, marrid, pleasd, preferd, recievd, robd, signd, sneezd, 
struggld, traveld, worrid, wrongd; but not bribd for bribed, cand 
for caned; changd for changed, fild for filed, pried for priced, usd for 
used, etc. 

The e is retaind only in cases where it has by convention a diacritic use, to indicate 
a preceding long vowel, or in the case of consonants, c sibilant or g pronounst j 

ed final pronounst t. When the chanje wil not sugjest a wrong pro- 
nunciation, spel t, reducing a preceding dubl to a singl consonant, 
and chanjing ced, seed, final, to st; e.g. askt, fixt, helpt, indorst, 
wisht; addrest, kist, past, shipt, stopt, stuft; advanst, announst, 
commenst, invoist, notist; acquiest, effervest; but not bakt for baked, 
deduct or dedust for deduced, fact or fast for faced, hopt for hoped, 
etc. (See note to preceding rule) 

(53) 



DECIMAL CLASIFICATION 



ei i m >n< ninst like ie in brief. Spel ie ; e.g. conciet, deciev, inviegle, iether, 

reciev, wier, wierd 
ey final unstrest pronounst like short y final. Drop silent e; e.g. barly, 

chimny, donky, journy, mony, pully, trolly, vally, whisky 

gh pronounst f. Spel f; drop silent letter of preceding digraf; e.g. cof, 

draft, enuf, laf, ruf, tuf 
gh pronounst like g in gas. Drop silent h; e. g. agast, gastly, gerkin, 

gost, goul 

gm final. Drop silent g; e.g. apothem, diafram, flem, paradim 
gue final after a consonant, a short vowel, or a digraf representing, a long 
vowel or a difthong. Drop silent ue; e.g. catalog, dialog, harang, 
leag, sinagog; but not rog for rogue, vag for vague, etc. Tongue 
spel tung 

ise final pronounst as if speld ize. Spel ize; e.g. advertize, advize; 

apologize, enterprize, franchize, merchandize, rize, surprize, wize 
mb final after a short vowel. Drop silent b; e.g. bom, crum, dum, lam, 

lim, thum; but not com for comb, torn for tomb, etc. 
ou before 1, pronounst like o in bold. Drop silent u, except in soul; 

e.g. bolder, mold, sholder 
ough final. Spel o, u, ock, or up, when pronounst as if so speld; e.g. 

altho, boro, donut, furlo, tho, thoro; thru; hock; hiccup. Spel plow 
our final, with ou pronounst as a short (obscure) vowel. Drop u; e. g. 

color, favor, honor, labor 
ph pronounst f. Spel f ; e.g. alfabet, emfasis, fantom, fonograf, fotograf, 

sulfur, telefone, telegraf 
re final after any consonant except c. Spel er; e.g. center, fiber, meter, 

theater; but not lucer for lucre, mediocer for mediocre, etc. 
rh initial. Drop silent h; e.g. retoric, reumatism, rom (rhomb), rubarb, 

rithm 

sc initial pronounst as if speld s. Drop silent c; e.g. senery, sented, 
septer, sience, simitar, sissors; but scatter, scooner, sconce, etc. 

u silent before a vowel medial. Drop u; e.g. bild, condit, garantee, 
gard, ges, gide, gild 

y between consonants. Spel i; e.g. analisis, fisic, gipsy, silvan, sithe, 
tipe 

[We uze y for sound in by and so retain y in syth, typ etc.] 

SSB18 rules 

1 When ed final is pronounst t, write it simply t, where chanje wil not 
sugjest incorrect pronunciation, as askt, fixt, wisht etc. ; reducing a preced- 
ing dubl consonant to a singl consonant, as blest, kist, dipt, dropt, stept 
etc. ; and chanjing -ced to -st, as advanst, pronounst, rejoist etc. ; but avoid 
misleading forms like bakt for baked, deduct or dedust for deduced etc. 

2 Chanje ph to f when so sounded, as alfabet, fonograf, fotograf, sulfur, 
telefone, telegraf etc. 

(54) 



SIMPLER SPELING RULES 



3 Drop e final after -Iv and -rv, as delv, shelv, carv, curv, deserv etc.; 
also in the endings -ide, -He, -ine, -ise, -ite, -ive, unstrest, pronounst id, 
il, in, is, it, iv, as bromid, oxid, hostil, textil, anilin, determin, examin, 
practis, promis, definit, favorit, bpposit, activ, nativ, positiv etc.; and at 
end of ar (<?), hav(e), giv(<?), forgiv(<?), misgiv(<?), liv(e); becauz its normal 
use after a singl consonant is to sho that preceding vowel is long. Hence 
it is retaind in such words as bare, brave, mile, fine, wize, polite, arrive 

4 When digraf ea is sounded as in head or heart, uze sounded letr and 
omit the other, as helth, hevy, insted, tred, wether, plesant, hart, harth etc. 

5 Substitute e for digrafs and ligatures ae, ce, oe, ce, when not final, as 
esthetic, medieval, fenix etc. 

6 When ch is pronounst like c in car drop h, except before e, i and 

y, as caracter, clorid, corns, cronic, eco, epoc, arcangel, mecanic, monarc, 

scolar, scool, stomac, tecnical etc.; but chemist, architect, monarchy etc. 

Rule 6 was later alterd to 'uzek or drop h \ so we prefer k in skool, mekanic 
arkitect etc. ; for the asender k looks more like ch than does c and it is the form sure 
to be uzed in the end 

7 Drop silent h from initial rh, as rapsody, reumatism, rubarb etc. 

8 Reduce 11 final, after a short strest vowel, to 1, as bil, dol, dri], dwel, 
fil, ful, fulfil, shal, tel, wil, wilful etc. 

9 Reduce dubl final consonants bb, dd, ff, gg, nn, rr, tt, zz, to a singl 
consonant, as eb, ad, od, cuf, eg, bun, bur, whir, net, buz etc. 

10 Drop -me from mme final, . as gram, program 

1 1 Drop -te from ette final, as cigaret, coquet, etiquet, omelet, quartet 

12 Drop silent ue final after g, as catalog, coleag, dialog, pedagog, 
sinagog etc. ; except when g is preceded by a singl long vowel, as in rogue, 
vague, vogue etc. Tongue spel tung, Milton's way 

13 For -ough substitute o, u, of, ock, out or up, according to sound, 
as tho, thru, cof, enuf, hock, drout, hiccup etc. Plough spel plow 

14 Drop silent b final, as crum, lam, lim, num, thum etc.; except where 
omission sugjests incorrect pronunciation, as in tomb, comb etc. 

15 Drop e from ey final unstrest, pronounst like short y final, as abby, 
barly, chimny, donky, gaily, mony, trolly, vally, whisky etc. 

16 Substitute z for 5 in -ise final, pronounst as if speld ize, as advertize, 
civilize, criticize, merchandize, rize, wize etc. 

17 Chanje re final after any consonant except c, to -er, as center, 
fiber, meter, theater etc.; but lucre, mediocre, not lucer, mediocer 

18 Drop u from our final in words of 2 or more silabls, as ardor, color, 
favor, honor, labor etc. 

(55) , 



DECIMAL CLASIFICATION 



D C rules 

Supplementing S S B's short list of most needed chanjes we hav selected 
from its longer preliminary list and from the other best authorities a few 
more chanjes which we uze in order to familiarize readers with shortr 
forms sure to be uzed later. 

Beside chanjes in S S B rules we uzualy: 

Spel cud, wud and shud for these constantly occurring words 
Uze silabic 1, m, n and r without the unpronounst vowel; e.g. single 
is not singlee or singul but singl, just as prism and enthusiasm ar not 
prisum and enthusiasum. Also omit preceding obscure vowel before 
silabic 1, m, n, r. These 4 consonants partake of the nature of a vowel 
and so form silabls; little was pronounst litel, then litul, then lital, and 
now simply litl. Many words ar going thru this same shortning. J/Ve 
hav no letr for this lo unstrest vowel which most peopl ignore. The 
Standard dictionary says it is ' reduced to a slyt vocalic resonance'. As 
the present vowel is misleading and we hav no letr for this very obscure 
sound it is betr to omit it and thus shortn the word. Peopl ar les likely 
to mispronounce this short form than the uzual speling; e.g. pedal, 
metal, gambol, ar not pronounst as speld, but more and more exactly like 
peddle, mettle, gamble, which ar correctly speld pedl, metl, gambl. For 
indicating minute shades of pronunciation in a dictionary our short 
speling wd not be enuf but it is ampl for all ordinary use. 

Uze u for or on pronounst as in us; e.g. obvius, iamus, cuntry, 
cum, handsum 

Uze j for dg, dge or g, pronounst j ; e.g. jujment, rij, jem (except in proper 
nouns and adjectivs, and in old D C entries and for initial in Index) 

Uze y with its very common sound in by, my, reply etc. for eigh. igh, 
ei, ie, ui and uy; e.g. for height, might, pleistocene, replied, guide, buy, we 
spel hyt, myt, plystocene, replyd, gyd, by. 

Leav i — e, as in bite, ride etc. til later 

Uze k for ck or ch, medial or final, if pronounst k; e.g. bak, stok, skool, 
mekanic, epok, monark 

Drop w from ow final pronounst o; e.g. bio, fio, sho etc. 

Drop any silent letr that is foneticly useless; e.g. drop c from fascinate 

Drop 1 of dubl letrs that serv no use; e.g. clas, curiculum, paralel, 
but retain if short form wud mislead, as in hiss, off 

Sumtimes substitute s for ce, when it wil not sugjest wrong pronunciation, 
e.g. offis, servis, prejudis, but not fens for fence; also sumtimes substitute 
z for 5 or se, as in becauz, eazy, uzual, but not in inflections, as in rubs, 
digs, egs 

We leav many bad spelings where corrections as in similar words myt 
lead careless readers into mispronunciation; e.g. we omit c, a silly dupli- 
cation of k, in bak, but leav it in backer becauz baker wud confuze with 
the bred man. With only 23 letrs for 40 sounds we must make only more 
obvius needed chanjes and leav many inconsistencies til we hav the needed 
new letrs or modifyd forms to represent the other 17. 

(56) 



SIMPLER SPELING RULES 

U S Jeografic Board rules 

Most chanjes made harmonize with rules uniformly uzed by U S Jeo- 
grafic Board (and strongly recommended for jeneral adoption) in 
officialy fixing proper spelings of jeografic names. Sum of these rules 
applyd to other words ar : 

Pronounce vowels as in Italian and other continental European 
languajes, consonants as in English 

C always soft (sounded s) . Always uze k for hard c ; e.g. Korea, Dakota ; 
never Corea, Dacotah 

We leav initial c, at present, in cat, corns, cronolojy etc., also final c in graflc etc. 

G is always hard. Uze j, never dj, for soft g (j sound) 
Ch always as in church; never uze for k sound, e.g. spel arkitect, caracter, 
corus, skool 

We keep chemic temporarily; kemic cums later 

Never uze ph for f sound 

Always pronounce h when uzed; e.g. humor, not yumor 

Never uze y for vowel i when it has its proper sound as in other languajes 

(as in pin, pique) ; e.g. limf, linch, simbol, not lymph, lynch, symbol 
Ei, with both short vowels pronounst respectivly as in met and pin, 

sound like ey in they and prey, or a in fate 

Omitting useless gh in sleigh, weigh, freight etc. leavs betr spelings 

Filolojists 10 joint rules 

These wer made by American and English filolojic associations, includ- 
ing nearly all eminent skolars in English, after several years study by 
- committees of their leading members. British and Americans jointly 
recommended these 10 rules as in the interests of real skolarship as wel 
as common sense: 

1 e Drop silent e when foneticly useless, writing er for re; as in live 
(verb), single, eaten, rained, theatre (theater) 

2 ea Drop a from ea having sound of e as in met; e.g. feather, leather 

3 o For o having sound of u in but, write u in above (abuv), tongue 
(tung) and the like 

4 ou Drop o from ou having sound of u in but, in trouble (trubl), rough 
(ruf) and the like. For our unaccented, as in honour, write or, e.g. honor 

5 u, ue Drop silent u after g before a, and in nativ English words, 
and drop final ue; g^ard, guess (ges), catalogue, league etc. 

[Do not drop ue when pronounst, as in argue, value, nor when preceded by a 
singl long vowel, as in rogue, vague] 

6 Dubl consonants may be simplifyd when foneticly useless ; e.g. bailiff 
(but not hall etc.), battle (batl), written (writn), travel/er 

7 Chanje d and ed final to t when so pronounst, as in looked (lookt 
etc. unless the e affects the preceding sound, as in chafed etc. 

(57) 



DECIMAL CLASIFICATION 



8 gh, ph Chanje gh and ph to f when so sounded; e.g. enough (enuf), 
laughter (lafter) etc.; phonetic (fonetic) etc. 

9 s Chanje 5 to z when so soundsd, specialy in distinctiv words and in 
-ise; e.g. abuse (noun), abuze (verb), advertise (advertize) 

10 t Drop / in tch; e.g. cateh, pi/ch etc. 

Comments 

Rule i givs us 1, m, n and r as silabls without the useless e which no 
authority pronounces as writn; e.g. singl, eatn 

Rules 3 and 4 giv us u for and ou pronounst like u in us; e.g. cum, 
handsum, obvius, perilus 

In rule 9, s pronounst z is left in inflections becauz there ar so many, 
and chiefly becauz the vocal organs force the ryt z sound after the voist 
consonants b, d, g, m, ng, v, as in rubs, pads, digs, egs, hums, bangs, 
givs etc. Trying to pronounce 5 results in rups, pats, diks, eks, humps, 
banks, gifs etc. 

Rules 3, 4, 9 and 10, while not in S S B short list, ar fully approved. 
It was merely choice of which chanjes to make first with those who havn't 
the curaj to make all at once. When all leading skolars of the English 
world, including editors of all great dictionaries, recommend shortr forms, 
why shud we continue to write the worse than useless letrs? Every child 
and forener who has lernd rave, wave, dive, alive etc. is sure to pronounce 
have, give and live (verb) wrong unless we omit the useless e. 

Sugjestions 

We shud be glad to have any practical sugjestions, but to save time and 
gard agenst elaborate presentation of varius fine spun theories, we ad that 
we hav wacht for many years the results of elaborate and wonderfuly 
delicate experiments in our best sykolojic laboratories. We hav red care- 
fuly all the ' arguments ' that sum wil deduce for retaining certain useless 
letrs. But these refinements, while very interesting to the specialist, 
hav no practical bearing whatever on languaj as the greatest tool with 
which man works. Its function is to convey meaning clearly as quikly 
and cheaply as posibl. Microscopic verbal milinery has no proper place 
in this vast enjin. When one tels us that he has proved that is uzualy 
pronounst with a slyt vanish which cud be represented by w we admire 
his observant analisis, but when he wishes to argue that we shud therefore 
ad w to go we hav no time for his vagaries. To attach sum mark to sho 
every refinement which modern reserch cud establish wud result in sum- 
thing quite too complex for daily use. Melville Bell's visibl speech was a 
marvelus invention but only an unbalanst mind wud advocate its use 
for infinit demands of daily life. 

By evolution, not revolution, we shal stedily move toward the ideal, 
when the greatest languaj the world has yet seen wil hav 40 distinct syns 
for its 40 distinct sounds, and becauz of its manifold advantajes wil becum 
the common tung of the world, known in adition to his vernacular by every 
intelijent inhabitant. 

Lake Placid Club N Y Melvil Dewey 

Oct. 1, 1922 

(58) 



INDEX TO INTRODUCTION AND SIMPLER SPELING 



Superior figures indicate the part of paje in ninths; I, 5 and 9 indicating top, 
middle and foot: 27 s means \ way between top and middle of p. 27. 
D C means Decimal clasificaiion. 

C D means Classification decimate, the enlarjed French translation of D C. 
I I B means Institut International de Bibliographic 
N E A means National Education Association. 
S S B means Simplifyd Speling Board (American). 
S S S means Simplifyd Speling Socyety (English). 



Absurdities in speling 46"', 50 9 ~5i 2 
Accession book, advantages of D C 
for 22 2 

Accession order, for book numbers 30 3 
Accretion syn 37 9 
Adaptability of D C 23 s 
Aded entries 26 9 -27 3 
Adoption of D C by I I B 37 1 
Advantages of D C 2i 9 -24 6 
Aknowlejments 42 4 ~43 8 
-Al dropt 50 2 

Alfabet, use of for final subdivisions 
35 3 

Alfabet, perfect 46 4 

Alfabetic arranjement, method in C D 
39 3 

Alfabetic caracters, new 46 4 

Allyd subjects, sequence 14 3 

American Filolojic Association, com- 
mittee on key alfabet for Standard 
dictionary 45 s 

American Library Association D C 
committee 43 2 , 44 4 

Amherst college, library recatalogd 23 s 

Analitic references 27 s 

Andrews, C W, indettedness to 43 s 

Arabic numerals, advantaj of uzing 
2 3 7 » 49 9 ~5 q1 ; argument agenst 46 s 

Arranjement of D C 24 9 -25 3 

Assyning numbers, directions io 6 , 26*- 
28 1 

Author numbers 29 s 
Author tables, special 30 1 

Basis of I I B revision 37 1 

Bibliografic modifications 37 x ~39 4 

Bilding numbers 28 7 -29 5 

Biografy, treatment of 33 s 

Biscoe, W S, time number sistem 30 2 ; 

valuabl assistance 43 s 
Book numbers 29 5 ~30 7 
Books, arranjement 6 s ; how to find 

subject of 25 s 
Bookstores, use of D C in 39 s 
Broken order, advantaj of 35 9 ~36 6 

Cachtitles, use of 14 5 

Cards, arranjement 6 3 

Carnegie, Andrew, supporter of simpler 

speling 45 4 , 48 9 ~49 2 
Catalogs 20 7 -2i 8 

Cautions, in making variations 31 2 
Chanjes, unauthorized, effect of 29 3 , 
„ 3 1 2 , 32 2 

Charjing sistem, advantages of D C for 

22 8 -23 x 



Clas numbers, definition 12 9 ; how 
to assyn io 6 , 26 4 -28 1 ; how to bild 
28 7 -29 6 ; how to read 24 7 ; in name 
catalog 20 8 ; in shelflist 20 9 ; number 
of figures uzed 28 1 

Clases: divisions and sections 6 1 ; 
broken order 35 9 ~36 6 

Clasification, labor of constructing 
sistem io 2 ; lak of uniformity 11 8 ; 
requirements of sistem 7 6 ; test of 
skeme n 9 ; testing new skemes 16 6 , 
42 s 

Clast catalog, arranjement 21 1 ; objec- 
tion obviated n 6 ; printed 21 2 

Close clasing 13 6 , 26 7 ; ilustrated by 
history divisions 13 5 ; objection and 
compromize 28 6 ; requisit for bibliog- 
rafers and specialists 37 s ; value of 
I5 6 -i6 6 

Colon, meaning 38 s 

Conciseness, D C 8 5 ; English 50 6 

Consistency in speling, not essential 
50 3 ; of S S S 47 2 

Consonants, new 46 4 

Contractions for specialists 34 9 ~35 2 

Coordination, preservd in D C 13 6 

Copyryt restrictions 32 2 

Cronolojy, use of for final subdivisions 
35 2 

Cupling syn 38 1 

Cutter numbers, advantajes 29 s 

Dash, meaning in C D 38 1 

Decimal clasification, essential fea- 
ture 9 4 ; explanation of meaning io 1 ; 
extent of use S 9 -g 1 ', future of 43 s - 
44 4 ; labor of constructing 42 4 ; 
orijin and growth 7 4 -8 8 , 42 5 ~43 6 ; 
practical test 7 8 ; priority of its 
invention 9 s ; product of experts 
12 2 , 42 s ; simplicity 9 6 ; speling rules 
52 1 , 56; variations 30 8 -36 9 

Decimal form of the sistem 9 s 

Decimalism, use of i8 3 -i9 3 

Dictionary catalog, inferiority 21 3 

Differences between D C and C D 37 s 

Digrafs 46 s , 46 7 

Divisions 6 2 

Duplicates, see Sale duplicates 

Editions 9 1 

Editorship 43 s 
Education, methods of 48 1 
Education of the masses 49 s 
Efficiency in English, committee on 45 s 
Endowment of special departments 

23 9 -24 3 



(59) 



DECIMAL CLASIFI CATION 



English languaj, caracter of 48 s ; 
chanjes in 46 9 ~47 1 , 49 7 -50 3 ; 5° 9- 5 l7 ; 
conciseness in use of 50°; purpose of 
49 8 , 58 s ; world languaj 48 5 ~49 2 . 58" 

English speling caracterized 47 4 

Entries, aded 26 9 -27 3 

Equality syn, meaning 38 s 

Fiction, treatment of 32' 
Filolojic associations, rules 57 5 -58 5 
Fonetic speling 47 s 

Form distinctions, position 15 3 ; use 
of I4 6 -I5 2 

Form divisions, uniform numbers 15 4 

Form syn 38 4 

Future of D C 43 9 ~44 4 

Heds io 2 ; choice and arranjement 14 2 
Hyfen, meaning in C D 38 1 

Ideal in speling 45 s , 46 s , 47 7 , 58 s 
Importance of speling reform 49 s 
Improvements (so-cald) of D C 31 2 
Inconsistencies in speling, D C rules 

56'; S S B method 47 1 
Index 6 6 , 8 3 , 5 , 7 , 9 7 , io 5 -i2 5 ; a diction- 
ary catalog 2 1 6 ; effect of chanjes in 
tables 3 1 3 ; essential feature of D C 
9 4 ; fulness io 5 , ilustration of use io 7 - 
11 5 ; labor of constructing 42 4 ; plan of 
25 s ; scope 12 4 ; sugjestions for uzing 
25 5 , 26 1 , 29 5 ; use of blakface typ n 4 
Index rerums, use of D C for 40^41 6 
Index tables, appended 17 5 
Infinity simbol, meaning 38 s 
Institut International de Bibliographic, 
adoption of Decimal clasification 37 1 ; 
extension of D C by 37 4 ; obligations 
to 43 1 

Johnson's dictionary 50 9 ~5i 2 
Jujment, exercize of 48 1 
Juvenil literature, treatment 32 s 

Lake Placid Club Education Founda- 
tion 43 9 ~44 4 

Languaj, purpose of 49 s , 58 s ; universal 
4 8 5 - 49 2 , 5 8 9 

Languaj and literature, combining 34 s 

Languaj colections 33 7 ~34 x 

Languaj syn 38 s 

Letter notations for chanjes 32 2 

Letters, new 46 4 

Libraries uzing DC9 1 

Literature and languaj, combining 34 2 

Masses, education of 49 s 
Minor subjects, disposition of 13 8 
Minute clasing, see Close clasing 
Mnemonics, use of i6 7 -i8 3 
Modern Languaj Association, com- 
mittee on key alfabet for Standard 
dictionary 45 s 
Mony wasted by English speling 47 4 

Name catalog 20 8 

National Education Association, com- 
mittee on key alfabet for Standard 
dictionary 45 s ; 12 words 51 8 , 52 s 



Naught, normal value of 13 1 ; uzed for 
chanjed caracter of subdivision 13 2 , 
for form distinctions I4 7 -I5 5 , for 
jeneral works 6 1 , 12 6 , 14 7 

Naught, dubl, meaning jeneral points 
of view 39 1 ; subdivisions peculiar to a 
subject 38 s 

Nemonics, use of i6 7 -i8 3 

New subjects, disposition of 14 1 

Notation, simplicity 8 2 , 9 6 

Note books, use of D C for 41 4 

Note typ 15 9 

Numeration, method of 24 7 

Obligation, speling 49 s 

Order, of bibliografic simbols 39 4 ; 

of clases, broken 35 9 ~36 6 ; of subjects 

14 3 

Pamflets, advantajes of D C for 22 s 
Paralel libraries, treatment of 33 7 ~3'4 1 
Parenthetic numbers, form 38 4 ; place 
38 7 

Pedants rules 49 6 ~50 5 
Philolojic associations, rules 57 5 ~58 5 
Phonetic speling 47 s 
Place syn 38 7 
Plus syn, meaning 37° 
Points of view, jeneral, syn for 39 1 
Pro and con division of topics 36 6 
Pronouncing correctly, imposibility of 
47 9 

Pronunciation, variations in 46 2 , 47 7 , 
4 8 2 , 50 5 

Quotation marks, meaning 38 s 

Reazoning power dednd 47 7 ~48 5 
Reazons for simpler speling 47 3 ~49 6 
Recataloging or reclasifying, advan- 
tajes of D C in 23 s 
Reference library, treatment of 34 s 
Refinements in speling, theoretic 58 s 
Reformd speling, see Speling, simpler 
Relation syn 38 s 
Relativ Index, see Index 
Relativ location 21 9 ; advantaj of 

i9 3 -20 4 , need of 19 3 
Revision of D C, basis of C D 37 1 

Sale duplicates, advantajes of D C 
for 22 6 

School years wasted by English speling 
4 A 48 3 

Scrapbooks, use of D C for 40 5 
Sections 6 2 , 24 9 -25 1 ; subsections 6 5 , 25 1 
Separates, proposed, 4i 8 -42 1 
Sequence, of allyd subjects 14 3 ; of 

bibliografic syns 39' 1 ; of clases, 

broken 35 9 -36 6 
Sets of books 20 2 , 27 s 
Seymour, May 43 4 -44 x 
Shelf list 20 9 ; advantajes of D C for 

22 1 

Shelvs, advantajes of D C for i9 4 -20, 4 , 
21 9 

Signs, I I B skeme 37 9 ~39 4 
Simbol notations for chanjes 32 s 



(60) 



INDEX TO INTRODUCTION AND SIMPLER SPELING 



Simpler speling, see Speling, simpler 

Simplifyd Speling Board, method of 
46 9 -47 2 ; rules 51 8 , 52 s -55 9 , supple- 
mented by D C rules 56 1 ; supported 
by Carnegie 45 4 ; 30 words 51 8 , 52 s 

Simplifyd Speling Socyety 46 7 , 47 2 

Size, distinction by 20 5 

Skool years wasted by English speling 
47 6 , 48 3 

Small libraries, adaptability to 28 1 
Social problems, solution in education 
49' 

Special colections, treatment 32 s - 

33 4 , 33 7 -34S 34 3 
Specialists, use of D C by 8 5 , 34 9 ~35 2 
Specialties, influence on assyning clas 

numbers 27 4 
Speling, simpler 45-58.; agreement on 

need for 45 7 ; methods for attaining 

45 8 ~47 2 ; reazons for 47 3 -49 6 ; rules 

5i 7 -58 5 

Speling correctly, imposibility of 47° 
Speling variations 45 9 -46 3 , 48 2 
Standard dictionaries, key alfabet 
for 45 5 

Subject catalog, see Clast catalog 

Subject Index, see Index 

Subject references, advantajes of D C 

for 23 2 ; see also Aded entries 
Subjects, sequence of 14 3 
Sugjestions to uzers of D C 2 4 6 ~30 7 
Summaries 6 4 
Syns, I I B skeme 37 9 ~39 4 



Tables, index, appended 17 5 ; of clasi- 
fication, plan of I2 5 -I3 5 , 24 9 -25 2 ; 
sugjestions for uzing 24 s , 25 4 -28 7 ; 
tentativ 16 5 ; 

• 30 words of S S B 51 8 , 52 s 

1 Time numbers 30 2 

j Time syn 38 s 

. Time wasted by English speling 47 s , 49* 
Topical indexes, use of D C for 41 6 
Tuskegee Institute, speling and pro- 
nunciation requirement 46 1 
12 words of N E A 51 8 , 52 s 
Typ, significance of small 15 9 



Uniformity in clasification, how to 
gain 27 7 ; Index a gyd to n 8 

United States Jeografic Board, rules 
57 1 

Universal languaj 48 5 ~49 2 , 58 s 
Universality syn 38 s 
Uses of D C 8 1 



Variations practicabl in D C clasi- 
fication 30 8 -36 9 
View, jeneral points of, syn for 39 1 
Vowels, new 46 4 

Waste, see Mony wasted; Time wasted 



Zero, see Naught 



(61) 



CLASSES 

General works 

1 Filosofy 

2 Religion 

3 Sociology 

4 Filology 

5 Natural science 

6 Useful arts 

7 Fine arts 

8 Literature 

9 History 



SECOND SUMMARY 



DIVISIONS 



000 


General works 


500 Natural science 


010 


Bibliografy 


510 


Mathematics 


020 


Library economy 


520 


Astronomy 


030 


General cyclopedias 


530 


Physics 


040 


donprfil pnllprtions 


540 


Chemistry 


050 


Crpnpral T>priodicals 


55o 


Geology 


uUU 


General societies IVIuseums 


560 


Paleontology 


070 


Journalism Newspapers 


570 


Biology 


080 


Special libraries Polygrafy 


580 


Botany 


090 


Book - rarities 

IJUvn lanugo 


590 


Zoology 


100 


rliOSOiy 


600 Useful arts 


no 


Metaphysics 


610 


Medicin 


120 


Special metaphysical topics 


620 


Engineering 


130 


Mind and body 


630 


Agriculture 


140 


Filosofic systems 


640 


Domestic economy 


TECO 
A D U 


Mental faculties Psychology 


650 


Communication Commerce 


1 60 


T,ocrir Dialectics 


660 


Chemic technology 


170 


Ethics 


670 


Manufactures 


l80 


Ancient filosofers 


680 


Mechanic trades 


190 


Modern filosofers 


690 


Bilding 


200 




700 Fine arts 


210 


Natural theology 


710 


Landscape gardening 


220 


DILI „ 

Bible 


720 


Architecture 


230 


Doctrinal Dogmatics Theology 


730 


Sculpture 


24O 


Devotional Practical 


740 


Drawing Decoration Design 




TTomilpfic Pastoral Parochial 


750 


Painting 


260 


Church Institutions Work 


760 


Engraving 


2"70 


Religious history 


770 


Fotografy 


280 


Christian churches and sects 


780 


Music 


290 


Ethnic and other religions 


790 


Amusements 


300 


oucioiogy 


800 Literature 


310 


otatistics 


810 


American 


320 


Political science 


820 


English 


330 


Political economy 


830 


German 




Law 


840 


French 


3^0 


Administration 


850 


Italian 


360 


Associations and institution*! 


860 


Spanish 


370 


Education 


870 


Latin 


380 


Commerce Communication 


880 


Greek 


300 


Customs Costiimps T?o1lc1orp 


890 


Minor languages 




jt uuiugy 


900 History 


410 


Comparativ 


910 


Geografy and travels 


420 


.bnglisn 


920 


Biografy 


A\Q 
*tJ u 


ftprman 


930 


Ancient history 


440 


French 


940 


Europe 


450 


Italian 


950 g 


Asia 


460 


Spanish 


960 » 


Africa 


470 


Latin 


970 3 


North America 


480 


Greek 


980 * 


South America 


490 


Minor languages 


990 


Oceania and polar regions 



THIRD SUMMARY SECTIONS 

General works 

Limited to none of the o classes 



000 

001 
002 
OO3 
OO4 
005 
006 
007 
008 
009 
010 
on 
012 
013 
014 

015 
016 
017 
018 
019 
020 
021 
022 
023 
024 
025 
026 
027 
028 
029 
030 
031 
032 

033 
034 
035 
036 

037 
038 

039 
040 

041 
042 

043 
044 

045 
046 
047 
048 
049 



Left blank for local history or biog- 
rafy, etc. where some special collection 
is making which is to be kept in a case 
by itself, out of its regular place in the 
classification. Individuals use these 
numbers for personal diaries, note books, 
memorabilia, etc. 



Bibliografy 

General bibliografies 
Of individuals 

special classes of authors 
" " forms, pseudonyms, etc. 
" " countries 

subjects 
Clast catalogs 
Author " 
Dictionary catalogs 

Library economy 

Scope, usefulness and founding 
Bildings 

Government and servis 
Regulations for readers 
Administration Departments 
Libraries on special subjects 
General libraries Reports, etc. 

Reading and aids 

Literary methods Laborsavers 

General cyclopedias 

American 

English 

German 

French 

Italian 

Spanish 

Slavic 

Scandinavian 
Minor languages 
General collected essays 

American 

English 

German 

French 

Italian 

Spanish 

Slavic 

Scandinavian 
Minor languages 



050 

051 
052 

053 
054 
055 
056 

057 
058 
059 

060 
061 
062 
063 
064 
065 
066 
067 
068 
069 

070 
071 
072 

073 
074 

075 
076 
077 
078 
079 
080 
081 
082 
083 
084 
085 
086 
087 
088 
089 
090 
091 
092 

093 
094 

095 
096 
097 
098 
099 



General periodicals 

American 

English 

German 

French 

Italian 

Spanish 

Slavic 

Scandinavian 
Minor languages 
General societies 

American 

English 

German 

French 

Italian 

Spanish 

Slavic 

Scandinavian 
Minor languages 
Newspapers Journalism 

American 

English 

German 

French 

Italian 

Spanish 

Slavic 

Scandinavian 
Minor languages 
Special libraries Polygrafy 

Left blank to be used (if preferd to 
prefixing an initial) for general collec- 
tions of books which by terms of gift or 
for other cause must be kept together. 
This must be kept distinct from 040 
where the individual books are poly- 
grafic, i. e. are bound pamflets, essays, 
addresses, scrap or note books, etc. too 
general in scope to go under any single 
class. Juvenils could be put here, but 
are better kept in a separate class, 
markt J 



Book rarities 

Manuscripts Autografs 
Block books 

Early printed Incunabula 
Rare printing Privately printed 
Rare binding 

Rare illustrations or materials 
Ownership Bookplates 
Prohibited Lost Imaginary 
Other rarities Curiosa 



THIRD SUMMARY SECTIONS 

Philosofy 



100 


Pmlosoiy 


t Co 
15° 


IVlcIllal laLUlLlcb 


101 


Utility 


151 


Intellect 


102 


Compends 


l 5 2 


Sense perceptions 


103 


Dictionaries 


153 


Understanding 


IO4 


Essays 


T C A 
154 


lVIemory 


I0 5 


T-^Pt*1 t^ifl 1 r*Q 1 c 
IT CI HJUlCclla 


I SS 


Imagination 


106 


^/~ipi © 1 1 AC 


IS6 


Reason Intuitiv faculty 


I07 


Qf-nrlv anr1 fpapViinc 

OLULiy d-llvx LCcxl^lllxxg 


I S7 


Sensibility Emotions 


108 


Polygrafy Maxims 


IS8 


Instincts Appetites 


T r\n 

1 uy 


TTictnrv 
lilo Uvji y 


1 so 


Will 


110 


Metaphysics 


J.UU 


J^UglL JJlalcCllCS 


III 


Ontology 


t At 
IOI 


Inductiv 


112 


Methodology 


102 


Deductiv 


113 


Cosmology 


I63 


Assent 


114 


Space 


IO4 


Symbolic Algebraic 


IIC 

1 l J 


Time 


16s 


Sources of error Fallacies 


Il6 


Motion 


166 


Syllogism Enthymeme 


A *■ / 


lVTa t rpr 


167 


Hvnothp^p^ 

XXJf L^V^Ull^/OV/O 


Il8 


Force 


168 


Argument and persuasion 


TTQ 


Onantitv Number 


i6q 


Analocv Corrpsnondpnpp 


120 


ivieiapnysicai topics 


Ay U 




121 


Knowledge: origin, limits 


171 


Theories of ethics 


122 


Causation Cause and effect 


172 


State ethics 


123 


Liberty and necessity 


173 


Family ethics 


124 


Teleology Final causes 


J 74 


Professional and business ethics 


12 S 


Infinit and finite 


I7S 


Ethics of amusements 


126 


Consciousness Personality 


176 


Sexual ethics 


127 


Unconsciousness Automata 


177 


Social ethics 


128 


The soul 


178 


Temperance 


I2Q 


Origin of the individual soul 


I7Q 


Other ethical topics 


I3O 


lviinQ ana. Douy 


100 


/incieni pnuosoiers 


131 


Mental physiology and hygiene 


Iol 


Oriental 


132 


Mental derangements 


T Q 1 

I 02 


Early Greek 


133 


Occultism Witchcraft Magic 


T Q 1 

183 


Sophistic and Socratic 


J 34 


Mesmerism Clairvoyance 


I 04 


Platonic 


lis 


Sleep Dreams Somnambulism 


18s 


Aristotelian 


lift 


A/TptrhQl pVi^rQP'hp'rict ir»c 
IvxCIIUctl CIIcll ctC LCI lo LICo 


186 


X y 1 1 IH-JIIloL 1NCW X IctLWIlioL 


I ^7 


T^pm npra m pn f q T-^prdonnli+TT' 


187 
10/ 


Er»iPTirpn n 




PVivci nannmv 

x xxy oiut Hum y 


188 


Stoic 


I^Q 


Phrpnolocv MVntal tihotoprafs 


189 


Earlv Christian and mpdipvat 

x-/c»/X x y v^xxx xo uxcvxx exxxvx iiivui^ v a« 


I40 


Philosofic systems 


190 


Modem philosofers 


141 


Idealism Transcendentalism 


191 


American 


142 


Critical philosofy 


192 


British 


143 


Intuitionalism 


193 


German 


144 


Empiricism 


194 


French 


145 


Sensationalism 


195 


Italian 


146 


Materialism Positivism 


196 


Spanish 


147 


Pantheism Monism 


197 


Slavic 


148 


Eclecticism 


198 


Scandinavian 


149 


Other philosofic systems 


199 


Other modern 



THIRD SUMMARY 



SECTIONS 





Religion 




200 


Religion 


250 


Homiletic Pastoral Parochial 


201 


Philosofy Theories 


251 


Homiletics Preaching 


202 


Compends 


252 


Sermons 




Dictionaries 


253 


Pastoral visitations Evangelistic 


204. 


Essays 


254 


Cleric support Celibacy 


205 


Periodicals 


255 


Brotherhoods Sisterhoods 


206 


Societies 


256 


Societies for parish work Gilds 


207 


Education Theologic schools 


257 


Parochial schools, libraries, etc. 


208 


Polygrafy 


258 


Parish care of sick, fallen, etc. 


209 


History of theology 


259 


Other ministrations and work 


210 


Natural theology 


260 


Church Institutions Work 


211 


Deism and atheism 


26l 


Church 


212 


Pantheism Theosofy 


262 


Ecclesiastic polity 




Creation Evolution 


263 


Sabbath Lord's day Sunday 


214. 
1 


Providence Theodicy Fatalism 


2O4 


Public worship Ritual 


215 


Religion and science 


265 


Sacraments Ordinances 


216 


Evil Depravity 


266 


Missions Home and foren 


217 


Prayer 


207 


Associations Y M C A, etc. 


218 


Future life Immortality 


205 


Sunday schools 


219 


Analogies Correspondences 


269 


Revivals Retreats 


220 


Bible 


270 


Religious history 


221 


Old Testament 


271 


Monastic orders Monasteries 


222 


Historic books 


272 


Persecutions 


221 


Poetic " 


273 


Heresies 


224 


Prophetic " 


274 


Europe 


225 


JNew lestament 


275 


Asia 


226 


Gospels and Acts 


276 


Africa 


227 


lipistles 


277 


North America 


228 


Apocalypse 


278 


South America 


229 


Apocrypha 


279 


Oceanica 


230 


Doctrinal Dogmatics 


280 


Christian churches and sects 


211 


God Unity Trinity 


281 


Primitiv and oriental 


212 


Christ Christology 


282 


Roman catholic 


211 


Man The fall Sin 


283 


Anglican and American P E 


214 


Salvation Soteriology 


284 


Continental protestant 


235 


Angels Devils Satan 


2»5 


Presbyterian Congregational 


236 


Eschatology Deth Judgment 


286 


Baptist Immersionist 


237 


Future state 


2o7 


Methodist 


238 


Creeds Catechisms 


-00 
200 


Unitarian 


239 


Apologetics Evidences 


2O9 


Minor Christian sects 


240 


Devotional Practical 


290 


Ethnic and other religions 


241 


Didactic 


291 


Comparativ & general mythology 


2A2 


Meditativ 


292 


Orppk and Roman 


2/11 


Hortatory 


293 


TVntnnio and NortTiprn 


244 


Miscellany Fiction 


294 


Brahmanism Buddhism 


245 


Hymnology Religious poetry 


295 


Parseeism 


246 


Ecclesiology Symbolism 


296 


Judaism 


247 


Sacred furniture, vessels, etc. 


297 


Mohammedanism 


248 


Personal religion Asceticism 


298 


Mormonism 


249 


Family devotions 


299 


Minor nonchristian religions 



THIRD SUMMARY SECTIONS 

Sociology 



300 


Sociology 


350 


Administration Army 


101 


Philosofy Theories 


351 


Administration of central gov't 


in? 


Compends 


352 


Local government: city, town 




Dictionaries 


353 


United States and state 


10 A 
o u 4 


Essays 


354 


Foren states 


105 


Periodicals 


355 


Army Military science 


306 


Societies 


356 


Infantry 


307 


Education 


357 


Cavalry 


308 


Polygrafy 


358 


Artillery 


309 


History of sociology 


359 


Navy Naval science 


310 




Statistics 


360 


Associations Institutions 




Theory Methods 


161 


Charitable 




Population 


162 


Hospitals Asylums 




Special topics 




Political 


114 


Europe 


364 


Reformatory 


315 


Asia 


365 


Prisons Disciplin 


316 


Africa 


366 


Secret societies 


317 


North America 


367 


Social clubs 


318 


South America 


368 


Insurance 


319 


Oceanica 


369 


Other 




Political science 


370 


Education 


121 


Form of state 


371 


Teachers, methods, and disciplin 


122 


Church and state 


372 


Elementary Kindergarten 


12 1 


Internal or domestic relations 


373 


Intermediate 


124 


Suffrage Citizenship 


174 


Self education and culture 


325 


Colonies and immigration 


375 


Curriculum 


326 


Slavery 


376 


Education of women 


327 


Foren relations 


377 


Religious, ethical and secular 


328 


Legislativ bodies and annals 


378 


Colleges and universities 


329 


Political parties 


379 


Public schools State education 


330 


Political economy 


380 


Commerce Communication 


111 


Capital Labor Wages 


381 


Domestic trade 


112 


Banks Money Credit Interest 


182 


Foren trade Consular reports 


111 


Land Ownership Rights & rent 


181 
00 


Postoffis 


114 


Cooperation 


384 


Telegraf Cable Telefone 


335 


Socialism and communism 


385 


Railroad and express 


336 


Finance Public funds Taxation 


386 


Canal & highway transportation 


337 


Protection and free trade 


387 


River and ocean transportation 


338 


Production Manufacture Prices 


388 


City transit 


339 


Consumption Pauperism 


389 


Weights and mesures Metrology 


340 


Law 


390 


Customs Popular life 




International law 


iqi 


Costume and care of person 


14.2 


Constitutional law and history 


1Q2 


Birth, home and sex customs 


141 


Criminal law 


1Q1 


Treatment of ded 


344 


Martial law 


394 


Public and social customs 


345 


U. S. statutes and cases 


395 


Etiquet 


346 


British statutes and cases 


396 


Woman's position and treatment- 


347 


Treatises: American and British 


397 


Gipsies Nomads Outcast races 


348 


Canon law 


398 


Folklore Proverbs, etc. 


349 


Foren law Roman 


399 


Customs of war 



THIRD SUMMARY 

Philology 



400 


Til, ■ 

Philology 


450 


401 


Philosofy 


45i 


402 


Compends 


452 


403 


Dictionaries 


453 


404 


Essays 


454 


4°5 


Periodicals 


455 


406 


Societies 


45° 


407 


Study and teaching 


A ST 

457 


4OO 


Polygrafy 


a rfi 

45° 


409 


History of language 


459 


410 


Comparativ 


4OO 


411 


Orthografy Alfabets 


461 


412 


Etymology 


462 


413 


Dictionaries 


463 


414 


Phonology 


464 


4 l 5 


Grammar 


A f\ C 

4°5 


A lf\ 
4IO 






4 J 7 


inbcrxp Lions 


4°7 


41 


1 exis 


4O0 


419 


xxicrogiyucs 


A f\(\ 
409 


420 


.bnglisn 


470 


421 


Orthografy 


471 


422 


Etymology 


472 


423 


Dictionaries 


473 


424 


Synonyms 


474 


425 


Grammar 


475 


42O 


Prosody 


470 


427 


Til 1 opto 


A TT 

477 


42O 


School texts 


A*t& 
47» 


429 


A n rrl r\ vnn 


a ir\ 

479 


430 


German 


4O0 


431 


Orthografy 


48l 


432 


Etymology 


482 


433 


Dictionaries 


483 


434 


Synonyms 


484 


435 


urannndr 


aRc 

4° 5 


A1« 

43° 


x rubvju.y 


40O 


437 


Dialects 


A 87 

407 


A id 

43° 


School texts 


a QQ 
400 


439 


iviinor x euionic 


a Qrw 
4«9 


440 


French 


490 


441 


Orthografy 


491 


442 


Etymology 


492 


443 


Dictionaries 


493 


444 


Synonyms 


494 


445 


Grammar 


495 


446 


Prosody 


496 


447 


Dialects 


497 


448 


School texts 


498 


449 


Provencal 


499 



SECTIONS 

Italian 

Orthografy 

Etymology 

Dictionaries 

Synonyms 

Grammar 

Prosody 

Dialects 

School texts 
Rumansh and Wallachian 
Spanish 

Orthografy 

Etymology 

Dictionaries 

Synonyms 

Grammar 

Prosody 

Dialects 

School texts 
Portuguese 
Latin 

Orthografy 

Etymology 

Dictionaries 

Synonyms 

Grammar 

Prosody 

Dialects 

School texts 
Minor Italic 
Greek 

Orthografy 

Etymology 

Dictionaries 

Synonyms 

Grammar 

Prosody 

Dialects 

School texts 
Minor Hellenic 
Minor languages 

Minor Indo-European 

Semitic 

Hamitic 

Scythian Turanian 
Eastern Asiatic 
African 

North American 
South American 
Malay-Polynesian and other 



THIRD SUMMARY SECTIONS 

Natural science 



500 


Natural science 


55° 


vjeuiugy 


501 


Philosofy 


55i 


Physical and dynamic geology 


502 


Compends 


552 


Lithology Petrografy 


503 


Dictionaries 


553 


Economic geology 


504 


Essays 


554 


Europe 


5°5 


xcnou.icd.is 


000 


Asia 


506 


OOClC l/ICo 




Africa 


5°7 


T7r1n/->u firm A/f 


^7 
00/ 


North America 


o uo 


T'ol vara f v 


ss8 


South America 




History 




Oceanica Polar regions 




lVldLIlcIIlctm/O 






511 


Arithmetic 


50I 


Plants 


512 


Algebra 


562 


Invertebrates 


513 


Geometry Conic sections 


503 


Protozoa Radiates 


514 


Trigonometry 


564 


Mollusks 


eye 
O l O 


Descriptiv geometry 




Articulates » 


SI6 


Analytic geometry Quaternions 


566 


Vertebrates 


L I 


Calculus 


567 
O^t 


Fishes Batrachia 


«;i8 




568 


Reptils Birds 




Probabilities 


56q 


Mammals 


520 


as iron omy 


570 


ijiuiugy J2< umuiugy 


521 


1 neoretic 


571 


Prehistoric archeology 


522 


Practical and spheric 


572 


Ethnology Anthropology 


523 


Descriptiv 


573 


Natural history of man 


524 


Maps and observations 


574 


Homologies 


^2^ 

0*0 


Earth 


0/0 


Evolution Species 




Geodesy 


576 
0/ w 


Origin and beginnings of life 


527 
0* 1 


Navigation 


577 
0/ / 


Properties of living matter 


^28 


Ephemerides 


578 
o/° 


^licroscopy 




Chronology 


0/y 


Collectors manuals 


53° 




500 


DUldliy 


53 1 


Mechanics 


r Q t 
581 


Physiologic and structural 


532 


Liquids Hydraulics 


_ O ,-v 

582 


Phanerogamia 


533 


Gases Pneumatics 


583 


Dicotyledonae 


534 


Sound Acoustics 


584 


Monocotyledonae 


000 


T.iprVit" Onflow 


0°0 


Gy mn ospermae 




Heat 


586 


Cryptogamia 


517 
00/ 


Electricity 


s87 

0°/ 


Pfpri d nnh vta 




1\/Ta on f*ti ?m 


o°° 


jji y Kj^jiiy Let 




M^oleoular r>hv^ip<? 


o°y 


Thallonhvta 


pin 

54° 


■ ^ Vl QTM 1 O'f'fTT 

v^iicimsiry 


590 


//Oology 


54i 


1 neoretic 


59i 


Physiologic zoology 


542 


Practical and experimental 


592 


Invertebrates 


543 


Analysis 


593 


Protozoa Radiates 




On 3 11 f O fur 


594 


ivlOllUSKS 


545 


Quantitativ 


595 


Articulates 


546 


Inorganic 


596 


Vertebrates 


547 


Organic 


597 


Fishes Batrachia 


548 


Crystallografy 


598 


Reptils Birds 


549 


Mineralogy 


599 


Mammals 



THIRD SUMMARY SECTIONS 

Useful arts 



600 


Ubciui <tris> 


U5U 


VsUllllllUllllsClllUll V^UIIlIIlCl CtJ 


601 


Filosofy 


Apt 


Offis equipment and methods 


D02 


Compends 


652 


Writing: materials, typewriters 


603 


Dictionaries 


653 


Abbreviations Shorthand 




Essays 


Act 
054 


Telegraf Cables Signals 




Pprir>dim.l<? 




Printing Publishing Copyright 


606 


Societies Fairs Exhibitions 


656 


Transportation Railroading, etc. 


607 


Education, schools of technology 


6S7 


Bookkeeping Accounts 


608 


Patents Inventions 


6s8 


Business manuals Methods Tables 


6O9 


History of useful arts 


6^Q 


Advertising and other topics 


fit f\ 


TVToH i/»ifi 


660 


v/iiciuiV/ icuiuuiugy 


OI I 


Anatomy 


AAt 
DDI 


Chemicals 


At*» 

012 


Fysiology 


AA>> 
002 


Pyrotechnics Explosivs 


613 


Hygiene Gymnastics Training 


663 


Beverages : wines.liquors, ales, etc. 


At a 
OI4 


jrUDiic neiin 


AA/i 
O04 


Foods: sugar, starch, etc. 


6lS 


Materia medica Therapeutics 


66^ 


Lights: gas, oil, candles, etc. 


6l6 


Patholocv Di^pa^p^ Trfatmpnt 


666 


Ceramics: glass, clay, cement, etc. 


6l7 


Surgery Dentistry 


667 


Bleaching Dyeing Inks Paints 


618 


Diseases of women and children 


668 


Other organic chemic industries 


619 


Comparativ medicin Veterinary 


669 


Metallurgy Assaying 


f\~i r\ 


jii ng m c cring 


UyU 


T\yr ti 1 1 f f fa 1 1*0 

IVldll ul cLL llilCo 


02I 


Mechanical 


671 


Articles made of metals 


_ 

022 


Mining 


072 


Of iron & steel ; stoves, cutlery 


023 


Military Naval 


673 


Of brass and bronze; bells, etc. 


624 


Bridge and roof 


674 


Lumber & articles made of wood 




Road and railroad 


67 c, 


Lether " * lether 


626 


Canal 


676 


Paner u u nanfr 


627 


River and harbor 


677 


Cotton, wool, silk, linen, etc. 


628 


Sanitary Waterworks 


678 


Rubber & articles made of rubber 


620 


Other branches 


670 


Celluloid and other 




Agl 11/ UI I 111 C 




JLVXCCliclllH.. UtlUCo 


A"» T 
03I 


Soil Fertilizers Drainage 


AQ t 

00 1 


Watch and instrument making 


632 


Pests Hindrances Blights Insects 


Oo2 


Blacksmithing Horseshoeing 


033 


Lrrains Orasses ribers lea, etc. 


£. O - 

683 


Lock and gun making 


°34 


Fruits Orchards Vineyards 


Aft ^ 
DO4 


Carriage and cabinet making 




Kitchen garden 


68 s 


Saddlery & shoemaking Trunks 


636 


Domestic animals 


686 


Bookbinding 


617 


Dairy: milk, butter, cheese 


687 


Clothesmaking Hats 


638 


Bees Silkworms 


688 




6lQ 


Fishing Trapping 


689 


Other trades 




j-/umcoiii/ ccuiiuiiiy 


uyu 


T5i1/4 iti or 
JjUUIIlg 


Ait 
O4I 


Food 'Cookery 


091 


Materials Processes Preservativs 


O42 


Serving Entertaining 


692 


Plans and specifications 


A* 1 
t>43 


Shelter j house, home 


693 


Masonry Plastering, etc. 


644 


Heat, light, ventilation 


694 


Carpentry Stairbilding 


645 


Furnishing Decoration 


695 


Roofing Slating and tiling 


646 


Clothing Toilet 


696 


Plumbing Gas and steam fitting 


647 


Household administration 


697 


Heating and ventilation 


648 


Sanitary precautions 


698 


Painting Glazing Paperhanging 


649 


Nursery Sickroom 

/ N 


699 


Carbilding 



THIRD SUMMARY SECTIONS 

Fine arts 





T?|np arte; 


750 


Painting 


701 


Phi 1 r*Qnf v R^thptic** 


751 


Materials and methods 


702 


v> KJ 1 1 1 JLI CH\-lo 


752 


Color 


7 U 3 


Y)\ pt 1 onaries 


751 


Epic Mythic Idealistic 


7 U 4 


"Rcqo v<? 
ii/joa y 


754 
1 0^ 


Genre Still life 


705 


Periodicals 


755 


Religious Ecclesiastic 


706 


Societies 


756 


Historical Battles, etc. 


707 


Education Study- 


757 


Portrait 


708 


Art galleries 


758 


Landscape Marine 


709 


History of art 


759 


Various schools 


7IO 


Landscape gardening 


760 


Engraving 


711 


Piihlic narlfQ 


761 


Wood 




Private grounds Lawns 


762 


Copper Steel 


*7 T 1 

7*3 


»V ctlKo 1/llVvo 


761 


Lithografy 


71 J. 


Water: fountains, lakes 


764 


Chromolithografy 


715 


Trees Hedges Shrubs 


765 


Line Stipple 


716 


Plants Flowers Conservatories 


766 


Mezzotint Aquatint 


717 


Arbors Seats Outlooks 


767 


Etching Dry point 


718 


Monuments Mausoleums 


768 


Banknote Machine 


719 


Cemeteries 


769 


Collections of engravings 


720 


Architecture 


770 
II 


Photografy 


721 
1 * L 


Architectural construction 


771 


Photografic chemistry 


722 


Ancient and oriental 


772 


Processes: silver, etc. 


721 


Medieval Gothic 


771 

I/O 


Gelatin and pigment 


724. 


Modern 


774 

/ / *T 


" & printer's ink Albertyp* 


725 


Public bildings 


775 


Photolithografy, etc. 


726 


Ecclesiastic and religious 


776 


Photozincografy, etc. 


727 


Educational and scientific 


777 


Photoengraving Photoelectros 


728 


Residences 


778 


Special applications 


729 


Design and decoration 


779 


Collections of photografs 


730 


Sculpture 


780 
1 


Music 


711 


Materials and methods 


781 


Theory 


712 


Ancient 


782 


Dramatic 


711 


Greek and Roman 


781 


Sacred 


714. 


Medieval 


784 


Vocal 


735 


Modern 


785 


Orchestral 


736 


Carving Seals Dies Gems 


786 


Piano and organ 


737 


Numismatics Coins Medals 


787 


Stringd instruments 


738 


Pottery Porcelain 


788 


Wind 


739 


Bronzes Bricabrac 


789 


Percussion and mechanical 


740 


Drawing Decoration 


700 


Amusements 


74.1 


Freehand Crayon 


*70T 
/9 1 


"Public P>ntprf"f)i'nmpnf" 


74.2 


Perspectiv 




T'Vippfpr Onpra 


741 


Art anatomy Life school 


7Q1 


Indoor amusements 


744 


Mathematic drawing 


794 


Games of skill Chess 


745 


Ornamental design: carpet, etc. 


795 


Games of chance Cards 


746 


Art needlework 


796 


Outdoor sports 


747 


Interior decoration 


797 


Boating and ball 


748 


Staind and iridescent glass 


798 


Horsemanship Racing 


749 


Artistic furniture 


799 


Fishing Hunting Shooting 



THIRD SUMMARY SECTIONS 

Literature 



800 


Literature 


850 


Italian literature 


801 


FilrKof v 


851 


Poetry 


802 


Compends 


8S2 


Drama 


801 


Dictionaries 


8ST 


Fiction 


804 


Essays 


854 


Essays 


805 


Periodicals 


855 


Oratory 


806 


Societies 


856 


Letters 


807 


Study and teaching 


857 


Satire Humor 


808 


Rhetoric Treatises 


858 


Miscellany 


809 


History 


859 


Rumanian and Romansh 


8lO 


American literature 


860 


Spanish literature 


811 


Poetry 


861 


Poetry 


812 


Drama 


862 


Drama 




Fiction 


861 


Fiction 


814 


Essays 


864 


Essays 


815 


Oratory 


865 


Oratory 


8l6 


Letters 


866 


Letters 


817 


Satire Humor 


867 


Satire Humor 


8l8 


Miscellany 


868 


Miscellany 


819 




869 


Portuguese literature 


820 


English literature 


870 


Latin literature 


821 


Poetry 


871 


Poetry 


822 


Drama 


872 


Dramatic 


821 


Fiction 


871 


Epic 


824 


Essays 


874 


Lyric 


825 


Oratory 


875 


Oratory 


826 


• Letters 


876 


Letters 


827 


Satire Humor 


877 


Satire Humor 


828 


Miscellany 


878 


Miscellany 


829 


Anglo-Saxon literature 


879 


Minor Italic literatures 


830 


German literature 


880 


Greek literature 


8-11 


Poetry 


881 


Poetry 


812 



Drama 


882 


Dramatic 


811 


Fiction 


881 


Epic 


8^4 


Essays 


884 


Lyric 


835 


Oratory 


885 


Oratory 


836 


Letters 


886 


Letters 


837 


Satire Humor 


887 


Satire Humor 


838 


Miscellany 


888 


Miscellany 


839 


Minor Teutonic literatures 


889 


Minor Hellenic literatures 


840 


French literature 


800 


Minor literatures 


841 


Poetry 


891 


Minor Indo-European 


842 


Drama 


892 


Semitic 


84^ 


Fiction 




Hamitic 


844 


Essays 


894 


Scythian Turanian 


845 


Oratory 


895 


Eastern Asiatic 


846 


Letters 


896 


African 


847 


Satire Humor 


897 


North American 


848 


Miscellany 


898 


South American 


849 


Provencal and Catalan literature 


899 


Malay-Polynesian and other 



THIRD SUMMARY 



SECTIONS 





History 




900 


History 


950 


Asia 


901 


Filosofy 


95i 


China 


902 


Compends Cronologies 


95 2 




903 


Dictionaries 


953 


Arabia 

a n aula 


904 


Essays 


954 


India 


905 


Periodicals 


955 


Persia 


906 


Societies 


956 


Turkey in Asia 


007 


Study and teaching 


957 


Siberia [chistan 


908 


Poligrafy 


958 


Afghanistan Turkistan Balu- 


QOQ 


Universal histories 


959 


Farther India 


\f JIU 


Geografy and travels 


960 


Africa 


911 


Historical 


961 


Mnr+Vi Africa 


912 


Maps 


962 


-"gyP" ^ UDia 


9*3 


Antiquities 


963 


r\.uy obiiiid 


914 


Europe 


964 


1V1UX ULL.U 


9 J 5 


Asia 


965 


Algeria »■ 


016 


Africa 


966 


North Central Africa 


QI7 


North America 


967 


South Central Africa 


Ql8 


South America 


968 


South Africa 


QIQ 


Oceania Polar regions 


969 


Madagascar Mauritius 




Biografy 


970 


North America 


92 1 


Of filosofy 


971 




922 


" theology 


972 


j-vicxicu v^cntrai /vmenca 


9 2 3 


" sociology 


973 


U 111 Cell oLdlcS 


924 


" filology 


974 


in onn rviidntic sua tes 


9 2 5 


" science 


975 


SrmtVi At1cm+ir» ctafpc 

OL/LIL11 il. Clctll otCtLCo 


026 


u useful arts 


976 


South Central or Gulf states 


927 


" fine arts 


977 


Northeast Central or Lake u 


92.8 


" literature 


978 


Western or Mountain u 


929 


Genealogy Heraldry 


979 


Pacific states 




Ancient history 


980 


South America 


93 1 


China 


981 


r>rdzii 


93 2 


Egypt 


982 


/Argentina x atagoma 


933 


Judea 


983 




934 


India 


984 


xjyJH v Id 




Medo-Persia 


985 


Peru 


936 


Kelts 


986 


Colombia Panama Ecuador 


937 


Rome Italy 


987 


Venezuela 


938 


Greece 


988 


Guiana 


939 


Minor countries 


989 


Paraguay Uruguay 


940 


Europe 


990 


Oceania Polar regions 


941 


Scotland Ireland 


99 1 


Malaysia 


942 


England Wales 


Q02 

001 
yyo 


Sunda 


943 


Germany Austria Czecho- 


Australasia 


944 


slovakia Poland Hungary 
France 


Australia 


7TJ 


Italy 


995 


New Guinea 


946 


Spain Portugal 


996 


Polynesia 


947 


Russia 


997 


Isolated ilands 


948 


Norway Sweden Denmark 


998 


Arctic regions 


949 


Minor countries 


999 


Antarctic regions 



Complete tables 

including all the 

SUBSECTIONS 



General works 



oio Bibliografy 



.1 Theory, utility, etc. .2 Compends .3 Dictionaries .4 Essays .5 Periodicals 
.6 Societies .7 Education, training, see also 020.7; .8 Polygrafy .9 History 

on General bibliografies Universal catalogs 

on is by Authors. If by Subjects they go in 016 

Properly a catalog is of a special collection and so tells where the works may be 
found. A bibliografy disregards actual location and tells what there is, but its con- 
tents can seldom be found in any one library 

012-016 include both bibliografies and catalogs. 017-019 is limited to catalogs of 
general collections 

012 Of individuals 

Alfabeted by subjects of bibliografies (bibliograf ees) , not by compilers; e. g. Chaucer, 
Dante, Ruskin, etc. 

A bibliografy of an Individual may include either works about or by the individual, 
or both 

Authors on whom special collections are being made (e. g. in 800) attract their 
bibliografies to same number, leaving only a reference here. Other individual 
bibliografies class here, unless clearly limited to some subject; e. g. artists or 
musicians, bibliografy of Wagner 016.782 

013 Of special classes of authors 

Subdivided like the general classification, as indicated below. Lists of writings 
of such classes, if limited to a special subject, class with that subject; e.g. list 
of historical works by Jesuits 016.9. But in exceptional cases the bibliografy 
of a special class of authors may be put with that class; e.g. bibliografy of 
women's writings 396.58, tho 013.396 would be the better number in a general 
library 

.0206 Writings of members of ALA 

.064 " " " " French academy 

.282 " " Roman catholics 

.378744 " " Harvard graduates 

.9 Writings of foren residents in a special country 

Often extended to one or more generations of descendants. This provides tot 
bibliografies in which nationalty, not subject, is the important idea 

.91 Authors from special country 

Divided like 930-999 by country of origin and farther subdivided with 
o like 930-999 by country of adoption; e.g. 013 .91485 bibliograf y of writings 
of Swedes outside Sweden, 013.91485044 writings of Swedes in France, 
013.9148507 of Swedes in America. This groups under mother country; 
e.g. gathers together all lists of works by emigrant Swedes 

•93°~999 Foren authors in special country 

Usually preferable to .91. Divided like 930-999 by country of adop- 
tion and farther subdivided with o like 930-999 for country of origin; 
e.g. 013.944 foren authors in France; 013.973 foren authors in U S, 
013-9730485 Swedish authors in U S; 013.9485073 American authors in 
Sweden. Ordinarily 013.94807 would be explicit enough; the longer 
number is not advised. This groups under adopted country; e.g. gathers 
under a given country all its foren authors 

014 Of special forms : anonyms, pseudonyms, etc. 

.1 American .2 English .3 German, etc. 



BIBLIOGRAFY 







015 Of special countries 

Books publisht in the country. Publishers lists, current publications. Subdivided 
by countries like 940-999; e. g. 015.42, Bibliografy of books publisht in England, as 
Lowndes or English catalog 

The history of literature, i. e. belles lettres, poetry, drama, fiction, etc. goes, of course, 
with those topics in 800; but the literary history of any given place or period covering 
the writings on all subjects as well as in literature, is bibliografy, and goes usually 
in ois, tho the literary history of some special class is 013 



016 Of special subjects 



Subdivided like the main classification, from 000-999; e. g. 016.01 Bibliografy ot 
bibliografies; 016.091, of manuscripts; 016.5, of science; 016.942, of English history, 
etc. 

See also next note 

Library and sale catalogs 

Catalogs of any special subject, whether subject, author, or dictionary, go under its 
subject number, in 016, which is the ruling heding wherever it conflicts with another. 
017-019 therefore includes only catalogs of general collections, limited to no one class 
or subject 

Under 017-019, 4 means catalogs of books for sale, not publisht, by booksellers. For 
publishers catalogs see 015 

017 Clast catalogs: systematic or logical 

.1 Public .2 Private .3 Auction .4 Booksellers 

Class here author and subject lists bound together, as they are much oftener used to 
see what has been written on some subject than whether a library has a certain 
book 

For all forms of alfabetic subject catalogs, see 019. See 016 for Bibliografies 

018 Author catalogs See oil for Bibliografies 

.1 Public .2 Private .3 Auction .4 Booksellers 

A volume containing both author and subject catalogs is more useful in 017. For 
auction catalogs of private libraries use 018.2, not 018.3. 018 includes accession, 
chronologic, and any other forms (except subject and dictionary) of catalogs of col- 
lections 

019 Dictionary catalogs Alfabeticoclast, etc. 

.1 Public .2 Private .3 Auction .4 Booksellers 



020 Library economy 



SUMMARY 

020-025 Science and administration of libraries in general 

021 Scope, founding, supporting 

022 Bildings and grounds 

023 Government and servis 

024 Regulations 

025 Administration 

026-027 Special libraries and collections; history, 
description and management 

026 Libraries on special subjects 

027 General libraries 
028-029 Allied subjects 

028 Reading and aids 

029 Literary methods 

REFERENCES TO OTHER MATERIAL 

010 Bibliografy 
090 Book rarities 

020.1 Theory 

.14 Library terms, definitions, etc. Discussion. For dictionaries, glossaries, etc. see 020.3 

,2 Compends .3 Dictionaries .4 Essays .5 Periodicals 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



020.6 

.61 

.62 

.62 I 

.622 

.623 

.624 

.625 



.626 
.627 

.63 
65 

7 

71 

.711 

712 

7i3 
714 
715 



716 

717 

718 

719 

72 

73 

74 

75 
76 

77 

,78 

79 
,8 

.81 
,82 
,822 

83 
84 
85 

.86 

87 
.88 

9 



Societies, associations, clubs, conferences 

Official institutions; government departments 

For library commissions see 021.82 
Societies not under government control 
International associations 
National 
State 

Local clubs 

Associations of special groups 

State librarians, or class in 027.506 
Medical " " " " 026.6106 

Sunday school " " " 027.8 

Library dep't of N E A or class with subject in 021.3 
Mutual benefit associations 
Or class in 023 .59, if preferd 
ALA publishing board 
For library leags see 021 .3 
Congresses, conferences, meetings, temporary organizations 
Commercial establishments Library Bureau 
For commercial circulars see 020.85 

Education Training Library schools 

Instruction, schools 

Standards location, cost, etc 
Library schools 

Use letter for each school, and if desired divide like 378 A-Z 
Summer schools 

Apprentis classes Training classes 
Correspondence schools 
Library institutes 

Similar to teachers institutes; local meetings with a conductor, for ais- 

cussion of practical problems 
Courses in colleges and universities 
Courses in normal and high schools 

Private schools and instruction 
Research work 

Museums, exhibits 

Collections of illustrativ appliances, blanks, etc 



Special pedagogic methods 

Competitions, prizes, traveling scholarships 
Polygrafy 

Individual polygrafy 
Collectiv " 

Extracts, maxims, anthologies 
Recipes 

Commercial circulars 

See also 020.65 Commercial establishments 



Curiosa, anecdotes, library humor, dummy book titles 
History of library economy 

For history of libraries both public and private see 027 

Lives of librarians are clast in 920.2. To keep them with the subject use 
020.92, and for fotografs of librarians 020.921. Collected lives may be sepa- 
rated from individual by use of the Olin booknumbers (following Index) 



LIBRARY ECONOMY 



021 Scope, usefulness and founding of libraries 

Also scope and founding of combined libraries and museums. Support, develop 
ment 

.01 Arguments for libraries: purpose, benefits 

Impressivness of libraries. Discussion of free public libraries is better clast 
here than in 027 .4 

.02 Arguments against libraries: evils of libraries 

For paternalism in library see 021.201 

.03 Progress and future of libraries 

Reforms, improvements, projects, plans, profesies, library ideals 

.04 Ideals for special communities 

e.g. what a library can do for a manufacturing community 

.1 Library as a storehouse 

.16 Character of material appropriate to library 
.2 Library as an educator; people's university 

Material on private reading is better in 028 than in 021 .2 

While the work of a library is nearly all educational in a broad sense, the rela- 
tions of the library to special classes of the community, outside of direct educa- 
tional work thru schools and home education work, ar best clast with libraries 
for special classes in 027.6, or when a special subject predominates, in 026 

.201 Paternalism in library 

See also 024.58 Library censorship of news, 024.674 Restriction of immoral 
books, 025.217 Exclusion of immoral or il made books 

.25 Library as a publisher 

.26 " bookseller 

.28 Work for special classes of users 

Physicians, lawyers, clergymen, women, foreners, etc. See also 021.3 

.3 Library in relation to schools and the young 

This is mainly for relations of general public libraries to school work. Class a 
library ownd by and kept at the school in 027.8. School libraries, 371.6, is 
only to keep all school material together under 370. Class general work for 
children with children's libraries in 027.6 

.31 Relations to teachers 
.32 " pupils 

Librarian's talks to pupils, either at schoolhouses or at library, on use of 
library 

•33 Special libraries for schools 

Specially selected from general library and lent to school either for class or 
general school use. Duplicates for schools 

•34 

.37 Work of individual libraries with schools 

Alfabeted by library; e.g. accounts of work with schools by Hartford public 
library under Hartford, by Osterhout library at Wilkesbarre under Osterhout 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



Home education 

This includes all servises or added fields of work undertaken by the library 
outside the use of books. For programs, reports, etc. of home education agen- 
cies, see 374 . i--9 

Study clubs Reading circles, etc. 
Conferences, conventions, institutes, etc. 

Lectures 

For extension courses, see 021 .44 

Extension courses Lecture study 
Entertainments: dramatic, musical, etc. 
Museums and temporary exhibits 

Science museums or collections 

Art galleries 
Library as ja recreation 

Serving refreshments; e. g. tea „ 

Library extension and cooperation 

For work done by the state see 021 .8 

Deliveries 

See also 025.6 and 022.16 

Branches 

See also 022.15 

Centralization Grouping of libraries 
Cooperation between libraries 

Cooperation in any special department is clast with the department; e.g 
interlibrary lending 025.6 

Traveling libraries 

A collection (usually 25 to 100 volumes) either general or on one subject, 
lent to a community, library, study club or other organization. Book wagon 

House libraries 

A small traveling library for use of a person or household. Originated 
at New York state library for isolated students 

Home libraries 

Small libraries for children, each library kept at home of some child for 
use of a group, under supervision of a visitor. The libraries travel from 
group to group. Originated by Boston Children's aid society 

Founding Developing and maintaining interest 

This is mainly for starting a library, interesting people and bringing them to 
the library. For most special methods of interesting those who ar alredy 
readers see 025 .5 and 025 .6 

Personal canvass, visits and correspondence 

Circulars 

Advertizing 

In newspapers, posters, street cars, etc 

Press Publicity 

Discussion of use of newspaper colums (editorials, articles, letters, new book 

lists, etc.) to secure interest 

Schools and teachers 

Churches and ministers Pulpit 

Literary and other organizations and institutions 

Lectures Public meetings and addresses 

Library propaganda 

Societies, local or general, for encouragement and stimulation 



LIBRARY ECONOMY 



.8 Libraries and the state Library legislation 

.81 State supervision 

.82 Library departments or commissions 

Special work done by commissions 13 clast by its subject. Reports of com- 
missions, if largely a summary of the public libraries of the state, go in 027 . 4 
If important to keep all work of commissions together, class their reports 
here 

.83 Government aid 

.831 State grants of money 

.832 Local subsidies 

.84 Gifts of books 

.841 Public documents, etc. 

.842 Copyright books 

.85 Exchanges 

See 025 . 266 for systems of exchanges, management, routine in individual 
libraries. This number is for general exchanges by state cr central authority 

.851 Local 
.852 Foren 

Vattemare international exchanges, Smithsonian exchanges 

.86 Privileges 

.861 Remitted duties Free importation 

.862 Free postage Franking privilege 

.863 Lower rates or special facilities Cheap library post 

.s? 

.88 State or local hindrances Politics 
.89 Library legislation 

General; laws for a special subject ar clast with the subject; e.g. law for a 
library commission 021.82; law against injuring library books 024.8 

.891 National legislation 

.892 State " 

.893 Local legislation (county, city or village) 

.894-. 899 Legislation in special countries or places 

Divided like 940-999 

.9 Support, raising funds, etc. 

For state aid separate from local help see 021 .8 

.91 Taxes Appropriations Subsidies 

.92 Endowment 

.93 Gifts of money or books 

See also 021.84 Government gifts 

.94 Bequests 
.95 Subscriptions 

.96 Lectures Fairs Entertainments, etc. 

For raising money. For educational purposes sec 021.43- 45 

.97 Membership fees 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



022 

.1 

.1 1 



•i3 
.14 

•15 
.16 

•'7 
.2 

,2 1 

.22 

.23 
24 

•25 

.26 

•27 
.28 

•29 
3 

•3 1 



•32 

•33 
•34 
•34i 

•342 



Library bildings 

See also 727.8 Architecture For care of bilding see 025.9 

Location, site, etc. 

Location with reference to field of work 

Accessibility to population servd, to other libraries, educational institu- 
tions, etc. 

Site 

With reference to space, air, light, soil, slope of ground, etc. 

Provision for growth New bildings 

Branches 
Delivery stations 
Newsrooms, reading rooms, etc. 
Material, protection 

Material: wood, brick, stone, steel, glass, etc. 

Relativ fitness for library bildings. See also 620.11 Strength of materials; 
691 Bilding materials 



Fireproof construction 
Protection against fires 

Location and relativ efficiency of apparatus: hose, extinguishers, chemic 
engins, standpipes, etc. For watchman see 025.9. See also 614.84 Fire 

protection 

Library fires, burning of libraries 
Insurance 

Other dangers 

Flood, earthquake, cyclone, war, etc. 

Design Plans Construction 

Alfabet plans, elevations, exteriors, general descriptions, etc. by name of 
library. Use .31-. 33 only for indexing 

By kind of library 

Divided like 027. Group plans for public libraries, 022.314, in 3 subsections 
022.3141 Libraries under 20,000, small; i.e. under this number list 
plans of such libraries, but shelv them in theii alfabetic place 
under 022.3 
.3142 Libraries from 20,000-100,000, medium 
.3143 Libraries over 100,000, large 

By subject 

Divided like 026; e.g. under 022.3234 list plans of law libraries so that they 
may be redily referd to in 022.3, or in journals or reports clast elsewhere 

By country 

Divide like 930-999 and use like 02 2. 3 1-. 3 2 only for reference 

Design and decoration 

Divided like 729 as follows: 

Elevation, style 

Only for general discussion; class elevation of a special library under 
022 .3 

Plan 

Number, distribution and dimensions of rooms; special forms, spiral, 
circular, etc. See note under 022.341 



LIBRARY ECONOMY 



022.343 Artistic forms 

.344 Painted decoration, etc. 

.348 St a in d glass 

.349 Accessories and fixt furniture 

Include paintings, statues, busts, etc. as decoration for bilding. Special 
library furniture, bookcases, loan desks, etc. ar 022.9 

.35 Construction 

Divided like 721. Class here only discussions limited to library bildings 

.36 

.37 Library rooms as part of other bilding 

•38 

.39 Remodeling old bilding 

Either other bildings (churches, residences, etc.) for library purposes, or 
remodeling a library to^_meet modern conditions 

.4 Storage and shelving 

For furnishing of private libraries see 645.63 

.41 Storage 

Capacity per square meter of floor, or running meter of cases; allowance for 
growth 

.42 Shelving round sides of room 

.421 Wall cases 

.422 Alcoves 

.423 Galleries 

.43 Stacks 

.431 Stack rooms 

Dimesions, maximum width with natural light only. Number of 
rooms, one or several. Number of floors 

.432 Arrangement of cases 

Parallel, radial; light; open access, supervision 

.433 Movable cases 

.434 Ailes 

Position, width 

.435 Flooring of stack rooms 

Solid, glass, open grating 

.438 Maximum floor load 

.44 Cases, tiers 

.441 Material: wood, metal, glass 

.442 Dimensions of case and tier, hight, length 

See also 022.452 Dimensions of shelf 

.443 Plan of cases 

Open or closed ends and backs; 1 or 2 ledges 

.444 Fixt or movable shelvs 

.445 Quarto and folio shelving 

.45 Shelvs 
.451 Material 

Wood, metal, glass, stone, sheet iron, skeleton steel 

.452 Dimensions: length, depth, thickness; standard shelf 

.453 Surface finish or covering 

Paint, varnish, cloth or lether covering 

.454 Shelf supports: pins, brackets 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



022.46 Cases and shelvs for large books, lying flat 

Dimensions, sliding or roller shelvs, etc. 

.47 Closed cases Doors: glass, screen or wood 

.48 Special cases 

.481 Hanging presses 

.482 New-book cases 

.483 

.484 

.485 Cases for maps, engravings, etc. 

.486 Cases for fotografs 

.487 Cases for lantern slides 

.5 Reading rooms 

See also 022.63 Rooms for special material 

.51 General reading room Central hall 

.52 Small reading rooms Study rooms 

Gallery study tables. For seminar and class rooms see 032.65 

.53 Reference room 

.54 Standard library 

•56 

•57 Women's room 

.58 Children's room 

.6 Administration and special rooms 

.61 Rooms for trustees or outside organizations 

.6ti For trustees 

.612 " committees, commission, school board 
.613 

.614 For local societies 

.62 Administration rooms 

Divided like 025 

.63 Rooms for special material 

Divided like 025 . 17; e.g. 022.6332 Newsrooms 

.64 Special collections: patents, local history, etc. 

.65 Instruction rooms, etc. 

.651 Lecture room or hall, theater, concert 

.653 Seminar room, class room 

.655 Museum 

.656 Art gallery 

.657 Exhibition room 

.658 Fotografic and dark room 

.659 Piano and music room 



LIBRARY ECONOMY 



022.66 Recreation rooms 

.661 Conversation room 

.662 Chess room 

.663 Other games 

.664 Billiards 

.665 Bowling 

.666 Gymnasium 

.67 

.68 Other rooms Lavatories, etc. 

For helth, comfort or convenience 

.681 Entrance halls and corridors 

.682 Waiting room 

.683 Telefone booth or room 

.684 Lunch room 

.685 Coat room 

.686 Toilet room, lavatories, etc. 

.687 Garage, bicycle room, etc. 

.69 Residence quarters 

.691 Librarian 

.695 Janitor 

.7 Lighting 

.7r Natural lighting; windows 

For architectural side see 022.358; for staind glass see 022.348 

Position of windows; size and number; shape. Provision for opening: 

sliding, hinged or pivot sash, French casement 



72 


Skylights 


73 


Prisms 


74 




75 


Artificial lights: materials 


75* 


Lamps, oil, etc. 


752 


Gas 


753 


Acetylene 


754 


Electricity 


76 


Fixtures 


762 


Portable or semiportable lights 


763 


Table lights 


764 


Standards 


.765 


Bracket lamps 


.766 


Chandeliers 


•77 


Lighting of stacks by electricity 




Fixt or movable lights 


.8 


Heating and ventilation 



General hygiene of library. Divided like 697 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



022.9 Fixtures, furniture, fittings 

.91 General furniture 

. q 1 1 Chairs 

.012 Tables 

913 Desks 

914 Revolving cases 
.915 Bases 

916 Vertical files 

See also 651.236 Offis equipment 

.918 Counters 

.92 Public conveniences 

.921 Hatracks 

.922 Umbrella stands 

.923 Clocks 

.924 Bulletin boards 

.93 Furniture for exhibiting or using books, pictures, etc. 

.931 Exhibition cases, fixt or movable 

.932 Wing frames 

.933 Easels 

.934 Reference book holders 

.935 Magazine and newspaper racks, files, etc. 

.94 Appliances for getting or carrying books or messages 

.941 Ladders, stepladders 

.942 Book trucks 

.943 Carrying trays 

.944 Mechanical carriers 

See also 621.867 Conveyers, Telferage 

.945 Book lifts 

.946 Pneumatic tubes 

.947 Speaking tubes 

.948 Interdepartment telefones 

See also 621.3853 Intercommunicating telefones 

.95 Elevators 

For carrying persons, goods, etc. See also 621.877. Class here only dis- 
cussion of them for library use. For book lifts see 022.945 

.96 Floor coverings 

For permanent flooring see 022.356 

.961 Linoleum, corticine 

.962 Matting 

.963 Carpets 

.964 Rugs 

.965 Door mats: rubber, wire, etc. 

•97 

.98 

.99 Desk fittings, etc. 

Divided like 651.465 



LIBRARY ECONOMY 



023 Government and servis Personnel 

For government of special kinds of libraries see 026 and 027 

.1 Constitution and bylaws for governing board 

Charters. Local ordinances, etc. 

.2 Appointment and tenure of offisers under governing board 

State or local civil servis. Special library examinations. Promotions. Pro- 
bationary appointments. Temporary or limited period appointments. Ap- 
pointments by executiv offiser 

.3 Governing board 

Trustees, committees, directors, regents, etc. 

.31 Method of selection 

Election, appointment, exofficio trustees, close corporation, i.e. self perpetu- 
ating body 

.32 Number 

.33 Qualifications 

.34 Women as trustees 

.35 Powers and duties 

.36 Financial administration 

•37 

.38 Time and place of meetings 

.4 Executiv Consulting librarian Library expert 

For appointment see 023.2. See also 023. 5-. 9, which apply to executiv as 
well as to staf 

.43 Responsibilities and privileges 
.5 Staf 

Including all subordinate positions. For method of appointment see 023 . 2 

.51 Qualifications 

.52 Personality Character Moral and social equipment 

.53 Mental equipment Natural ability 

.531 General education 

•53 2 Professional education Training 

See also 020.7 Library schools 

•535 Reading of librarians 

.54 Physical equipment Helth Exercise 

• 55 Staf meetings Relations to hed 

.56 Women as librarians 

Including difference in salaries of men and women 

.57 Worries and trials 

.58 Longevity 

.59 Library benefit associations 

See also 020 .^26 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



023.6 Daily hours Holidays and vacations 

.6 1 Daily hours 

.611 Records Record clock 

.612 Punctuality Tardiness 

.62 Hours for meals Lunch room 

See also 022.6 Special rooms 

.63 Special work 

.631 Evening 

.632 Sunday 

.633 Holiday 

.64 Work by hour Overtime, extra hours 

.641 Making up lost time 

.642 Payment for overtime 

.643 Effect of overstrain on employees 

.644 " " on servis 

.65 Holidays 

.651 Weekly half holiday 

.652 Legal holidays 

.66 Vacations 

.661 Time of year 

.662 Length 

.663 Continuous or in instalments 

.664 Sabbatic year 

.67 Absences for sickness or other causes 

See also 023.641 Making up lost time 

.68 Attendance at meetings 

.681 International 

.682 National 

.683 State 

.684 Local 

.7 Titles and duties 

.701 Specialization Monotony Change of 

.702 Understudies 

.71 Executiv Director 

Chief or principal librarian, keeper, etc. 

.72 Department, division or section heds 

Librarians, sublibrarians, chiefs, heds 

• 73 Reference staf or faculty 

Librarians of special subjects 

.74 Assistants Catalogers 



LIBRARY ECONOMY 



023.75 Pupil assistants, apprcntises, volunteers 

Paid mainly by instruction 

.76 Clerical servis 

.761 Stenografers 

.762 Typewriters 

.763 Clerks 

.77 Mechanic servis 

.771 Binders 

.772 Electricians 

.773 Carpenters 

.774 Other mechanics 

.78 Pages, messengers, ushers, runners 

.79 Janitor servis 

.791 Janitor 

.792 Watchman 

.793 Elevatormen 

.794 Attendants, in coat room, etc. 

.795 Porters and packers 

.796 Cleaners, etc. 

.8 Remuneration: salaries, pensions 

Divided like 023.7. See 023.56 for difference between salaries of men and 
women 

.9 Rules for staf Codes 

Made by trustees or librarian 

For punctuality see 023.612. For absences or sick leave see 023.67 

.91 Conversation 

.92 Personal calls or work 

.93 Soliciting money, subscriptions, contributions 

.94 Respect and care for library property 

.95 Uniforms 

.96 Curtesy Indifference 

See also 174 Business ethics; 177. 1 Curtesy (social ethics) 

024 Rules for readers 

For reference and circulating departments 

.1 Readers qualifications 

. 1 1 Age 

.12 Residence 

.13 Relations to community 

Membership in society, club or institution; official position; profession, etc. 

.14 Responsibility 

Reference, guarantor, money deposit 

. 1 5 Registration 

.16 " for limited period 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



024.2 Fees Assessments Free use 

21 Membership fees 

Mercantil libraries, atheneums 

22 Book fees 

Circulating library fees. For fines see 024.6 

,23 Fees for readers card, etc. 

For petty expenses to gard against wastefulness 

,24 

25 Extra library fees; e. g. college library 

26 Public library fee 

For subscription departments see 024.7 

27 

,28 Free use 

.3 Hours of opening 

,3 1 Number of hours 

.32 Time of day: morning, afternoon 

.33 Evening opening 

.34 All night " 

.35 Intermission for meals 

Closing library during lunch, dinner or supper hours 

.36 Hours for reference and circulating departments 
.37 Cooperation of local libraries 

Agreement on hours so that some library shal always be open 

,4 Days of opening or closing 

.41 Sunday 
,42 Special religious days 
.43 Holidays 
.44 Vacation, summer 
,45 Inventory Examination 

Closing for annual examination of library 

,46 Special occasions 

Closing for recataloging or rearrangement; public calamity, deths 

.47 Closing for epidemics 

.5 Reference use 

.51 Reading room rules 
.52 Decorum in library 

Unwelcome visitors; library cranks 

,53 Ladies in reading room 

For women's separate reading room see 022.57 

,54 Access to catalogs 

For access to librarian see 023 .43 

55 Open reference shelvs 
,56 Open shelvs in general 

57 Restricted or selected access to shelvs 

Restriction as to persons or subjects 

58 Library censorship of news 

Obliteration or suppression, in reading room copies, of newspaper reports 
tending to lower morals; e.g. betting and racing news, reports of crime, 
criminal trials. See also 021.201 Paternalism 



LIBRARY ECONOMY 



024.6 Home use Loans 

.61 Number of books 

.611 Two book system 

.612 Summer vacation cards 

.62 Time: 7-day books, new periodicals 

.63 Delinquencies Fines 

For injuries, etc. see 024.8 

.64 Renewals 

Extension of loans by library 

.65 Relending 

Lending by borrowers 

.66 Reservations 

.67 Restricted books 
.671 Reference 
.672 Rare or costly 

.673 Medical 

.674 Of immoral tendency Library inferno 

See also 021.201 Paternalism 

.68 Interlibrary loans 

.681 International loans 

.7 Special privileges 

.71 Extra books Teachers cards 

.72 Extra time 

.73 Remission of fines Excuses 

.74 Favord classes: trustees, faculty, staf 

.77 Lending restricted books 

.78 Subscription department 

Novels and popular new books lent for fee. Extra copies for rent in public 
(tax supported) libraries 

.8 Injuries Abuses 

.81 Defacements 

Marks; corrections, notes and comments 

.82 Mutilation 

.83 Removal of plates, maps, etc. 

.84 Mutilating newspapers 

.85 Losses by readers; payment 

.86 Thefts 

.87 Restitutions 

.88 

.89 Prevention of abuse 

Methods of preventing injury and inducing better care of books. For 
library leag see 027 .6 

.9 Other rules 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



Administration Departments 



SUMMARY 

Supervision 025.1 Executiv 
Acquisition .2 Accession 

Utilization .3 Catalog 

.4 Classification 

. s Reference 

. 6 Loan 
Preservation . 7 Binding 

.8 Shelf 

.9 Care of bilding 

025 is for the librarian's part. The trustees bild and furnish (022); make rules 
for government and servis (023), and regulations for readers (024); but the 
administration involvs questions of its own, which, however, ar closely allied 
to topics in 021-024 and elsewhere; e. g. the librarian must know his side of 
binding, and be able to giv proper directions and supervision, but need not know 
all the details of the binder's craft (686) 

Administration includes .1 Supervision .2 Acquisition .3-. 6 Utilization 
.7-.Q Preservation; i. e. the librarian's duty to books is to Get, Use, Keep * 

i Executiv General supervision 

1 1 Finances 

See also 023.36 Financial administration of governing board 

1 1 1 Invested funds, endowments, gifts 

See also 021 .9 Support 

112 Appropriations: local or state 

See also 021 .8 Libraries and the state 

1 13 Other money receivd 

Fees, assessments, fines, payments for special servises and investigations, 
etc. 

1 14 Accounts: receits and expenses, bookkeeping 

1 1 5 Salary payments Staf payrolls 

See also 023 .8 Salaries 

116 Expenses: fittings, supplies and incidentals 

Class with a department supplies peculiar to it. their kind, quality, cost, 
etc.; e.g. catalog cards with 025.3. For bookbuying see 025.2 

117 

1 18 Cost of preparing books for shelvs 

1 2 Printing and publications 

Both preparation of material and details of printing, including size, style, 
type, etc. 

121 Blanks and forms, stationery 

If relating to a special department class with it; e.g. bookplates in 025.2 

122 Publications 

123 Reports and statistics 

See also 027 

124 Catalogs 

See also 017-019. For cataloging see 025.3 

125 Bulletins 

Frequency, advertisements, etc. Sae also 017-019. For preparation of book 
lists see 025.3; for newspipsr publication of new bDok lists, see 021.74 

126 Library magazine or paper 
127 

128 

129 Duplicating by neostyle, carbon, etc. 

For machines and processes see 652. Class here discussion of fitness for 
library applications only 



LIBRARY ECONOMY 



025.15 Correspondence 
.151 Stationery 

Material, weight, size and headings 

.152 Stenografers, dictation machines 

.153 Typewriters 
.154 Copiers 

Roller, press, carbons, portable. See also 025.129 

.156 Letter files , 

See 651 for methods 

.17 Treatment of special material 

For general discussions of arrangement, care and use. Class special work under 
each department: e.g. cataloging of incunabula in 025.3 

.171 Manuscripts, archives and rarities 

Divided like 090 

.172 Pamflets 

.173 Serials, documents, etc. 

1 Periodicals, magazines, etc. 

2 Newspapers 

3 Annual reports 

4 Documents; national, state aud local 
.174 Broadsides 

.175 Clippings 

.176 Maps and charts 

177 Art material 

Engravings, fotografs, drawings, lantern slides 

.178 Music: scores, rolls, etc. 

.179 Museum material 

.18 Administration of individual libraries 

Alfabet by name of library. For administration of special kinds of libraries 
see 026 and 027 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



025.2 Accession Acquisition 

SUMMARY 

025.21 The library and its selection 

.22 Methods of acquisition 

.23 Ordering and receiving 

. 24 Accessioning 

.25 Marks of ownership 

.26 Duplicate and exchange department 

.29 Special material 

.21 The library and its selection 

.211 What? Proper proportion of subjects 

Division of funds; endowments for special subjects; accession statistics 

.212 Specialization by libraries 

Division of subjects among local libraries. See also 021.64 Coopera- 
tion. For collections on special subjects, economics, science, etc. sec 
026 

.213 

.214 Who? Selectors of books 

Trustees or trustee committee; librarian; staf committee, book board; 
advisory committee from outside; experts; central body (bibliografic 
bureau, state commission, etc.) 

.215 How? Methods of selection 

Recommendations by readers; personal examination; visits to book 

stores; books sent on approval: printed reviews; first selection for new 

library. Want lists, books under consideration 

For lists of best books, ALA catalog, annual lists, etc. see 016 

For principles of selection and choice of editions see 028.2 

For selection for special classes see 027.6, 027.8, 028.5 

.216 Buying fiction 

Duplicating popular fiction; extra copies of best fiction 

.217 Rejection, exclusion, censorship 

Pernicious literature; badly made books; yellow journals, See also 
021.201 Paternalism 

.218 Weeding out, sifting 

Separating books no longer of servis to library. For withdrawal book 
see 025 . 249 

.22 Methods of acquisition 
.221 Buying new books 

Local bookstore; book center, general agent; publishers; subscription 
agent; bids on special lists; foren books thru home or American agent, 
thru foren agent. See also special material 025.29 

.222 Prices Discounts 

Net books. For free importation, see 021 .861 

.223 Buying old books 

Secondhand catalogs; remainders, trade sales; dealers in old books, 
bookstalls; value of old books 

.224 Auctions 

For auction catalogs see 017-019 

.225 Buying libraries in block 
.226 Exchange 
.227 Gifts 

Request blanks and records; gift lists; acknowledgments; privately 

printed books; propagandist books 

For government documents and copyright books see 021.84 
See 025.268 for gifts from library to library 



LIBRARY ECONOMY 



025.23 Ordering and receiving 

For gifts, see 025 . 227; for exchanges, see 025 . 266 

.23 r Ordering 

Order slips or lists; order books or sheets; copies of orders; order index 
order numbers 

.232 Examination for duplicates and verification 

Misspeld names; changed titles; separates 

.233 Reception and opening 

Express, mail, etc; frequency of shipments; f ree delivery 

.234 Checking bills 

Prices and amounts 

.235 Collation 

.236 Receit index 

.24 Accession book 

.241 Importance of record 

Accession book vs shelflist, etc. 

.242 Printed headings Items Fulness of entries 

.243 Accession number: volume, work or invoice 

.244 Accession stamp 

.249 Withdrawal book 

.25 Ownership marks 

.251 Private marks 

.252 Stamping 

Ink, embossing, or perforating stamp. Table and foot power 

.253 Book plates Plating 

See also 097 

.254 Library name on outside of book 

Gilding or impressing name of library on back or covers 

.255 Card pockets 

.26 Duplicate and exchange departments 
.261 Duplicates 

Definition, rules and decisions, marking, stamp, plate, etc. 

.262 Duplicates of institution's own publications 

Either of library or larger organization including it; e.g. duplicate Colum- 
bia publications in Columbia university library; stock on hand 

.263 Cataloging 

.264 Arrangement 

.265 Sale for cash 

.266 Exchange 

General exchange of publications; exchange accounts 

.267 Clearing house for duplicates 

See also 021.852 Vattemare international exchanges, Smithsonian ex- 
changes 

.268 Gifts to other libraries 
.269 Deposits 

By large libraries in small or in hospitals, prisons, etc. also deposits in 
great collections by individuals or small libraries. See also 025 . 2 18 

.29 Special material 

Divided like 025.17 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



Catalog 

For printed catalogs themselvs, see 017-019. This is for cataloging 
Printed, manuscript, or card; Author, subject, title, clast; Dictionary or 
combined; Cooperativ rules; Size notation; Cooperativ cataloging; 
Duplicated titles, print or photografy; Mechanical accessories, cards, 
cases and fittings, drawers, trays, blocks, checks, guides, labels 

Classification 

For philosofic classification of knowledge, see 112 Methodology. Tl is is 
for practical classing of books, pamflets, and notes, rather than theo- 
retic speculation 

On shelvs; in catalogs; in dictionary catalogs; Systems of notation, fig- 
ures, letters, symbols, combined; Importance and advantages; Diffi- 
culties; Close vs broad classing; Mnemonic features; Basis of division; 
Coordination of special subjects 

Reference Reference books Aids to readers 

See 028 for general discussion of reading and aids. This is limited to 
library administration 

Loan 

See 024 for rules for readers 

Indicators; Charging systems, legers vs cards; Book cards, marks, pockets; 
Call slips, readers cards; Notises, reservs; Registers; Interlibrary loans; 
Mechanical accessories, slip cases, trays, tills, stamps, etc. 

Binding and repair 

See also 686 Bookbinding 

Materials, durability, tight vs spring backs, sewing, color, lettering; Paper 
covers and temporary binders; Restoring, mending, cleaning, and oiling 

Shelf 

See also 022.9, Shelving 

Arrangement; Shelf numbers; Shelf and book labels; Fixt and relativ 
locations; Sizes of shelvs; Arrangement and preservation of public 
documents, pamflets, papers, manuscripts, maps, drawings, and plans, 
music, broadsides, clippings; Chaind books; Injuries, heat, gas, insects; 
Stock taking; Shelf lists 

Bilding: care, cleaning, safety Janitor Police 

See 022 for bilding and fittings. This is janitor's department 



LIBRARY ECONOMY 



026 Libraries on special subjects 

Histories, reports, statistics, bulletins, handbooks, circulais. and every 
thing about the library not more required in preceding sections. Sub. 
divided by adding the class number of subject; e. g. a Medical library 
is 026.61; a Chess library, 026.794; but the catalog of a chess library is 
016.794. Blanks, etc. from any library go under subjects in 025. as more 
used in studying topics; but, if history of individual libraries is special- 
ized, duplicates are also desirable under the library in 026-7, thus mak- 
ing a complete set of its publications 



027 General libraries 

This includes both circulating and reference; i. e. all not limited to specif J 
subjects 

Subdivided if wisht by countries, like 93°-999; e. g. 027.744 College 
libraries in France. Or if wisht, group all by geografic location, using o 
in 4th place to indicate no division by kinds of libraries; e. g. 027.044 
Libraries of France; 027.07471 Libraries of N. Y. city 

A private library is still clast 027.1, after it has been sold or merged in 
a public library. But a society library changed to a free public should 
take 027.4 for all publications after the change 

.1 Private and family 

.2 Proprietary, society, club and Atheneum 

.2 is limited to libraries that are semiprivate, requiring an election for 
admission, while .3 includes all open to any one on payment of a fee. It 
is the difference between a club and a hotel. .3 is for libraries run as a 
business. A mercantil library, even tho it has endowments, if open with- 
out individual election, goes in .3 as a subsidized public subscription 
library. Many private subscription libraries go in .2 

.3 Subscription Circulating 

Mudie's, Booklovers, etc. 

.4 Free public Rate supported Endowd 

Public library commissions. See also 331-85; and 027, last note 

.42 Special kinds of public libraries 

General discussion of county or rural libraries, etc. 

.5 State and government 

.6 For special classes 

Institution, prison, reformatory, asylum, blind, monastic, workmen's, 
factory, railroad, sailors, lighthouse. A workmen's library of books 
on engineering is 026.62, not here, as the subject is more useful than the 
class of readers 

.7 College, university 

For libraries of professional and technical schools see 026 

.8 School Sundayschool Parish 

See also 371.64 Libraries as school equipment; 021.3 Library in relation to 
schools and the young 

.9 Free newsrooms and reading rooms 

See also 331.85 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



028 Reading and aids 

See 374.1-.2 Self education by private reading and reading circles 

.1 Methods 

Tasting, skipping, reviewing, making synopses, abstracts, extracts, and 

index rerums (see 029), book marking 

.2 Choice of editions 

Annotations, indexes, paper, type 

.3 Courses of reading 

Both discussion and lists of books 

For sets of books representing prescribed courses for general culture, e. g. 

Harvard classics, see 080 

.4 Fiction Novel reading 

Discussion. Short selected lists may be put here, tho all fiction lists are 
better together in 016.823 (in German libraries 016.833, French libraries 

016.843, etc.) 

.5 Reading of young Juvenils 

Both discussion and lists of books 

.6 Professorships of books and reading 

Lectures. Stimulus and guidance in schools 

.7 Use of reference books 
.8 Aids to readers 

Guidance, printed or personal. See also 028.6 and 025.5 

.9 Character of reading in libraries 

029 Literary methods and laborsavers 

Much in 025 and 028 belongs equally under 029 in its full meaning, but 
practical convenience is best servd by referring to 025 and 028 insted of 
repeating the heds 

.1 Methods 

Exact reference; standard sizes; use of colors; thought study; intercalation 
or card system (see 025.3); cooperativ methods; records vs memory, etc. 
See 653 Abbreviations and shorthand; 154.1 Mnemonics; 025.4 Classifi- 
cation 

.1 is for what one learns how to do by an improved method 

.2 is for articles which one must make or buy in order to utilize. Where a 

pamflet covers both appliance and method, class with predominant feature 

.2 Appliances Laborsaving tools and devices 

See also 651. Most literary laborsaving devices go also under 651, Ofhs 
equipment and methods; and are best kept together there; e. g. all offis 
and study furniture, fittings and supplies, cases, bookholders, reading 
desks, pigeonholes, files, etc. For pamflet, map, etc. cases, see 025.8; for 
binders, 025.7 

.3 Clippings Scrapbooks or files 

See also Files, 65 1 

.4 Notebooks, notetaking, abstracting, etc. 

.5 Indexing Index rerums Printed and patent indexes 

For alfabeting and transliteration see 025.3 

.6 Authorship Writing for press Copy and proof 

See also 655.25 Proofreading; 655.52 Relations to publishers 

•7 

.8 
•0 



GENERAL WORKS 



030 General cyclopedias 

Subdivided by using for 3d figure: 1 American; 2 English; 3 German; 4 French; 
5 Italian; 6 Spanish; 7 Slavic; 8 Scandinavian; 9 Other; e.g. American cyclopedias, 031 

040 General collected essays 

Subdivided like 030 

050 General periodicals Magazines 

. T. 1 Subdivided like 030 L < - D S~ I • ^ 

060 General learned societies 

Subdivided by using for 3d figure: 1 American; 2 English; 3 German; 4 Frenches 
Italian; 6 Spanish; 7 Slavic; 8 Other; e. g. Acad6mie des sciences morales et politiques, 
064 

Academies of Paris, Berlin, Vienna, etc. Societies on a specific subject go with that 
subject; e. g. 550.6 Geologic societies. See also 360 Institutions and associations, for 
filanthropic, political, social and similar organizations 

069 Museums 

The following classification is the work of a ccmmittee of the American Association 
of Museums, consisting of Laurence Vail Coleman, chairman, Edmund Otis Hovey, 
Henry W Kent and Harold L Madison 

It is now publisht tentativly, subject to revision before republication, and the topics 
ar therefore not yet included in the index. It has been developt primarily for 
museum use and many subjects ar included fcr which provision is made elsewhere 
in the main classification. For these it is recommended that in general the other 
number be used, e. g. for science museums 507. By these specializing on museum 
material an M, a dash, or some other- arbitrary sign may, if wisht for brevity, be 
substituted for the basic number c6o 

.01 Theory 

Objectivs and ideals, benefits and evils, scope and future of museums. Includes 
general adaptations to a community. Also includes such matters as ' The museum 
as a storehouse ', ' People's university ', etc. unless material is sufficiently specific 
for Museum instruction 069. I5> Collections 069.5. etc. 

.011 General public museums 

.012 National State 

.013 City Local 

.014 Association 

.015 College University 

.016 Scool Children's 

.017 Private 

.018 Other 

.019 Museums on special subjects 

Discussion of possible range of museum subjects 

Subdivided like main classification; e. g. 069.0195 museums of natural science, 069.0197 
museums of art 

.02 Compends 
.03 Glossaries 

For museum terms in general. For glossaries of special subjects see subjects 

.04 Essays 

On museums and museum economy in general. For essays on special subjects see 
subjects 

.05 Periodicals Directories 

For periodicals devoted to museum economy. Not to be confused with periodicals 
devoted to science, art, history etc. which, if publisht by a museum and clast in 069, 
belong in 069.7, but wnich would as a general practis better be clast with their subjects 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



069.06 Associations Congresses Conferences 

Discussion. Reports, proceedings etc. 

.061 American .065 Italian 

1 American Assn of Museums .066 Spanish 

.062 English .067 Slavic 

.063 German .068 Scandinavian 

.064 French .069 Other 

Clas the reports etc. of international bodies under the number corresponding to the 
location of the museum or library, if that language is regularly used in the publica- 
tions; e. g. if proceedings ar regularly publisht in English, French, German and Spanish, 
clas in an American institution in 069.061, in a French institution in 069.064. If the 
vernacular is not regularly used in the proceedings, clas with the best known language 
of the publication 

.07 Education Teaching Training Study 

.071 Training in subject matter (sciences, arts, etc.) 

Courses, scools, scolarships. Divide by subject like 069.019 
.075 Training in museum economy 

Museum scools, pupil assistants, apprentises, volunteers 

.08 Poligrafy 

.081 Individual 
.082 Collectiv 

2 Extracts Maxims Antholog'es 
.088 Curiosa .Anecdotes Museum humor 
.09 History of museums and the museum idea 

Divide geograficly like 940-999, and within groups arrange alphabeticly by names of 
institutions. For history of special topics see topics. For association publications and 
discussion of association functions see 069.06 

.1 Founding Educational activity Cooperation 

. 1 1 Founding Developing and maintaining interest 

May be subdivided like 021.7 

. 1 2 Reserch 

For discussion of relations of museums to reserch 

.121 Cooperativ reserch 
.122 Joint expeditions 

For discussion. Clas tecnique of expeditions in 069.49 

.13 Exhibit servis 

Lending collections to scools and other institutions; also giving collections to 
scools as a regular servis. For loan of material under special conditions see 

069.516 

.14 Slide, film and lantern servis 

Including loan of written lectures to accompany slides 

.141 Sale Exchange 

.142 Loans to general public 

.143 Loans to scools 

. 1 5 Museum instruction 

Including lectures, docent servis, children's hours, etc. Put here notes on 
facilities for accomodating visiting classes, unless more appropriate under 069.2 

,151 Information bureau 
152 Lectures 

Including lectures deliverd outside the museum 

i Lecture bureaus 

Including publications of such bureaus, unless (as preferably) clast with sub- 
ject 

.153 Docent servis 



MUSEUMS 



069.154 Work for children 





Miscellaneous activities 


I 


Museum games 


•iS5 


Clubs 




For nonprofessional organizations only 


.156 


Excursions 


•157 


Teacher training 


.16 


Intermuseum relations 


.162 


Joint membership and privileges 


.163 


Staf exchanges 


5 


Directories of experts 


.165 


Cooperativ exhibits 



For discussion of exhibits prepared for the use of several museums in turn or 
held under the joint auspices ot several museums in the same locality. For 
regular circulating exhibits see 069.13 

.166 Other cooperativ relations 

Buying, production 

.167 Branch museums 

. 1 7 Relations with other bodies 

.171 Relations with the public 

1 Museums and conservation 

4 Tenure of property 

Clas here discussions of ownership, lease of land, etc. contracts with civil gov- 
ernment for joint maintenance, etc. For Finance see 069.64 

5 Relations with visitors 

Including days and hours of opening, attendance, pay days, admission fees, etc. 

6 Relations with members 

.172 Relations with primary and secondary scools 

Clas here general statements, even tho including some material belonging under 
other heds 

.173 Relations with other scools 

1 Colleges Universities 

2 Art scools 

3 Industrial scools 

4 Medical scools 

.174 Relations with zoos, aquariums, botanic gardens, etc. 

.175 Relations with business world 

.176 Relations with reserch institutions, foundations, etc. 

.177 Relations with Boy scouts, Girl scouts, etc. 

.178 Relations with 

1 Government departments, bureaus etc. 

2 Institutions for defectivs Hospitals 

3 Religious institutions 

Churches, Y M C A, Y W C A, etc. 

4 Libraries 

5 Societies, clubs etc. 
.179 Other 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



069.2 Bildings 

Here ar clast general works on museum bildings, and works including descriptions and 
pictures of a considerable number of bildings. Descriptions and pictures of an indi- 
vidual museum ar best clast with the history of that museum in 069.09 

.21 Location, site etc. 

.211 Location, environment 

With reference to accessibility, fire risk, nuisances etc. 

.212 Site 

Fisical conditions, orientation: space, air, light, soil, slope of ground, etc. 

.213 Provision for expansion 

.214 Improvement of grounds and courts 

.22 Materials Construction 

Including preservation and repair 

.221 Foundations 

.222 Walls Exterior 

.223 Roofs Roofing 

.224 Floors Flooring Floor coverings 

.225 Cielings Interior walls Wallcoverings 

.226 Windows Doors Gates 

.227 Stairs Fire escapes 

.229 Other constructions 

.23 Design Decoration 

.231 Elevation 

.232 Plan 

Including provision for growth. For allocation of museum functions in plan 
of bilding see 069.24 

.233 Artistic forms 

.234 Painted decoration 

.235 Decoration in relief 

.236 Incrustation and veneering 

.237 Mosaic . 

.238 Staind glas design 

.239 Architectural accessories 

Including de orativ statuary, fountains, pools etc. For fireplaces see 069.2931 

.24 Allocation of museum functions in bilding 

Including discussion of kind of rooms (educational, administrativ, servis etc.) 
to be reckond with, and their relativ location in a museum bilding 

.241 Special rooms 

May be arranged alphabeticly. Includes museum rooms in scool bildings, 
libraries, etc. 

.241-. 279 reserved for design and construction of specific rooms, whether for 
exhibits, administration or other use 

. 2 8 Reconstruction 

.281 Remodeling 

.282 Catastrof es Reconstruction 

.29 Servis equipment 

Includes machinery, fixtures and fittings 

.291 Plumbing 
.292 Lighting 

For fixtures particularly suitable for special rooms see 069.36 



MUSEUMS 



069.293 Heating and ventilating 

1 Fireplaces 

2 Stoves 

3 Hot air Furnaces 

4 Hot water 

5 Steam 

6 Gas 

7 Electricity 

8 Flues Chimneys 

9 Ventilating and humidity regulating equipment 

.294 Power equipment 

6 Vacuum and comprest air apparatus 

.295 Elevators Dumb waiters 

.296 Means of communication 

1 Telefones Speaking tubes 

2 Bells Buzzers Alarms 

3 Pneumatic tubes 

.297 Fire-fighting equipment : hose, sprinklers, extinguishers etc. 

.298 Incinerators 

.299 Other servis equipment 

.3 Equipment Furnishings Supplies 

For servis equipment see 069.29 

.31 Exhibit cases 

For other cases see purpose for which used 

.311 Generalities 

1 Size Shape Dimensions 

2 Material Finish Construction Joinery 

3 Covering and color for background and floor 

4 Doors Locks Devices for opening and closing 

5 Shelvs Diaframs Steps Interior equipment 

6 Lighting 

7 Devices for moving 

8 Ventilation Dust and pest proofing Humidification Dessication 

9 Other 

.312 Horizontal cases 

1 Wall 

2 Desk 

3 Table 

5 Floor 

6 Desk 

7 Table 
.313 Vertical cases 

1 Wall 

5 Floor 

8 A'cove 

.314 Combination cases 

1 Wall 

5 Floor 

8 Alcove 

.315 Screens Swinging frames 

.316 Exhibit counters 

.317 Special cases Carrying cases 

Clas here all carrying cases for scool collections, etc. 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



069.32 Exhibit apparatus 

.321 Projection apparatus 
.325 Sound apparatus 

Fonografs and other sound producers 

.33 Furnishings Fittings 

Those for general use; if for a special purpose they ar clast with the purpose, 
with the special room in 069.241 

.331 Furniture 

1 Chairs Seats Invalid chairs 

Includes upholstery 

2 Tables Desks Counters 

3 Cabinets Shelvs Racks Drawers Trays 

4 Bulletin boards Sign standards Wall pockets 

5 Shades Curtains Draperies 

6 Lamps Lighting accessories 

For illumination see 069.292 

7 Ladders Hoists Cranes 

8 Trucks Conveyances 

9 Other 

Clocks, water coolers, etc. 

.332 Desk fittings 

•333 Tools Implements 

Clas here only tools and implements not provided for under their use, as tools 
for taxidermy under 069.4444 

i Cleaning and janitor's implements 

.334 Storage containers Museum glasware 

.34 Supplies General materials 

.341 Cleaning supplies 

Includes their use 

1 For floors 

2 For paint, woodwork, plaster 

3 For metal 

4 For glas 

5 For stone 

8 Insecticides Germicides 

9 Other 

.342 General plant supplies 

1 Dry goods Uniforms 

2 Toilet supplies « Towel servis 
.343 Fuel 

.344 Stationery; letter heds 

For special blank forms etc. see their use 

.345 Printing and book binding supplies 

Including use of these materials, e. g. use of small presses, methods of binding 
pamflets, etc. 



MUSEUMS 



069.348 Materials 

For materials of general usefulness only. Clas bilding materials under 069.22 
and preparation materials under the appropriate division of 069.4 

1 Wood Wood substitutes 

2 Stone 

3 Metal Hardware 

4 Paper Fabric Fiber 

5 Glas 

6 Chemicals Fluids 

8 Glues Cements Lutings 

Includes formulas for preparing glues etc. 

9 Other 

.36 Equipment of special rooms 

Includes principles of artificial lighting. 069.361 may, if wisht, be used for 
equipment of separate rooms, arranged alfabeticly by rooms like 069.241 

.4 Collecting Preparing Repairing 

Clas here methods, equipment and special materials. This section is for all methods 
involvd in preparing objects and specimens for exhibit, or for incorporation into a 
study collection. Since the preparation of certain kinds of material is begun in the 
field, it is impossible to divorce the collecting from the preparation of these. On 
the other hand, much material, specially in art, is collected by methods treated under 
069.51 Acquisition, so that only its ' getting redy ' (restoration and repair) is included 
here. The tecnique of excavating, however, applies in part to works of art 

.41 Rocks Minerals 

.411 Field notes 

.412 Field work 

.414 Laboratory work Mounting 

.42 Fossils 

.421 Field notes Sketches Fotografic studies 

.422 Field work 

.424 Laboratory work Mounting 

.43 Plants 

For histologic methods see 581.8 

.431 Field notes Sketches Fotografic studies 
.432 Collecting Pressing Preserving 
.434 Mounting 

For reproduction in wax etc. see 069.478 

.44 Animals and animal tissues 

For histologic methods see 591.8 

.441 Invertebrates 

1 Field notes Sketches Fotografic studies 

For sistems of filing these see 069.5711 

2 Capturing Killing Preserving 

3 Transporting Storing 

Includes preserving fluids, etc. 

4 Mounting : dry or in fluids 

Includes both whole-mounts and dissections. For reproductions in wax 
etc. see 069.477 

.442 Nests, workings etc 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



069.444 Vertebrates 

1 Field notes Sketches Fotografic studies 

For methods of filing these see 069. 57H 

2 Capturing Killing Preserving 

3 Transporting Storing 

4 Skinning Tanning Taxidermy 

For reproductions in wax etc. see 069.477 

.445 Nests, workings etc. 

.446 Anatomic material 

1 Field notes, etc. 

Including the data of fisical anthropology 

2 Fluid and jelly methods for soft tissues and embryos 

Includes fixation and color restoration 

3 Dry methods for soft tissues 

4 Bone Skeletons Cartilage 

5 Gross clearing 

6 Gross staining and sectioning 

7 Injection 

9 Other methods 

.45 Works of art 

For general methods of excavating see 069.469 

.452 Architecture 

.453 Sculpture 

1 Restoration 

2 Cleaning 

8 Keramics Glas 
.454 Drawings 

.455 Paintings 

1 Restoration 

2 Repainting 

3 Relining 

4 Rebacking 

5 Cradling 

6 Varnishing 

7 Gilding 
.456 Engravings 

1 Cleaning Washing 

2 Mounting 

3 Matting 

.457 Textils Weaving 

1 Repairing 

2 Cleaning 

3 Mounting 
.458 Wood work 

5 Metal work 

.459 Other 



MUSEUMS 



069.46 Modeling Molding Casting Coloring 

.461 Modeling Pattern making 

1 In clay, plastilin etc. 

2 In wax, paraffin etc. 

3 In plaster 

4 In gelatin, glue etc. 

5 In celluloid 

6 In glas 

7 In wood 

8 In papier-mache, paper etc. 

9 Other 

Including stone (sculpture) 

.462 Molding 

1 In clay, sand etc. 

2 In wax, paraffin etc. 

3 In plaster 

4 In gelatin, glue etc. 

5 In celluloid 
6 

7 In wood 

8 In papier-mache, paper etc. 

9 Other 

Including sulfur and metal 

.463 Casting 
1 

2 In wax, paraffin etc. 

3 In plaster 

4 In gelatin, glue etc. 

5 In celluloid 
6 

7 

8 In papier-mache, paper etc. 

9 Other 

Including sulfur and metal 

.464 Electroplate reproduction 

.465 Coloring 

1 On fabric 

See also 069.457 

2 On wax, paraffin etc. 

3 On plaster 

4 On gelatin, glue etc. 

5 On cellu'oid 

6 On glas 

7 On wood 

8 On papier-mache, paper etc. 

9 Other 

.469 Excavating 

General methods 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



47 Special models construction 

471 Relief maps Panoramic models 

472 Models of settlements, Indian villages, etc. 
473. Architectural models 

474 Large scale interiors, tombs, etc. 

475 Mecanical models 

477 Animals: entire or dissected 
1-4 Invertebrates 

5-7 Vertebrates 

8 Man 

9 Isolated organs or tissues 

478 Plants 

1 Plant accessories for groups etc. 

2 Fruits, vegetables etc. 

479 Miscellaneous 

1 Prepared foods 

48 Background groups construction 

481 Artistic composition Layout 

482 Field work 

483 Background 

1 Transparent fotografic 

2 Opaque fotografic 

3 Painted 

484 Foreground 

See also 069.4444 Taxidermy, 069.46 Wax modeling, etc. 

487 . Case and lighting 

See also 069.3316 Lighting and lighting accessories 

489 Small-scale background groups 

49 Expeditions 

491 Camping equipment 

Including its transportation 

492 Personnel 

493 Relations with nativs, gides, information about regions, etc. 

Divide geograficly like 940-999: 4 Europe, 5 Asia, 6 Africa, 7 North America, 
8 South America, 9 Oceania, Polar regions 

497 Protection of museum materials 

1 Museum pests 

2 Poisoning Insecticides Pestifuges 

3 Fumigation 

Including apparatus 

4 Rust prevention 

498 Packing 

General methods. For methods of packing special materials see preparation 

of those materials 

5 Collections Exhibits 

5 1 Acquisition Disposal 

511 Policy 

Including scope, specialization, proportion, adaptation to special needs, re- 
sponsibility of certain museums for certain materials, etc. 

5 1 2 Manner of selection and disposal 

514 Gifts Bequests Terms of gift Acknowledgment 



MUSEUMS 



>9-5i5 Purchases Sales 

Dealers, sales, prices etc. May be divided alfabeticly by subject. For sale 
of lantern slides see 069.141; for clerical work involvd in buying and selling 
see 069.653; for income derived see 069.6435 

,516 Loans Terms of loan 

Includes loans both to and from museums. For circulating exhibits see 069.13 

.518 Exchanges 

Includin ; material desired or offerd. For exchange of lantern slides see 069. 14 1 

,52 Records 

Including blank forms, etc. used in keeping records 

521 Accession record 

Including all records of gifts, purchases, loans, exchanges, discards etc. 

.522 Catalog of specimens and objects 
,523 Register of outside material 

Public monuments, etc. 

.53 Exhibits 

General discussion, and description of special details only. For description of 
special exhibits see 069.54 

.531 Originals vs copies 

,532 Classification and sequence of exhibits Correlation of sub- 
jects 

May be divided alfabeticly by subject 

533 Special exhibits 

For discussion only 

,534 Gross arrangement 

Including arrangement of cases, aisles, etc.; distances of visability, horizontal 
and vertical arrangement, etc. 

,535 Installation 

1 Bases Pedestals 

For use iether inside cases or on floor 

2 Installation on shelvs and steps 

3 Installation without shelvs 

Including pins, brackets, hangers etc. For picture hanging see 069.536 

4 Devices for viewing 

For lenses see 578.1 

5 Means to prevent fading 

6 Novelties in lighting 

For case lighting see 069.3116 

7 Lay figures 
9 Other 

.536 Picture framing Picture hanging 

.537 Labels Labeling 

1 Format 

Sire, material, color, type, ink etc. 

2 Data Literary style 

3 Maps Charts Diagrams Pictures Transparencies 

Use of these as labels 

4 Tags Numbers Name plates 

5 Gumd letters 

7 Interrelation and rank of labels General labels 

8 Location and attachment of labels 

Including frames, bindings etc.; label pins and holders, etc. 

.538 Gides Gallery leaflets 

May be divided alfabeticly by subject 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



069.54 Collections 

Fjr data concerning material itself, regardless of whether exhibited or stored, 
including description, catalogs, data on location of types and historic material, 
thefts, forgeries, etc. May be divided alfabeticly by subject 

.55 Arrangemant and housing of study collections 

Classification, tagging, shelving etc. 

. 5 7 Filed collections and materials 

Including all information concerning material and accessories which ordinarily 
ar filed for preservation, and also data on mounts, labeling, cabinets, sistem, 
records, and blank forms used in connection with this material * 

571 Fotograf s Prints 
1 Fotografs, sketches etc. as field notes 

572 Fotografic negativs 
.573 Lantern slides 
,574 Motion picture films 

575 Printing blocks 

576 Maps Charts Broadsides 
.577 Molds Casts 

Molds and casts used in modeling, taxidermy etc. not the collections of plasters 
which form part of an art collection, for which see 069,45 

.58 Library 

For construction see 069.241 and equipment 069.361. Divide in part like 020 
as follows: 

.581 Scope 

.584 Rules Management 

.585 Administration 

3 Cataloging 

4 Classification 
6 Loan sistem 

.6 Administration 

.61 Organization 

.611 Charters Acts of incorporation Constitutions Bylaws 

.614 Membership 

.62 Principles Regulations Ethics 

Clas here publisht codes of rules, even tho covering different ground from that 
indicated below 

.621 General principles of administration 
.622 Regulations and ethics for staf 
.623 Regulations for members Privileges 
.624 General regulations for visitors 

For hours of opening see 069.1715 

625 Regulations for copyists, fotografers, students etc. 
.63 Personnel 
.631 General considerations 

See also 069.62 Regulations 

1 Professional requirements 

Qualifications, duties. For training of staf see 069.07. For qualifications and 

duties of special position see 069.633 

3 Appointment Tenure 

4 Hours Vacations 

May be subdivided like 023.6 

6 Salaries 

8 Women as museum employees 



MUSEUMS 



069.632 Governing board Trustees 

1 President 

4 Other offisers 

5 Electiv members 

6 Ex-officio " 
.633 Staf 

1 Director Curator in charge 

2 . Other administrate offisers 

3 Curators 

4 Docents 

5 Librarian 

6 [. Preparators Artisans 

7 Attendants etc. 
9 Other 

.634 Animals 

Watch dogs, etc. 

.64 Finance 

See also 069.515 Purchase and sale of specimens, etc. 

.641 Value of property 

Divide by subject like main classification (using 1 for bildings and equipment) , 
subdividing as minutely as desired for data regarding value of specimens 

.642 Public support 

Taxes, appropriations 

.643 Other reciets and assets 

1 Endowment 

Inclu ing investment and income 

2 Contributions Bequests 

3 Lectures Fairs Entertainments 

For raising money 

4 Membership fees 

5 Sale of publications, pictures etc. 

6 Sale of other property 

See also 069.515 

7 Privileges 

E. g. rent of restaurant 

8 Concessions 

Tax, tarif, postal, transportation 

9 Other 

For admission fees see 069.1715 

.644 Disbursements Liabilities 

1 Salaries Pensions 

2 Purchase of specimens and objects Preparation and repair of 

collections 

See also 069.515 

3 Construction and repair of bilding and equipment 

4 Material Supplies Equipment 

Fuel 

5 Insurance 

See also 069.641 Value of property 

6 Taxes 

7 Printing and publishing 
9 Other 

.645 Budget Accounting Bookkeeping 

Includes time accounting 

.646 Employees welfare 

See also 069.6441 Pensions 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



069.65 Offis methods 
.651 Files Filing 

For files not provided for elsewhere 

.652 Grafic methods 

.653 Accounting 

.654 Records of property 

Including furniture etc. For records of collections see 069.52 

.7 Publications Publishing 

For discussion concerning publication and for complete file of the institution's own 
publications, also for other museum publications when clast as such, for use as sample 
publications, etc. When dealing with a special subject they ar preferably clast 
under subject; e. g. museum reports in 069.09; monograf on a scientific subject, with 
that division of science, etc. 

.71 Authorship Editorial work 

See also 029.6 and 655.52 

.72 Publishing arrangements 

Publishing by institution or by outside agency 

.73 Multigrafmg MimeografingJ 

.74 Distribution Mailing lists 

.75 Storage 

.76 Reprinting 

.77 Reports 

Including statistics, prospectuses, anniversary booklets, programs and announce- 
ments 

.78 Other publications 

News, popular, scientific, tecnical, non-serial, etc. 



JOURNALISM 



Journalism General newspapers 

See also 029.3 Clippings Clipping bureaus 

1 79. 1 Morals of the press 

333.445 Liberty of the press (political science) 

351 .751 Regulation of the press (government administration) 

396.507 Women in journalism 

655 Printing Publishing Copyright 

741 Cartoons Caricatures 

1 Utility Theories Relations to other professions 

For government relations see 070.15 

11 Standards Ethics Influence Responsibility 

General and higher view, educativ influence; for degradation of the press 
see 070 . 16 

12 Endowd newspapers 

Independence of popularity 

13 Liberty of the press Censorship 

Individual privacy; diplomatic secrets; seditious or anarchic influence 
See also political science, 323 .445 Freedom of the press 

14 War censorship 

15 Subservience to special interests 

Use by sectarian, partizan or private interests. Government relations and 
influence: subsidies, 'reptil fund' 

16 Sensational or 1 yellow ' journalism 

Fictitious news; scandals, murder and divorce trials; blackmail, bribes 

17 

18 Anonymous journals 

Those with editors or place of publication unknown 

19 Other general questions 

Comparison of field, importance and influence of newspaper, periodical and 
book 

2 Ownership and control 

22 Newspaper names 

23 Location 

232 Metropolitan Large city 
234 Provincial Small city 
236 Rural or village 
26 Syndicates Patent insides 

3 Business management 
31 Staff and workmen 

311 Offis staff 

Manager, stenografers, bookkeepers, clerks, messengers 

312 Workmen 

Compositors, foundrymen, pressmen, mechanics, laborers 

315 Hours, shifts 

318 Newspaper strikes 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



.32 Newspaper printing 

Class here discussion of economy and other advantages of special methods 

and appliances 

For mechanism and operation of newspaper presses see 655.31 Printing 

presses 

.321 Size of page 

.322 Methods and appliances 

2 Composition : linotype, monotype, etc. 

3 Stereotyping 

4 Presses 

.324 Newspaper cuts: wood, zinc line, halftone 
.325 Frequency of issue 

Daily, semiweekly, weekly, etc. 

.327 Time of issue 

Morning, evening, successiv editions, extras 

.328 Size of editions, number printed 

.33 Distribution Circulation Sale 

.331 Direct: subscription Mailing 

.332 House delivery 

.334 Indirect: newsboys, news agencies, etc. 

Crying and peddling in streets; news stands 

.336 Advertizing methods 

Subdivided like 659.1 Advertizing 

•337 Specialties 

As means of increasing circulation. For special departments see 070.43 
Regular: foren or marine news, stocks, sporting, etc. 
Occasional: adoption of popular causes, exposure of abuses, etc. 

.338 Other means of increasing circulation 

Competitions, guessing contests, prizes, fairs, lotteries, expeditions, etc. 

.34 Cost of production Expenses 

.341 Plant: bilding and equipment, orrises 

Duplicate plant. Depreciation of machinery 

.343 Supplies: paper, stationery, etc. 
.344 Salaries and wages 

Space rates. Pay of journalists, pecuniary inducements of vocation. 
Traveling expenses 

.345 Postage: pound rates, free carriage 
.348 Advertizing 

Necessity and cost of advertizing itself to gain circulation and secure 
advertizements. For methods see 070.336 

•349 

.35 Sources of income Receits 

Sales, subscriptions, subsidies. For bribes see 070.16 

.36 Advertizing department 

Including all business pertaining to a journal's advertizing colums. For 
advertizing agencies see 659.1 

.39 Foren orrises 

Subdivided like 940-999; e.g. N Y herald office in Paris 070.3944 



JOURNALISM 



070.4 Editorial management 

.41 General 

Editing rules: order of departments and articles; style; newspaper diction 

.42 Staff: reporters, correspondents 

Organization: hours, duties. For pay see 070.344 

.43 Editorial departments 
.431 News 

1 Sources and channels of news 

Telegraf, telefone, wireless, mail, reporters, carrier pigeons, other 
Utilization and precautions; conflicting news 

2 Press bureaus: associated press 

Laffan and other news bureaus. For clippings see 029.3 under 
Literary methods and labor savers 

5 Foren 

6 Home 

7 Local 

.432 Leaders, editorials 
.433 Local interests 

Discussion of local affairs, questions affecting schools, libraiy, public 
works, etc. For local news department see 070.4317 

.44 Special subjects: departments and editors 

.443 Financial: stocks, business, shipping, etc. 

.445 Household Home Women Children 

2 Cookery 

4 Clothing Fashions 

6 Hygiene Care of children 

7 Women's clubs 

8 Children's department : games, puzzles, etc. 

.446 Recreation Sporting 

.447 Art, musical and dramatic 

7 Art 

8 Musical 

9 Dramatic 
.448 Literary 

1 Poetry 

3 Fiction 
,449 Other departments 

2 Religion; 3 Education; 5 Science; 8 Humor 

.45 Voluntary correspondents Contributors 

47 Special editions 

Sunday newspaper. Supplements. For extras see 070 .327 

48 Special kinds of journals 

481 Official journals 

482 Religious 
484 For foren population 

In language foren to country in which publisht 

,485 Propagandist 

,486 Professional and technical 

.487 Humorous 

,488 Literary 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



0.489 Other: amateur, etc. 

070.5-.9 Form divisions 
.5 Periodicals on journalism 
.6 Press clubs Conventions Expositions 
.7 Study and teaching of journalism College courses 

Schools Personal qualifications for journalism 

.9 History of newspapers and journalism 

General History of American newspapers 071, of German journalism 073 
etc. Class history of a particular journal with that journal 

1-079 Newspapers of various countries 

The 3d figures 1-9 are used as follows: 

1 American 4 French 7 Slavic 

2 English 5 Italian 8 Scandinavian 

3 German 6 Spanish 9 Other 

In large collections use geografic divisions under 1, American; 2, English, etc. as 
in 970 and 940-999. Because of large size and very general character, it is bette r 
to keep newspapers together here than to class with local history of the plac e 
where publisht. They could not go on shelvs with ordinary books, and a refer - 
•race is twade as easily to them under 070 as anywhere. 



GENERAL WORKS 



080 Special libraries Polygrafy 

For sets or ' libraries ' so constituted as not to be redily seatterd by subjects, 
and miscellaneous information; but class in 803 literary questions and answers, 
even tho not alfabetic. Collections conditiond by terms of gift on beinj 
kept together may be put here, but for preferable treatment of sets, see in In- 
troduction, Assyning clas numbers, section II, and Reference library. If lim- 
ited to a special subject, treat like Phoenix library, but shelv the collection in 
a block before or after the regular books on the same subject; e. g. the Doe 
collection on Spanish painting, D759-6, would stand together, yet would be 
where it belongd with the rest of the books on that subject. 

090 Book rarities 

Books a bout these topics, and those chiefly valuable because of their rarity, 
go here. A rare early edition of Shakspere goes in 822.33 with reference from 
099. 090 is mostly used for grouping references to books located elsewhere. 
See also 010 for bibliografy and bibliofily; 655 for printing and publishing 

091 Manuscripts Autografs 

Class in 096 mss important chiefly for illumination. Photografs of mss, when 
more valuable for subject matter, go with subject rather than here 
For Diplomatics and Paleografy, see 417, and under the special language, 
421.7, 431.7, etc. 

092 Block books 

093 Early printed books Incunabula 

Colophons 

094 Rare printing 

Aldines, Elzevirs, Caxtons, etc. Privately printed books; unique books 

. 095 Rare binding 

Noted binders, costly ornaments, curious bindings 

096 Rare illustrations or materials 

Illuminated Illustrated by inserted plates Printed on vellum, silk, bark, 
etc. in gold or silver letters, etc. 

097 Ownership Book plates Ex libris 

098 Prohibited Lost Imaginary 

099 Other rarities Curiosa Minute size, etc. 



Philosofy 



100 Philosofy in general 

Works limited to none of the 9 divisions 

101 Utility 

102 Compends, outlines 

103 Dictionaries Cyclopedias 

104 Essays, lectures, addresses 

105 Periodicals Philosofic magazine* 

106 Societies: transactions, etc. 

107 Study and teaching of philosofy 

108 Polygrafy, extracts, maxims, etc. 

109 History of philosofy 

no Metaphysics 

in Ontology 

Nature of being Substance and form 

112 Methodology 

Philosofic classification of knowledge Terminology For book classification 
see 025.4 

113 Cosmology 

Philosofic theories and discussion; for philosofy of mathematic processes 
see 5 10. 1 

114 Space 

115 Time 

116 Motion 

117 Matter 

118 Force 

119 Quantity Number 



PHILOSOFY 



120 Other metaphysical topics 

121 Theory of knowledge Origin Limits 

Dout, denial, belief 

122 Causation Cause and effect 

123 Liberty and necessity 

See also 233.7 Freedom; 234.9 Predestination; 159 Will 

124 Teleology Final causes 

125 Infinit and finite 

126 Consciousness Personality See also 233.6 Doctrin 

127 Unconsciousness Automata 

128 The soul See 218 Natural theology; 237 Future state 

129 Origin of the individual soul 

.1 By Special Creation See also 213 Creation 

.2 By inheritance Traduction 

See 575. 1 Evolution; 136.3 Mental heredity; 233.3 Spiritual heredity 

.3 Pre-existence 

.4 Transmigration Palingenesis 

•5 Emanation See also 147 Pantheism; 212 Natural theology 

130 Mind and body Anthropology 

Psychic research SWj <£,0 ^ovor 

1 31 Mental physiology and hx§l?B e 

New thought. For influence of mind on body, mind cure, etc. see 615.851; see also 
612.8 Physiology of nervous system, 613.8 Hygiene of nervous system 

132 Mental derangements 

See also 616.8 diseases of nervous system 
.1 Insanity See 362.2 Asylums; 920.8 Lives; 616.84 Disease 

.2 Idiocy See 362.3 Asylums; 920.8 Lives; 371.922 Education 

.3 Hypochondria Melancholy See 616.852 Hysteria 

.4 Catalepsy See 616.852 Hysteria 

.5 Ecstatics 

.6 Kleptomania and other leading to crime 
.7 Dipsomania and other leading to vice 

See also 178 Temperance; 616.861 Alcoholism 

.8 Mnemonic derangements 

Not knowing in one state what past in another. See also 154 Memory 

133 Occultism Witchcraft Magic 

.1 Apparitions Ghosts 
.2 Hallucinations 

.3 Divination Oracles Second sight Omens Predic- 
tions 

.4 Witchcraft Sorcery See also 272.8 Persecutions 

.5 Astrology See also 520.1 Astrology 

.6 Palmistry 

.7 Humbugs Quackery 

.9 Spiritism Table-tipping, etc. See also 289.9 Sects 

134 Mesmerism Animal magnetism Clairvoy- 

ance 

Psychic phenomena, hypnotism 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



135 Sleep Dreams Somnambulism 

136 Mental characteristics 

See also 131 Mental physiology 

.1 As influenced by sex 

See also 376.2 Mental capacity of women 

.2 " " " physical surroundings 

See also 575.3 Evolution; 573.4 Natural history of man 

.3 " " " ancestry (Mental heredity) 

See also 575.1 Evolution; 233.3 Spiritual heredity; 129.2 
Origin of soul; 613.92 Hygiene 

.4 " " " race Racial characteristics 

See also 572 Ethnology 

.5 : ' " " age 

See also 136.7 Childstudy 

.6 " " " physical structure and conditions 
.7 Childstudy Paidology 

Including adolescence 
.702 Methods 

1 Laboratory 

2 Home 

.708 Observations, records Albums 

.71 Body: structure, growth, care 

Limited to development period 
See also 136.3 Mental heredity 612.65 Growth 
371.7 School hygiene 613 Hygiene 

612.64 Embryology 613.9 Heredity 

.72 Mind 

Limited to period of physical development 

In a general library better clast in 130 and 150 with only references here 

.73 Mental characteristics 

Groupt by influence like 136. 1-. 6 

.74 Children's point of view 

Divided like the classification: e. g. 
.7417 Ethics .7479 Games 

.742 Religion .748 Literature 

.75 Delineation of children 

Psychology of children from authors' and artists' point of view 

.757 In art 

.758 In literature 

.76 Abnormal children 

Study of development. For methods ot instruction see 371 .9 
For institutions see 362, 364 

.761 Physically defectiv 

1 Blind 

2 Def 

3 Blind-def 

.762 Mentally defectiv 

Divided like 132 Mental derangements; e.g. study of idiotic children 

136.7622 ^^^^"^ 

.763 Morally defectiv Delinquents 

.764 Wildings 

Wildings: a class of children which, having been lost or deserted, have 
grown up away from the surroundings of children, alone or among animals. 
Paidology 1: 196 (July 1900) 



PHILOSOFY 



136.765 Exceptional Precocity 

.766 Backward children 

.767 Dependents 

Homeless children, a public charge, lacking ideas and associations of 
children in families 

.769 Other abnormal classes 

.77 BoyS The 1 gang ' The boy problem 

.79 Childhood Divided like 930-999 

.791 The child among uncivilized and semicivilized peoples 

137 Personality 

Temperaments, idiosyncrasy 

130 Physiognomy 

Expression of mentality thru the body 

139 Phrenology Mental photografs, etc. 

140 Philosofic systems 

The heds 140-149. 9 are for the discussion of the systems as such. The philo- 
sofic works of authors of these various schools are clast under 190, not here, 
fc?^ \^Ji^5Ur-a^UA^ From these heds refer in the catalogs to authors clearly falling under them, 
without attempting to label each writer as an exponent of some one system 

141 Idealism Transcendentalism 

e. g. Plato, see 184. 1, 888.4; Berkeley, ste 192.3; Fichte, see 193.3; Emerson, 
see 191-3, 814.36 

142 . Critical philosofy 

e. g. Kant, see IQ3-2 

143 Intuitionalism 

e. g. Reid, see 192.5; McCosh, see 191. 5. See also 156 Intuitiv faculty, 
171. 2 Ethics. 

144 Empiricism 

e. g. Descartes, see 194. 1; Bacon, see 192.1 

145 Sensationalism 

e. g. Locke, see 192.2 

146 Materialism Positivism 

e. g. Hobbes; Comte, see 194.8 See also 149.2 Realism 

147 Pantheism Monism 

e. g. Spinoza See 212 Natural theology 

148 Eclecticism 

e. g. Cousin, see 194.7 

149 Other philosofic systems 

See 211 Rationalism, skepticism; 214 Fatalism 

.1 Nominalism 

.2 Realism See 146 Materialism 

• 3 Mysticism See 273.2 Heresies; 189.5 Medieval philosofy 

.4 Associationalism 

.5 Optimism Meliorism 

.6 Pessimism 

e. g. Schopenhauer, see 193.9 See also 216 Evil; 233 Doctrin of man 

.7 Agnosticism 

See 273.8 Agnostic heresy 

.8 Nihilism 

.9 Other systems 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 

P 



150 Mental faculties Psychology 

For related topics, see Mental in Relativ index following Tables 

151 Intellect Capacity for knowing 

.1 Genius 

152 Sense Sense perceptions 

See also physiology 612.84-88 

Passiv or receptiv faculty 

.1 Vision 

.2 Hearing 

.3 Smell 

.4 Taste 

.5 Touch 

.6 Muscular sense 

153 Understanding 

See also 612.821 Physiologic psychology 

Activ or thinking faculty 

.1 Conception The concept or notion 

.2 Association 

.3 Abstraction 

.4 Reflection 

•5 Judgment 

.6 Reasoning Induction and deduction 

See also 160 Logic 

154 Memory Reproductiv power 

See also 132.8 Mnemonic derangements 

.1 Mnemonics 

155 Imagination Creativ power 

.1 Fancy Imaging power 

156 Intuitiv faculty Reason 

For reasoning, see 153.6 

157 Sensibility Emotions Affections 

158 Instincts Appetites 

159 Will 



PHILOSOFY 



160 Logic Dialectics 

See 1 53-6 Reasoning power. For logic of chance, see 519 Probabilities 

161 Inductiv 

162 Deductiv 

163 Assent Faith 

See also 234.2 Doctrinal theology 

164 Symbolic Algebraic 

Logical machines 

Logical topics 

165 Sources of error Fallacies 

166 Syllogism Enthymeme 

167 Hypotheses 

168 Argument and persuasion 

169 Analogy Correspondence 

See also 219 Natural theology 

170 Ethics: theoretic and applied 

Many topics in applied ethics occur also in law, specially in 343 Criminal law 

See also 377.2 Ethical education. 
.1 :2 Compends .3 Dictionaries .4 Essays .5 Periodicals 

.6 Societies; Society for ethical culture .7 Study and teaching .8 Polygrafy 

.9, History 

171 Theories Philosofy of ethics 

Theories of the basis of morality 

.1 Authority Will of God Christian 

For rules of Christian conduct see 241 

.2 Intuition Moral sentiment 

See also 143 Intuitionalism; 156 Intuitiv faculty 

.3 Perfection 

.4 Happiness Hedonism 

.5 Utilitarianism 

.6 Conscience Casuistry 

.7 Evolutionary or educational 

.8 Altruism 

.9 Egoism 

1 72 State ethics 

.1 Individuals and the state Duties of citizens Patriotism 

See also 320 Political science 

.2 Duties of public offisers Official corruption 
.3 Relations to church 

Duty of state as to support and protection of church 

See also 261.7 The church; 322 Church and state; 272 Persecutions 

•4 International ethics Peace and war 

See also 341 International law 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



173 Family ethics 

1 Marriage and divorce See also 347.6 Family law 

2 Polygamy and monogamy See also 298 Mormonism 
.3 Duties of husbands and wives 

.4 Infanticide 

.5 Duties of parents 

.6 Duties of children 

,7 Home life 

J5 Masters and Servants See also 647 Servants; 331 LaDor 

174 Professional and business ethics 

.1 Clergy 

.2 Physicians 

.3 Lawyers 

.4 Merchants Business men Business virtues and vices 

.5 Speculation Mammonism Avaris 

.6 Gambling Lotteries 

See also 175 below 

.7 Honor, honesty Dishonesty 

Compact, promis; chicanery, trickery 

.8 Employers and employd 

175 EthiCS Of amUSementS For amusemerifs, se^TQO 

.1 Public shows and diversions Rinks, circuses, etc. 

.2 Theater Opera Private theatricals 

.3 Dancing Balls Round dances 

.4 Games of skill : billiards, chess, etc. 

.5 Games of chance : cards, dice, etc. 

.6 Prize righting Animal fighting: bull, dog, cock, et:. 

.7 Racing: horse, boat, pedestrian, wheel, etc. 

.8 Novel reading 

.9 Betting Poolselling See 1746 

176 Sexual ethics 

.1 Chastity 

.2 Celibacy See also 254 Celibacy of clergy 

.3 Continence 

.4 Solitary vice 

.< Social evil s ee also 258 Parish care of fallen 

.6 Adultery 

,7 Immoral art 

.8 Immoral literature 

9 



PHILOSOFY 



177 Social ethics 

.1 Curtesy 

See also 395 Etiquet 

.2 Conversation Gossip 

See also 374.1 Self culture 

.3 Truth Slander Flattery 

.4 Dress Display Sumptuary legislation 

.5 Caste Class feeling Welth and rank 

See also 294 Brahmanism, and 323.31 Nobility, welthy class 

.6 Friendship Courtship Coquetry 

.7 Philanthropy Humanity 

.8 Solitude vs social obligations 
•9 

178 Temperance Stimulants and narcotics 

May be divided by form .01-. co; see Index table 2, following Relativ index 
See also 132.7 Dipsomania; 331-84 Laboring classes; 613.3 Beverages; 613.8 
Nervous system 

.1 Use of intoxicating drinks Beer drinking Medicinal use 

See also 616.861 Alcoholism; and Alcohol, Alcoholic, in Relativ index 

.2 Total abstinence vs temperance 

.3 Social drinking Wine at table Treating 

.4 Traffic in intoxicating drinks License High license 

See also 336.27 Taxation 

. 5 Prohibition 

Including legal discussion of prohibition. See also 329.81 Prohibition party 

.6 Inebriates 

Discussion, reformation. For reformatories and inebriate asylums see 362 . 8 

.7 Tobacco 

.8 Opium Hashish Chloral Ether and other drugs 
.9 Gluttony and other intemperance 

179 Other ethical topics 

.1 Morals of the press Newspapers 

See also Journalism, 070.11 

.2 Cruelty 

Societies for preventing cruelty to children and also general humane societies 
covering work for both children and animals. See also 173-4 Infanticide; 331.3 
Labor of children 

.3 Cruelty to animals 

.4 Vivisection 

See also 614.22 Vivisection laws 

.5 Oaths 

.6 Heroism Bravery Cowardis 
.7 Life Dueling Suicide 

See also 394.8 Dueling as a custom 

.8 Pride Covetousness Envy Anger Sloth Jelousy Hate 
and other vices 

.9 Humility Liberality Gentleness Patience Diligence 
Charity Modesty, and other virtues 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



Ancient philosofers 

See also 921.9 Biografy of ancient philosofy 

Oriental philosofers 

Chinese : Confucius, Mencius 
Egyptian 

Jewish: kabala; Philo, Maimonides 

Indian: gymnosophists 

Persian Sufism 

Chaldaean 

Sabeism 

Phenician 

Syrian 

Early Greek philosofers 

Ionic : Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes 

Materialistic. Things are as they seem 

Italic or Pythagorean Half idealistic 

Eleatic: Xenophanes, Parmenides, Zeno, Melissus 

Idealistic. Existence denied. Thought is the only reality 

Heraclitus 

Empedocles 

Atomistic 

Democritus 
Anaxagoras 
Other early Greek 

Sophistic and Socratic philosofers 

Sophistic: Protagoras, Gorgias, Prodicus, Hippias 

Socrates 

Socratic 

Cynic: Antisthenes, Diogenes, Crates, etc. 
Cyrenaic : Aristippus, Hegesias, etc. 
Megaric : Euclid, Eubulides, Diodorus, etc. 
Elian and Eretrian: Phedo, Menedemus, etc. 

Platonic Older Academy 

Plato 

Class his works preferably in 888.4, but discussion of his philosofy here 

Speusippus 
Xenocrates 

Aristotelian Peripatetic Lyceum 

Aristotle 

Class his works preferably in 888.5, but discussion of his philosofy here 

Theophrastus 

Eudemus 

Strato 



PHILOSOFY 



1 86 Pyrrhonist New Platonist 

.1 Pyrrhonism Skepticism Pyrrho, Timon 

.2 New Academy: Arcesilaus, Carneades, Plutarch 

See 888.8 Plutarch's works 

.3 Eclecticism : Cicero s ee 875 4 

.4 Alexandrian, Neo-Platonic : Philo, Plotinus, Proclus, 

Porphyry, IambHchuS See 239 4 Apologetics; 273.1 Heresies 

187 Epicurean: Epicurus Lucretius See al:;o 871. i 

188 Stoic 

.1 Zeno 

.2 Cleanthes 

.3 Chrysippus 

.4 Panaetius 

.5 Posidonius 

.6 Seneca See 878.5; 872.6 

.7 Epictetus 

.8 Marcus Aurelius 

189 Early Christian and medieval philosofers 

.1 Gnosticism See 273-1 Basilides, Marcion. See 273-2 Manicheism 

.2 Patristic : Tertullian, Augustine, Clement, Origen 

.3 Arabian : Avicenna, Averroes 

.4 Scholastic : Scotus, Aquinas, Anselm, Abelard 

.5 Mystic: Reuchlin, Cornelius Agrippa, Paracelsus, Servetus, 
Bbhme 



190 Modern philosofers 



See also 921. 1 to 921.8 Biografy of philosofy, or lives may be put here with works, 
with references only under 920 Biografy. Philosofic works are put here, not under 
the School or System to which the author may be thought to belong. See note 
under 140 



191 American philosofers 



These numbers may be left blank for future use or used for the well known 
names among American philosofic writers given below 



See 814.36 



.1 


Jonathan Edwards 


1703-58 


.2 


Orestes A Brownson 


1803-76 


•3 


Ralph Waldo Emerson 


1803-82 


4 


Laurens P Hickock 


1798-1888 


•5 


James McCosh 


1811-94 


.6 


Noah Porter 


1811-92 


•7 


Francis Bo wen 


1811-90 


.8 


William Torrey Harris 


1835-1909 


•9 


Other American philosofic writers 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



192 British philosofers 

.1 BaCOIl 1 561— 1626 See 144 Empiricism 

.2 Locke 1632— 1704 See 1 45 Sensationalism 

.3 Berkeley 1685- I753 See 141 Idealism 

.4 Hume I7II— 76 See 824.64 English essays 

• 5 Reid I7IO—96 See 143 Intuitionalism 

.6 Dugald Stewart 1 753-1 828 

.7 John Stuart Mill 1806-73 
.8 Spencer 1820 -1903 

.9 Other British philosofic writers 

193 German philosofers 

.1 Leibnitz 1 646-1 71 6 

.2 Kant 1 724-1 804 See 142 Critical philosofy 

.3 Fichte 1762-1814 See 141 Idealism 

.4 Schelling 1775-1854 
.5 Hegel 1 770-1 83 1 

.6 Schleiermacher 1 768-1 834 

• 7 Schopenhauer I788-1860 See 149 6 Pessimism 

.8 Lotze 1817-82 
.9 Other German philosofic writers 

194 French philosofers 

.1 DeSCarteS 1 596-1 65O See 144 Empiricism 

.2 Malebranche 1 638-1 71 5 

.3 Condillac 1715-80 
.4 Rousseau 1712-78 
.5 Diderot 1713-84 
.6 Lamennais 1 782-1854 

• 7 CoUSin 1 792-1 867 See 148 Eclecticism 
.8 Comte 1 798-1857 See 146 Positivism 

.9 Other French philosofic|wr iters 

195 Italian philosofers 

196 Spanish philosofers 

197 Slavic philosofers 

198 Scandinavian philosofers 

199 Other modern philosofers 

The heds of 180-199 are for discussions of the systems 01 these men and for 
their philosofic works not clearly belonging elsewhere, not for all their works. 
Mill's Logic is 160 not 192.7, but his complete works bound together are 
192.7. Plato and Aristotle have individual numbers, 888.4 and .5, where 
their works are more useful than in 184-5 because of their classic prominence. 



Religion 



200 Religion General works 

201 Philosofy, theories, methods 

202 Compends, outlines, systems 

203 Dictionaries, cyclopedias 

204 Essays, lectures, disputations, addresses 

See also 252 Sermons 

205 Periodicals, magazines, reviews 

206 Societies: transactions, reports, etc. 

General conferences. Societies whose work is largely done by paid offisers, most 
members merely contributing money; e. g. Pan-evangelical alliance, Bible and tract 
societies. Put history, reports, etc. here, but their publications of course go with 
subject 

207 Education: theologic seminaries, training 

SChOOlS Divided like 940-999 

208 Polygrafy: collected works, extracts, etc. 

Many collections go under a more specific hed; e. g. 240 

209 History of religion 

General, including ecclesiastic antiquities, statistics, etc. See also 270 for 
Christian religion, and 274-279 for Christian antiquities of special countries 



210 Natural theology 



Concerns evidence in nature exclusiv of revelation, also Christian or skeptic discussion 
of specific topics (211-214, 216-218). For general defense of Christian theology, see 
239 Apologetics, subdivided according to kind of criticism 

211 Deism and atheism 

Skepticism. Infidelity. Rationalism, etc. 

Atheism denies existence of God. Deism accepts existence, but denies revelation 
and rejects Christianity. Theism believes in a god supernaturally reveald, e. g. 
Judaism, Mohammedanism, Buddhism, etc. Arguments from nature in support of 
any of these views go here 

See also 231 Christian theism; 239 Apologetics; 273.8 Agnostic heresy; 149.7 Agnos- 
ticism 

212 Pantheism Theosofy See 147 Pantheism; 129.5 Origin of soul 

213 CreatiOn Seeii 3 Cosmology EVOlutiOn See 575 Science 

From religious viewpoint; attempts to harmonize Genesis and geology. See also 
metaphysics, 113 Cosmology; and natural science, 575 Evolution 

214 Providence see 231.5 Doctnns Theodicy c^tTanliew 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



215 Religion and science see 23 9.8 Apologetics 

Antagonism or reconciliation between science and Bible religion. Pro and con 
arguments b y scientists . Bridgewater treatises. For creation, see 213 

216 Evil Depravity See 149-6 Pessimism; 233.2 Sin 

217 Prayer Prayer gage See 264.1 Prayer; 248 Personal rehgion 

Tests of efficacy of prayer 

218 Future life Immortality Eternity 

See 237 Future state; 128 The soul 

219 Analogies Correspondences See also 169 Logic 

220 Bible General works 

For similar works limited to Old or New Testament, or individual books, see 
specific hed below 

.1 Canon Inspiration Authorship Profecy 

.2 Concordances Analyses 

.3 Dictionaries Cyclopedias 

.4 Original texts and early versions Codices 

Heds for old and new testaments are given, as they are also used for 221 and 
225 

.42 Chaldee 
.43 Syriac 
.44 Hebrew 
.45 Samaritan 

.46 Other Semitic: Ethiopic, Arabic, etc. 

.47 Latin, Itala, Vulgate 

.48 Greek, Septuagint Aquila, Symmachus, Theodotion 

Hexapla 

.49 Other early versions: Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, etc. 

220.4 and 220.5 are pure texts. A Hebrew bible with commentary goes in 

220.7 with reference from 220.44 
• 5 Versions Of Bible Polyglots Divide by languages, like 400 

These are translations from the original Hebrew and Greek. Translations from 
other early texts go with them in 220.4; e. g. an English translation of the Syriac 
goes in 220.43 « ' , r , 

6 Hermeneutics Exegesis Symbolism Typology 

7 Commentaries on whole Bible, and annotated editions 

For notes, etc. on portions of the Bible, see the most specific hed in 221-229 

8 Special topics 

Divided like general Classification; e. g. natural science of the Bible in 220.85 

9 Biblical geografy and history 

91 Biblical geografy, description, etc. 

See 9 r 5-60t 913-33 Palestine 

92 Scriptural biografy 

See also 922.1; 232.9 Lives of Christ 

o_3 Antiquities, archeology 

See also 296 Jewish religion; 933 History of Tews 

94 Chronology 

95 History 

See 933 Jews 



RELIGION 



221 Old Testament: texts, introductions, etc 

Divided like 220; e. g. 221.7 Commentaries on Old Testament 

222 Historical books 



I 


Pentateuch 


II 


Genesis 


12 


Exodus 


13 


Leviticus 


14 


Numbers 


15 


Deuteronomy 


16 


Decalog 


2 


Joshua 


3 


Judges and Ruth 


4 


Samuel 


5 


Kings 


6 


Chronicles 


7 


Ezra 


8 


Nehemiah 


9 


Esther 



223 Poetic books 

.1 Job 

.2 Psalms 

.3 Authorship and chronology 

.4 Special groups 

Messianic; Greater Hallel; Lesser Hallel; Vesper psalms; Penitential, 6, 32, 
38, 5I1 102, 130, 143; Hebraic five books, Psalms 1-41; 42-72; 73-89; 90-106; 
107-150 

.5 Liturgic use by Christians Metrical versions 

See 264.038 Anglican psalter; 245 Hymnology 

.6 Commentaries on psalms 

.7 Proverbs 

.8 Ecclesiastes 

.9 Song of Solomon, or Canticles 

224 Profetic books 

.1 Isaiah 

.2 Jeremiah 

.3 Lamentations 

.4 Ezekiel 

.5 Daniel 

.6 Hosea 

.7 Joel 

8 Amos 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



224.9 Other minor prophets 

.91 Obadiah 

.92 Jonah 

.93 Micah 

.94 Nahum 

.95 Habakkuk 

.96 Zephaniah 

.97 Haggai 

.98 Zechariah 

.99 Malachi 

225 New Testament: texts', introductions, etc. 

Divided like 220 

226 Gospels and Acts 

.1 Harmonies 

.2 Matthew 

.3 Mark 

.4 Luke 

.5 John 

.6 Acts of the apostles 

.7 Miracles 

.8 Parables 

.9 Lord's prayer 

227 Epistles 

.1 Romans 

.2 Corinthians i 

.3 Corinthians 2 

.4 Galatians 

.5 Ephesians 

.6 Philippians 

.7 Colossians 

.8 Other Pauline epistles 

.81 Thessalonians 1 

.82 Thessalonians 2 

.83 Timothy 1 

.84 Timothy 2 

.85 Titus 

.86 Philemon 

.87 Hebrews 



RELIGION 



227.9 Catholic epistles 

.91 James 

.92 Peter 1 

.93 Peter 2 

.94 John 1 

.95 John 2 

.96 John 3 

.97 Jude 

228 Apocalypse 

229 ■ Apocrypha 

.1 Esdras 1, 2 

.2 Tobit, Judith, Esther 

.3 Wisdom 

.4 Ecclesiasticus 

.5 Baruch, Epistle of Jeremy, Song of the three children 

.6 Story of Susanna, History of Bel and the dragon, Prayer 

of Manasses 

.7 Maccabees 1, 2, 3, 4 

.8 Pseudo gospels 

.9 Apostolic epistles and canons Clementines s ee 281.1 



230 Doctrinal Dogmatics Theology 

General doctrinal works may be subdivided by churches like 280-289. See also 252.3 
Class here polemics either offensiv or defensiv, when distinctly doctrinal; but class 
in 280 history of a sect, even if largely controversial and of a limited period. Class 
controversy about a special doctrin with its subject; e.g. controversy on the atone- 
ment 232.3 

231 God Unity Trinity 

.1 God the Father, Creator 

.2 God the Son, Redeemer 

Second person of the Trinity, irrespectiv of his appearance on earth as the 
historic Christ 

.3 God the Holy Ghost, Giver of Life, Sanctifier 

.4 Divine attributes: omniscience, omnipresence, omnipo- 

tence 

.5 Divine providence See also Natural theology 214 

.6 Divine love and wisdom 

.7 Divine law and miracles 

.8 Theodicy 

Vindication of God's justis in permitting evil. See also Natural theology, 214 

•9 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



232 Christology 

.1 Incarnation Messiah 

.2 Logos, the Word of God 

.3 Atonement 

.4 Sacrifice 

.5 Resurrection 

.6 SeCOnd COming See also 286.7 Second adventists 

.7 Judgment 

.8 Divine humanity 

Divinity of the man Jesus, pro and con 

.9 Lives of Christ 

233 Man 

.1 The fall 

.2 Sin 

.3 Moral and spiritual heredity 

See also Biology, 575-1 ; Psychology, 136.3; Metaphysics, 129.2 

.4 Accountability 

.5 Natural and spiritual body 

.6 Personality See also Metaphysics, 126 

.7 Freedom see also 234-9; 123; 159 
.8 

.9 

234 Salvation Soteriology 

.1 Grace 

.2 Faith 

.3 Redemption 

.4 Regeneration 

.5 Repentance 

.6 Obedience 

.7 Justification 

.8 Sanctiflcation 

.9 Predestination and freewill seeaiso 233 7; 123; 159 

235 Angels Devils Satan 

236 Eschatology Last things 

.1 Deth 

.2 

.3 Millennium 

.4 Intermediate state Sheol Hades 

.5 Purgatory 

.6 Paradise Limbuspatrum 

. 7 Limbo Limbus infantum 

.8 Resurrection 

.9 Judgment See also Christology, 232.7 



RELIGION 



237 FlltUre State See also Natural theology, 218 

.1 Eternity 

.2 Immortality 

.3 Conditional immortality 

.4 Heven 

.5 Hell Gehenna 

.6 Retribution Future punishment 

.7 Eternal punishment See also 289.1 Universalists 

238 Creeds Confessions Covenants Catechisms 

Divided more closely if wisht like 280-289; e. g. 238.19 Greek church 

.1 Apostles, Nicene, and Athanasian creeds 
.2 Creed of Pius 4 (Trent) and later Roman 

•3 Anglican 39 articles, A. D. I55I Seealso 264.037 Liturgy 

.4 Continental protestant Lutheran Calvinist Dort 
.5 Westminster Saybrook Cong'l Cambridge Savoy 

.6-. 9 Of Other SectS Divided like 286-289 

239 Apologetics Evidences of Christianity 

If preferd, courses of apologetic lectures may be kept together; e. g. 239.01 Bamp- 
V^V-'^-*''* 1 ton; .02 Boyle; .03 Hulsean; .04 Bohlen; .05 Paddock; .08 Miscellaneous. More 

usefully each book is clast under the most specific hed that will contain it 
See also natural theology 21 1-2 18 and doctrins 231-237 for discussion of separate 
topics 

.1 Apostolic age 

.2 Against the Jews 

.3 Against the heathen 

.4 Against the NeO-PlatomStS See 273.1 Gnostic heresy 

.5 Against the English and Scotch deists See 211 Deism 
.6 Against the French encyclopedists 
.7 Against the rationalists 

See 211 Natural theology; 273.8 Agnostic heresy; 149.7 Agnosticism 
.8 Against the Scientists For nonchristian view, see 215 

.9 Other special denials 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 

240 Devotional Practical 

241 Didactic 

Specifying the Christian's duty to do and to avoid For Catechisms see 238 

242 Meditativ, contemplativ 

Consolatory. See also 248 Personal religion 

.1 Thomas a Kempis 

243 Hortatory, evangelistic 

Urging sinners to Christian repentance 

244 Miscellany : religious novels, Sunday school 

books, allegories, satires, etc. 

But class Bunyan in 823.42 because of his literary prominence 

245 Hymnology Religious poetry 

Hymns without music. For hymns with music see 783.9 » 
Divided by languages, like 80a, and then by churches, like 280, if denomination is 
clearly markt 

See also 223.5 Psalms; 264.038 Psalter 

246 Ecclesiology Symbolism Religious art 

246-7 cover religious bearings. For art side see 700 

.1 Byzantine and Gothic ecclesiology 

See 723 Medieval architecture; 726 Religious architecture 

.2 Primitiv church and heathen art 

.3 Images in churches Iconoclasts 

.4 Protestantism and religious art 

.5 Emblematic and cryptografic art: catacomb symbols 

.6 Liturgic symbolism: altar, colors, lights 

See also 264 Public worship 

.7 Evangelistic use of music and art, pictorial and plastic: 
Delia Robbias 

.8 Eucharistic music : Ambrose, Gregory the Great Later 

development See also 783 Sacred music; 264.2 Public worship 

•9 

247 Sacred furniture Vestments Vessels Orna- 

ments, etc. 

.1 Font Baptistery Lectern Pulpit 
.2 Tabernacle Rood screen Reredos 
.3 Sculpture and mortuary design 

See 718 Monuments; 726.8 Mortuary bildings; 730 Sculpture 

4 Illumination Mosaics Enamels Staind glass 

See also 745 Ornamental design; 748 Staind glass 

.5 Fresco and religious painting See also 750 Painting 
.6 Pallium Miter Crozier Ring 
.7 Vestments and altar cloths 

.8 Eucharistic Vessels See also 265.3 Sacraments 

.9 Ornaments, etc: crucifix, banners, thurible, incense 



RELIGION 



248 Personal religion Asceticism 

See also 273.2 Ascetic heresy 

249 Family devotions s ee 2 6 4 public worship 

250 Homiletic Pastoral Parochial 

251 Homiletics Preaching s ec 2 6 4 .6 public worship 

Divided like 252, for matter about special kinds of sermons 

252 Sermons 

When too varied for any of the subheds . i-.Q. may be divided with .0 by churches 
and sects, like 280; e.g. protestant episcopal sermons 252.03, but a collection of 
bishop's addresses 252.1. Sermons on specific topics ar more useful, like other 
pamflets, clast with the topics, e. g. a sermon on family devotions is 249, not 252.4; 
on strikes, 331.89. Tho the 9 heds below ar for collections and cross references, 
they may be used for separate sermons if preferd 

.1 Episcopal charges Pastorals 
.2 Controversial Polemic 

•3 Doctrinal Dogmatic See also 230 Dogmatics 

.4 Practical Devotional 

•5 Academic Educational See also 378.7 Baccalaureates 

.6 Political Public occasions and duties 

Thanksgiving and Fast day 

.7 Consecration Ordination Installation 

See also 265.4 Ordination; 265.9 Consecration; 262.16 Orders 

.8 Expository 

.9 Memorial Obituary Biografic Historical 

Memorial of a special church goes with that church in 280. See also 920 Biografy 

253 Pastoral visitations, evangelistic 

254 Cleric support Celibacy 

See also 176.2 Sexual ethics; 248 Asceticism; 613.89 Hygiene 

255 Brotherhoods Sisterhoods 

In the parish. For Monastic orders, see 271 

256 Societies for parish work: gilds, sodalities 

Local societies. Discussion of desirability of such work. For general societies 
see 206 and 267 

257 Parochial schools Libraries, etc. 

See also 377-5 Education; 027.8 Parish libraries 

258 Parish care of sick, fallen, etc. 

See 265.8 Ministry of sick; 176.5 Social evil 

259 Other ministrations and work 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



260 Church Institutions and work 

261 The church 

Its influence on morals, civilization, etc. Relation to social questions, laboring 

classes, etc. . 

.1 
.2 

.3 Church vs barbarism 

.4 Church and morals 

. .5 Church and intellectual development s ee also 377.8 Education 

.6 Church and civilization 

.7 Church and civil government 

See 172.3 State ethics; 322 Church and state 

.8 National churches vs organic unity 

262 Ecclesiastic polity 

.1 Ministry 

.11 Apostolic succession 

. 1 2 Episcopate 

.13 Papacy Primacy Papal supremacy; infallibility, 18 July 1870 

.14 Priest Presbyter Minister Lay ministry 

.15 Deacon Deaconess Evangelist 

.16 Orders Ordination See 265.4 Sacraments; 252.7 Sermons 

. 1 7 Episcopal 

. 1 8 Presbyterian 

. 1 9 Congregational 

.2 Parish Congregation See 250 for Parochial work 

.3 See Diocese Cathedral system 

.4 Council Synod Presbytery Congregation Convention 

Polity only, here. Proceedings go with churches, 281-9 

.5 General or ecumenic council s ee also 270.2 

.6 Canons Decrees 

.7 Traditions 

.8 Authority Church and ministerial Private judgment 

.9 Disciplin Courts Trials For Canon law see 348 

263 Sabbath Lord's day Sunday 

.1 Hebraic sabbath 

.2 Modern sabbath Seventh day 

.3 Lord's day Christian Sunday 

.4 Sunday observance 

.5 Work 

.6 Amusement 

•7 Opening libraries and museums 

See also 024.4 Library rules 

.8 Sunday laws 
•9 



RELIGION 



264 Public worship Divine servis Ritual 

Prayer books. See also 246 Ecclesiology; 247 Sacred furniture. General works 
are divided with .0 by churches like 280; e. g. Roman catholic prayer book 
264 02 Under various churches the servises may be further divided, as e. g. 

.03 Anglican and American P. E. ritual 

.03 1 Calendar Festivals and fasts See also 529-6 Chronology 

.032 Lectionary and rubrics 

.033 Morning prayer Litany 

.034 Evening prayer Vespers Compline 

.035 Sacraments, ordinances, and servises see also 26s Sacraments 

.036 Collects, epistles and gospels 

.037 Ordinal Articles Creeds See also 238.3 Creeds, doctrins 

.038 Psalter and Other See 223.S Psalms; 245 Hymnology 

.039 History of successiv prayerbooks 
7 .i v Prayer Extempore Liturgic 

See alsp 248-249 Private and family prayer 

.2 Music Singing Instrumental Praise meeting 

See also 783 Sacred music, 246.7, 246.8 Ecclesiology 

.3 Scripture readings 

.4 Antiphonal or responsiv readings 

.5 Confessions of faith Creeds s ee also 238 Creeds 

.6 Sermons Exhortations Instructions 

See also 251 and 252 Preaching and sermons 

y .7 Prayer and conference meetings 

.8 Class and covenant meetings Love feasts 

.9 SaCramentalS See also 265 Sacraments 

265 Sacraments Ordinances 

.1 Baptism 

.2 Confirmation Church fellowship 

.3 Eucharist Holy communion Sacrifice 

.4 Holy Orders Ordination See also 262.16 Ministry; 252.7 Sermons 

.5 Marriage See also 173 Ethics of the family 

.6 Penance Confession Absolution 

.7 Extreme unction Viaticum 

.8 Ministry of sick and ded: faith cure, healing, burial 

•9 Consecration Dedication See 262.16 Ordination; 252.7 Sermons 

266 Missions: home and foren 

Subdivided by churches, like 280. See also 269 Parish missions; 377-6 Missionary 
■k^A^AJL V— ^mu^ schools 

Missions in special countries or places covering the work of several sects go under 
the geograficly divided Religious history 274-279. The mission of a single sect in a 
special country or place goes with the history of the sect in 282-289 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



May be divided by countries like 940-999 



267 Associations 

General societies demanding of members activ personal work. For local societies, 
see 256. For Bible, tract, and similar general societies see 206 

.1 Religious societies of both men and women 

.11 U. S. Christian commission 

. 1 5 Salvation army 

267.2 Religious societies of men 

For Y. M. C. A. see 267 .3; missionary societies, 266; ministerial education societies 
207; Bible societies, 206 

.21 17th century or earlier 

.22 1 8th century 

.23 19th century; interdenominational and undenominational 
.231 In educational institutions 

Divided like 940-99. If preferd, cancel .231 and put all together in .234-9. 
For work of Y. M. C. A. see 267.361 

.232 Nasmith societies 

.233 Young men's Christian unions; i. e. not "evangelic," 

etc. 

.234— .239 Others Divided like 940-99 

.24 19th century; denominational 

.241 In educational institutions 

Divided like 282-289. If preferd, cancel .241 and put all together in 
.242-9. For work of Y. M. C. A. see 267.361 
.242— .249 Others Divided like 282-289 

.3 Young Men's Christian associations 

Activ membership confined to members of " evangelic " churches 

To shorten the number, X may be used for 267.3 thruout; i. e. X 19 would mean 

" Work in small towns " 

.31 Objects, field and extension 

.311 Need and objects 

.312 Limits: for and b/ young men and distinctivly religious 

.313 Relation to the church 

.314 International work 

.315 National work 

.316 State work 

.317 District work 

.318 Work in towns abl ? to support a general secretary 

.319 Work in small towns 

.32 BildingS See also library Hidings 022 

.321 Location Provision for growth 

.322 Materials and protection against fire 

.323 Plans Number, size and arrangement of rooms 

.324 Reception, social rooms and parlors 

.325 Library Reading, lecture, and class roDms See 022 

.326 Administration and special rooms Boys' rooms 

.327 Physical culture rooms 

.328 Lighting, heating, and ventilation 

.329 Fixtures, furniture, and fittings 



Methods only. 
For history , reports 
and periodicals see 
267.39; for secre- 
taries see 267.341 



RELIGION 



Organization 

Incorporation 



Constitution and bylaws 



Branches and suborganizations Including women's work for young men 

Managers Offisers serving without pay- 
Trustees (in charge of real estate) 
Directors 
President 
Treasurer 

Recording secretary 

Executiv or corresponding secretary 
Standing committees 

Importance; enlistment and composition 

Principles and methods of organization 

Names and duties See also Department work, 267.35 
Membership 

Membership committee 

Classes of membership 

Securing and retaining members 

Development of activ members 

Associate membership and its relations 

For members' meeting see Social work, 267.3544 

Salaried offisers: duties, qualifications, training 

General secretary and assistants 

Including international and state secretaries. See also 267.314- 316 
Offis and work 
Qualifications 
Relationship 

To churches and pastors 

To offisers, directors, and committees 

To other employees 

To the members 

To the religious work 

To the business community 

To fellow secretaries 
Personal hints 

Considering a call and beginning work 

Spiritual and intellectual growth and helth 

Offis work, system, and economy 

Personal appearance and conversation 

Ladies' company 

" Secretarialism " 
Librarian and assistants 

May be divided like 267.341. See also Library administration, 025 and 

267.3532 

Physical director and assistants 

May be divided like 267.341. See also 267.355 and 613 7 

Other salaried offisers 

Training; need and methods, demand and supply 
Training schools 
Training by apprentisship 




Methods only; for reports see 267.30 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



267.35 Local work by departments 

.351 Business department 

1 Finance committee 

2 Annual budget 

3 Endowments and other sources of income 

4 Solicitation, collection and disbursement 

5 Financial bookkeeping 

6 Debt, taxes, etc. 

7 Records and statistics 

8 Advertizing, including anniversaries and parlor conferences 

9 Printed matter Including bulletin, prospectus, etc. 
^52 Religious department 

1 Committees 

2 Individual Bible study Methods and helps 

3 Bible classes 

4 Training classes Personal work 

5 Bible readings Song servises 

6 Evangelistic meetings 

7 Social religious meetings 

8 Other meetings in the rooms 

9 Work outside the rooms 

In public institutions, sermons to young men, distribution of religiouj 
papers, invitations, etc. 

353 Educational department 

1 Committees 

2 Library See 267.342 and 025 

3 Reading room 

4 Classes 

5 Lectures and talks 

6 Literary societies 

354 Social department 

1 Committees 

2 Reception committee 

3 Social rooms and fittings See 267.32 

4 Receptions Socials Entertainments 

5 Music 

6 Amusements Including games of skill See also 794 
.355 Physical department 

1 Committees 

2 Aim and benefit of department 

For Physical director see 267.343; Equipment, methods, etc. 613.7 

.356 Information, relief, etc. department 

1 Boarding house bureaus 

2 Employment bureau 

3 Savings bureau 

4 Visitation of sick 

5 Destitute young men 
357 Boys department 

1 Committees 

2 Religious work 

3 Educational work 

4 Social work 

5 Physical work 

6 Information, relief, etc. 

.358 

•359 Janitor's department: bilding; care, cleaning, safety Police 



RELIGION 



267.36 Work among special classes 

Y. M. C. A. only; other religious societies of men go in 267.2 

.361 College and school 

1 History and methods in general 

2 International reports Including Northfield meetings 

3 International periodicals 

For state and sectional reports and periodicals see 267.39 

.362 Railroad employees 

1 History and methods in general 

2 International reports 
•3^3 Commercial travelers 
.364 Foren-speaking 

Divided like 400; e. g. 3 German, 4 French, 5 Italian, etc. 

365 Negroes 

.366 American Indians 

.367 Soldiers U. S. Christian commission, 267.11 

.368 Sailors 

.369 Other Policemen, firemen, fishermen, lumbermen, mutes, etc. 

.39 History, reports, periodicals, etc. For methods see 267. 314-319 

.391 International history 

.392 International reports, etc. 

1 Reports Reports, etc. of international college and 

railroad work go in 267.361-.362 

2 Other pamflets 

.393 International periodicals International college periodicals, 267.3613 

•394~-399 Special countries Divided like 940-999 
.4 Religious societies of women 
.41 
.42 

.43 19th century; interdenominational and undenominational 

.431 

.432 Women's Christian associations 

Divided like 267.3. To shorten the number, W may be used for 267.43a 
thruout; e. g. W 1 would mean ' Objects, field and extension ' 

.433 King's daughters 

.44 19th century; denominational Divided like 282-289 

.5 Young Women's Christian associations 



Activ membership confined to members of ' evangelic ' churches 
Divided like 267.3~-399 

To shorten the number Y may be used for 267.5; e. g. Y3, Organization, insted 
of 267.53 

.6 ReligiOUS SOCietieS Of yOUng people For Sunday schools see 268 

.61 Interdenominational and undenominational 

.613 Young people's society of Christian endevor 

1 Reports, etc. 

2 Periodicals 

.62 Denominational Divided like 282-289 

•7 ReligiOUS SOCietieS Of boys Not Y. M. C A. Divided like 267 6 

.8 ReligiOUS SOCietieS Of girlS Not Y. W. C A. Divided like 267.6 

268 Sunday schools 

269 Revivals Retreats Parish missions 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



270 Religious history 

Ancient period: to conversion of Germans 

See 281. 1-281. 4, for collected works of early theologic writers, etc. 270 is for religious 

history of these periods 

For religious history of special countries, either general or for special periods, see country 
divisions, 274-279; e. g. English reformation, 274.2 

.1 Apostolic Nativity to Constantine 

.2 Period of ecumenic councils Centralization 325-787 

The Greek church acknowledges these 7 councils as really Ecumenic. Anglicai.s 





V generally recognize only the first 6. See also 262.5 Polity 


.21 


First of Nice A. 


D- 325 


.22 


First of Constantinople 


38i 


•23 


First of Ephesus 


43i 


.24 


Chalcedon 


451 


•25 


Second of Constantinople 


553 


26 


Third of Constantinople 


680-81 


27 


Second of Nice 


787 



Medieval period: Charlemagne to Luther 
270.3 Charlemagne Papacy vs empire 787-1054 

Church planted among the Germans. Feudalism. Great schism, cast vs west, 
1054 

.4 Hildebrand Roman supremacy 1054- 12 00 

Temporal power. Scholasticism. First 3 crusades 

.5 Later medieval Renaissance 1200-15 17 

Innocent 3- Papal schism. Avignon. Nominalism vs realism. Greek church 
under Moslems. Education. Arts. Inventions. Pre-reformation 

Modern period: Reformation to present 
.6 Reformation Counter reformation 15 17-1648 

Council of Trent, A. D. 1545-63. Diet of Augsburg. Luther. Melancthon. 
Calvin. Knox. Religious wars. Jesuit missions in east. See also reformation 
in England, etc. 274.2 

.7 Peace of Westphalia to French revolution 1648- 1789 

Union of church and state. Deism. Materialism 

.8 Modern Rationalistic 1789- 

Holy alliance. Greek church in Russia. Atheism. Pantheism. Protestant 

missions 

271 Monastic orders Monasteries 

Including monasticism and monastic foundations 

See also 255 Brotherhoods; 726.7 Architecture of monasteries, etc. 

.1 Benedictines founded 529 



.12 Cistercians " 1098 

.125 Trappists " 11 50 

.2 Dominicans " 11 70 

.3 Franciscans " 1182 

.36 Capuchins " 1525 

.4 Augustinians " 1256 

.5 Jesuits " 1540 



RELIGION 



271.6 Passionists, 1720 Redemptorists, 1732 

.7 Lesser Roman orders 

.71 Carthusians, founded A. D. 1086 

.73 Carmelites 12th century 

.75 Sulpicians, 1642 

.76 Oblates 

.77 Lazarists, 1624 

.78 Christian Brothers, iSth century De la Salle 

.79 Other lesser Roman orders 

.8 Anglican brotherhoods 

.9 Sisterhoods 

.91 Sisters of Charity Vincent de Paul founded A. D. 1629 

.92 Sisters of Mercy Augustinian " " 183 1 

.93 Ladies of the Sacred Heart Jesuit " " 1800 

.94 Sceurs de bon Secours Nurses 

.95 Little Sisters of the Poor 

.96 Contemplativ Cloisterd nuns 

.97 Other Roman sisterhoods 

.971 Carmelites 

.972 Second of St Dominic 

.973 Franciscans 

.974 Ursulines A. D. 1537 

.975 Of the Visitation " 1610 

.976 Of St Joseph " 1650 

.977 Of the Presentation " 1777 

.98 Anglican sisterhoods 

.99 Other protestant orders Deaconesses (Kaiserwerth) 

272 Persecutions 

See also special sects, 280; and history of special countries, 940-999 

.1 Apostolic church by imperial Rome ist~4th century 
.2 Heretics by Inquisition or Holy Offis Since 1470 
.3 Waldenses and Albigenses nth-i2th century 

By Roman church. See also 283.4, Protestant sects 

.4 Huguenots French protestants 

By Roman church. St Bartholomew, 1572. Edict of Nantes, 1598; revocation, 
1685 

See also 284.5 Protestant sects 

.5 Molinists and Quietists 

By Roman catholics. Close of 16th century to destruction of Port Royal, A. D. 
1709. See also 273.7 Heresies 

.6 Marian Anglican reformers by Mary A. D. 1553 58 
.7 Elizabethan Later 16th century 

Persecution of Roman church by Anglicans 

.8 Quakers Baptists Witches Later 17th century 

Persecutions by puritans. See also 133.4 Witchcraft 

.9 Other persecutions 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



273 Heresies 



For the history of special doctrins see 230-239, Doctrinal theology 

.1 Gnostic First 3 centuries 

Reaction of pantheism and heathen philosofy on Christianity. See also 189 I 
Gnostic philosofy; 186.4 Neo-Platonism; 239.4 Apologetics. 

.2 Manichaeism Parsee dualism 3d century 

Opposition of good and evil. Mystic. Ascetic. See also 149.3 Mysticism; 
248 Asceticism; 289.8 Shakers, Mystics 

.3 Sabellian 

That the Trinity is not of persons, but of successiv manifestations. About 250 
A. D. Held by Schleiermacher, Bushnell, Swedenborg 

Arian Denying divinity of Christ 4th century 
Pelagian 5th century 

Denying original sin and supernatural grace 

Antinomian 16th century 

Denying force of law, under Gospel dispensation 

Molinist and Jansenist Pietists 



A. D. 1580-1700 

Port Royal. Augustine's doctrin of grace vs the Roman doctrin of good works 

Agnostic 

Denying possibility of revelation. Holding that theology and the supernatural 
lie outside the domain of human knowledge. See also 149.7 Philosofy; 211 
Atheism; 239 Apologetics 

.9 Minor heresies 

274-279 General religious history by countries 

^"^I-i • » 274-279 is divided geograficly like 940-999 

280 Christian churches and sects 

281-289.8 may be subdivided where needed like 940-999 

281 Primitiv and Oriental churches 

See also 270.1-270.3, Early religious history 

.1 Apostolic church, to time of great schism, A. D. 1054 

Works of apostolic and Christian fathers here; use 270 for religious history of 
these periods. See also 229.9 Apocryphal books 

2 Primitiv apostolic, to end of first century 

3 Ante-Nicene, A. D. 100-325 See also 270.1 

4 Post-Nicene, A. D. 325-1054 See also 270.2-3 

5 Oriental churches 

6 Armenian 

7 Coptic 

8 Nestorian 

9 Eastern or Greco-Russian or Holy orthodox church 

The great schism, mutual excommunication, A. D. 1054, separates the Catholic 
church into Eastern and Western churches, which from this time have separate 
histories 

282 Western or Roman catholic church 

Divided geograficly like 940-999 

283 Anglican and American P. E. church 

Divided geograficly, when needed, like 940-999; e. g. the Anglican church in Australia 
is 283.94; in India, 283.54 



RELIGION 



284 Continental protestant sects Protestantism 

.1 Lutheran Reformd See also 285.7, Reformd church in America 

German reformd church in United States 

.2 Calvinist Zwinglian see 28s, and 286.1 

.3 Hussites Anabaptists Leyden see 286.1 

.4 Albigenses Waldenses Vaudois s ee 272.3 

•5 HugUenotS See 272.4 

.6 Moravian 

.7 Scandinavian Swedish 

.8 Old catholic 

Here are clast those denying papal infallibility, or for other cause cut off from 
Rome, tho catholic in other respects 

.9 Other 

285 Presbyterian Reformd Congregational 

Next 2 subdivisions are sectarian, not geografic 

.1 Presbyterian church in America 

Subdivided geograficly; e. g. 285.173 Presbyterian church in United States, 
285.175 Southern presbyterian church 



.2 


Presbyterian church in Great Britain 


3 


Cumberland presbyterian 


4 


United presbyterian 


•5 


Reformd presbyterian 


.6 


Minor presbyterian sects 


•7 


Reformd (Dutch) church in America 


.8 


Congregational 


9 


Puritanism 



286 Baptist Immersionist 

.1 Calvinistic or Regular 

Including Arminian or general baptists, reunited with Calvinistic in 1891 

.2 Free wil 

.3 Seventh day 

.4 Old school (Primitiv, Antimission or Hardshel) 

.5 Other baptist sects 

May be clast if preferd with any of the larger sects which they most closely 
resemble or of which they ar offshoots 

.6 Disciples (Campbellite or Christian) 

.7 Adventists 

.9 Other immersionists 



DEC I M A L CLASSIFI C AT I O N 



287 Methodist 

.1 Wesleyan methodist 

.2 Calvinistic methodist 

.3 Welsh Calvinistic methodist 

.4 Primitiv methodist 

.5 Primitiv Wesleyan 

.6 Methodist episcopal 

.7 Methodist protestant 

.8 African methodist 

.9 Minor methodist sects 

288 Unitarian seeaiso 273 4 

289 Other Christian sects 

.1 Universalist 
.2 

•3 

.4 New church or Swedenborgian 

.5 Christian science 

.6 Quaker Friends Hicksites 

.7 Mennonite 

.8 Shaker MystiC For Mystic heresy see 273.2 

.9 Minor Christian sects 

290 Ethnic and other religions 

Including comparativ religion and general histories of religion where an equal or 
minor place is given to Christianity 

291 Comparativ and general mythology 

292 Greek and Roman mythology 

293 Teutonic and Northern mythology 

294 Brahmanism Buddhism 

For other Indie religions, see 299.11. See also 891.2 Sanskrit literature; 177-5 Caste 

295 Parseeism Zend Avesta 

For other Iranic religions, sse 299.15. See also 891.52 Zend literature 

296 JlldaiSm For other Semitic religions, see 299.2 

297 Mohammedanism 

298 Mormonism s ee a iso 173.2 Poi yg am y 

299 Minor nonchristian religions 

Subdivided ethnicly like 491-499; e. g. Egyptian religion, 299.31; Afghani religion, 
299 158 



Sociology 



300 Sociology in general 

301-309 all have Sociology in general as their subject, but it is treated in these various 
forms. A periodical on Education is 370.5. not 305, which is only for periodicals on 
Sociology in general. In Sociology, most works in these forms are limited to one division; 
e. g. to Political economy, Education, Law, etc. All these have the same subdivision 
of General works; i. e. essays on the various divisions are 310.4, 320.4, 330.4, and so on to 
essays on Manners and Customs in general, 390.4. A naught in any class number show^ 
the subject to bd general, not specific 

301 Philosofy, theories 

See also 901 Philosofy of history; 320.1 Theory of state 

302 Compends, outlines 

303 Dictionaries, cyclopedias, etc. 

304 Essays, lectures, addresses 

305 Periodicals, magazines, reviews 

306 Societies: transactions, reports 

307 Education: teaching, study, etc. seeaiso 3 7o 

308 Polygrafy: collected works, extracts, etc. 

Put here collected works of statesmen; e. g. works of Adams, Jefferson, etc. 

309 History of social science 

.1 Social surveys 

Divided like 940-909 Better clast by general libraries in 914-919 

310 Statistics 

311 Theory, methods Science of statistics 

Principles of tabulation, grafic charts, etc. Methods of gathering data 

J 3i2 Population (progress of) Vital statistics: 
births, deths, mortality, longevity 

See also 614.1 Registration and vital statistics 

Statistics are divided geograficly like 930-999; e. g. Population of Maine 3 12.74 1 

313 Special topics 

3 1 4-3 1 q General statistics 

Divided geograficly like 940-999 
The statistics of any special matter are put with the subject, e. g. of Domestic animals 
in 636, of Shorthand in 653. of French novels in 843, of Theaters in 792, etc. Statistics 
' fr^P- too general to be included in any topic are divided by countries. Statistics of New 
York city would be 317.471, but the statistics of Medicin in New York would be put 
with 610. Medicin: i. e. the topic outranks the locality 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



320 Political science 

.1 Theory 

.11 Origin of the state 

.12 Nation and territory 

.121 Ethnografic 

People of same race comprise the nation 

.124 Geografic 

Unity of territory 

.126 Expansion Acquisition of territory 

1 By discovery 

3 " occupation and possession 

5 " cession Annexation 

7 " purchase or exchange 
9 " conquest or revolution 

.127 Alienation of territory 

128 Frontiers Boundaries 

1 Natural boundaries 

2 Mountains 

4 Rivers 

6 Lakes 

8 Coast 

9 Artificial boundaries 

.15 Nature, entity, concept of the state 

.151 Juridic theory 

.152 Political theory 

.153 Social and evolutionary theories 

.154 The state as a moral organism 

.157 Soverenty 

See also 341 International law 

.158 Allegiance Loyalty, etc. Patriotism 
See also state ethics 172. 1 Duties of citizens 

.159 National growth and d^cay 

.18 Symbolism, emblems: arms, flag, seal, etc. 

Better clast in 929.8 and 929.9 

.2 Compends, statecraft 

.3 Dictionaries 

.4 Essays 

.5 Periodicals 

.6 Societies 

.7 Education 

.8 Polygrafy 

.9 History of political science, divided like 930-999 

321 Form of state 

.01 Simple state Soveren state 

.02 Mixt state 

.021 Federal state Bundestaat Federation 

.022 Confederation of states Staatenbund 

Union of soveren states Alliance 

.023 Suzerain states 

.025 Semisoveren, dependent and vassal states 

.026 Mediatized state 

.027 Protected state 

Protectorates, spheres of influence 

.028 Vassal states 

.03 Empire, imperialism 

.04 World state 

.041 Internationalism 



POLITICAL SCIENCE 



321.07 Ideal state Utopias 

See also 335 Communism and socialism 

.09 Change of form of state 

.092 Revolution 

.094 Coups d'etat 

.1 Family Patriarchal age 

.2 Tribes Clans Marks Village communities 

See also 333.2 Community ownership of land 

.3 Feudalism 

.4 Democracy Pure; e. g. Athens, town meeting 

.5 Aristocracy e. g. Italian republic; medieval German citiss 

.6 Absolute monarchy 

.7 Constitutional monarchy 

.8 Republic Modern democracy, delegated powers 

322 Chlirch and StatC See also r 7 2 -3' state ethics; 261.7. The church 

Political aspects of combination or separation of state and church affairs 

323 Internal relations with groups and individuals 

.1 Movement and questions of nationalities, races and lan- 
guages 

Divided by country like 930-999; e. g. struggle of nationalities in Austria 323 . 1436 
For immigrant nationalities in a country see 325 

.2 Political struggles and troubles 

Revolutions, revolts; riots, uprisings. See also 321.09 

.3 The state and social groups 

Classes, orders, estates 

.31 Nobility, aristocracy; welthy class 

.32 Middle class, bourgeoisie 

.33 Proletariat, laboring classes, pesantry 

See also political economy, 331-8 Laboring classes 
.34 Serfs Vlllenage See 326.3 Serfs and serfdom 

.4 The state and the individual 

Natural rights, individual rights, individualism 

.41 Equality of individuals, races, etc. 

.42 Equality before the law; justis, etc. 

.43 Life 

.44 Liberty 

.441 Freedom of action 

.442 " " conscience 

.443 " " speech 

.444 Academic freedom See 378.121 Freedom of teaching 

.445 Freedom of the press 

See also Journalism 070.13; Administration 351.751 

.446 Freedom of drama 

•447 " " art 

.45 Family 

.46 Property 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



323.47 Right of assembly, association 

.48 Right of petition 

.49 Limitation and suspension of individual rights and guaranties 

.491 Martial law 

.492 State of siege 

.6 Citizenship 

,6l LaWS Divided by country like 930-999 

.62 Naturalization 

.63 Alien races and citizenship 

.64 Loss and restoration of citizenship 

.65 Duties and obligations of citizens 

Scholar as citizen 

.67 Rights of aliens 

.68 Eligibility to offis 

324 Suffrage 

.1 Qualifications, conditions and bases 

. 1 1 Age 

For sex see 324.3 Woman suffrage 

. 1 3 Property 

Household suffrage 

.14 Education Competency Capacity 

.15 Nationality Race Religion 

.16 Residence, domicil 

Length of residence 

.162 Voting by soldiers 

.164 " " students 

.17 Exclusion from and suspension of suffrage 

.171 Incompetency, incapacity 

Insane, idiots See also 324. 14 

172 Bankruptcy 

173 Pauperism 

174 Conviction of crime; bribery, selling vote 
177 Government servis 

Military servis: soldiers and sailors 
Civil servis, police offisers 

.178 Other special classes 

Students, domestic servants, etc. 

.2 Forms of suffrage Systems Voting, etc. 

.21 Electoral systems 

.211 Universal suffrage 

.212 Partial suffrage, limited 

.213 Plural vote 

.214 Class vote, class system 

.215 Compulsory voting 

.216 Short ballot 

Aiming to reduce number of electiv offises 



POLITICAL SCIENCE 



324.22 Constituencies and representation of interests 

.221 Single member constituency 

Scrutin d'arrondissement 

.222 Multimember constituency 

Scrutin de liste, block vote, general ticket 

.223 Minority representation 

Single vote, limited vote, cumulativ vote, proxy system 

.224 Proportional representation 

Preferential: alternativ, contingent, transferable vote. Quota: simple. 
Droop, d'Hondt, substitute or Gove method. Graduated system List 
system. For second ballot see 324.248 

.227 Economic and social groups 

.23 Selection of candidates 

Declaration and presentation of candidacy 

.231 Nomination of candidate 

.233 Party organization Conferences 

.235 Caucus primary 

.237 Direct " 

.239 Platform 

.24 Voting procedure 

.241 Electoral lists: formation, revision 

.242 Registration system 

Poll lists and tally sheets 

.243 Jurisdiction Examination of credentials 

Appeal, petition 

.244 Open voting 

.245 Secret ballot 

.246 Voting place 

.247 Absent voting Voting by mail 

Traveling salesmen, railway employees, mail clerks, etc. 

.248 Second ballot 

.249 Indirect voting Electoral college 

.25 Ballot 

^251 Unofficial 

.252 Official 

.253 Party ballots 

354 Blanket ballots 

.255 Party colums 

.256 Offis groups Australian ballot 

•257 

258 Voting machines 

.26 Results and announcements 

Inspectors of election, meeting, etc. 

261 Count of ballot 

.262 Majority elects Absolute majority 

.263 Plurality u Relativ majority 

.268 Announcement of vote 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



324.27 Corruption Electoral fraud 

.271 Bribery and undue influence: intimidation, selling votes 

.272 Fraud in voting: personation, repeating, illegal voting, 

colonizing 

.273 Election contributions and expenditures 

Limitations on expenditures; publicity. Restriction on contributions 
political assessments 

.^74 

.275 Fraud in counting 

Miscount of ballots; certification of false returns 

.276 

.277 Election contests 

28 Suffrage reform 

.3 Woman suffrage 
.4-.g Suffrage by country 

Divided like 940-999 



325 Colonies and immigration 

.1 Immigrants See also 323.6 Citizenship 

.2 Emigrants 

Divided by country of origin like 930-999. This brings together material on 
emigrants of a special country or race; e,g. Chinese emigrants 325.251. Material 
on emigrants is usually most important in respect to country of origin, so is best 
clast in 325.2. Most libraries will have little except on immigrants to their own 
country, hence in United States 325.2 will relate almost wholly to specific nation- 
alities in United States; e. g. 325.26 Negro question 

.3 Colonization 

Divided by mother country like 930-999; e. g. 325 342 British colonies. This 
brings together colonies planted by a special country, but does not specify 
location of colony 

.4-.0, In special countries 3^"^^' 

Both immigration and colonization divided like 940-999. by country of settlement; 
e. g. 325.73 Foren population of United States; Americanization. See note to 
325.2 for a given nationality 

SlaVCry See a ^ so 973. 7 Civil war, 37i 974 Education of freedmen 

.1 Slave trade 

.2 Coolies and contract slaves 

.3 Serfs and serfdom 

.4 Antislavery documents 

.5 * periodicals 

.6 " societies 

.7 Proslavery 

.8 Emancipation and freedom 

•9 History Of Slavery Divided geograficly like 930-999 

.92 Biografy of slaves 

327 Foren relations Divided geograficly like 930-999 

328 Legislation, lawmaking 

Legislativ bodies and annals 

.1 Parliamentary law 



POLITICAL SCIENCE 



328.2 Legislation 

.21 Interpretation of law 

.22 Uniform laws 

Uniformity of law on same subject in different states or countries 

.23 Codification 

.24 Policy Tendencies 

.241 verlegislat ion 

.243 Special legislation For private and local bills see 328.378 

.25 Legislativ powers 
.251 Juridic " 

.252 Executiv " 

.253 Implied " 

.256 Restrictions and checks on legislation See also 328. 340 

.26 Direct legislation 
.261 Initiativ 

Voters by petition originate legislation 

.264 Referendum 

.27-.2Q Subjects of legislativ action Divided like 351.7-351.9 
.3 Legislatures 

Summary 

328.3 Legislatures 

.31 Upper house 

.32 Lower " 

.33 Membership Election 

.34 Prerogativs and powers 

.35 Sessions 

.36 Internal organization and disciplin 

.37 Legislativ procedure 

.39 Form of legislature 

.3 1 Upper house 

.32 Lower " 

.33 Membership Election 

.331 Conditions of membership, eligibility- 

Age, residence, property Membership without voting power 

.332 Exofficio members 

1 Cabinet and government offisers 

2 Expresidents 

3 Other exoffisers 

4 Clergy, bishops 
.333 Compensation 

Annual salaries, per diem payment. Milage, traveling expenses. Special 
sessions. See also 328.347 Privileges 

.334 Representation 

1 of states 

2 territories 

3 colonies and dependencies 

4 classes 

Universities, landowners, Irish and Scotch peers 

5 of election districts Apportionment 

Equalization of representation; unfair apportionment; 'rotten boros \ 
reapportionment 

6 Gerrymandering 

9 Number of members 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



328.335 



3 
4 

5 

6 



.338 

•339 

•34 

•34i 

•342 

•343 

•344 
•345 

•346 
•347 

.348 
•349 

•35 
•35i 

•352 

•353 

•354 
•355 
•356 
•357 
•358 



Methods of appointment Election 
Appointment by government or crown 

For life or for a term 

Hereditary right 



Election by direct vote : plurality or majority 
Length of term 

Entire or partial renewal of membership; holdover member 

Vacancies, resignations 

Method of filling vacancies; special elections 

Contested elections 

Official membership lists, directories 
Unofficial lists or directories 
Prerogativs and powers Restrictions 
Power over revenue and appropriation 
to judge of elections 
over members 

Power to investigate or punish members 

Power of expulsion 

" over government offisers 

Power of investigation for impeachment, see 351 .96-. 99 
" to imprison citizens 

Treatymaking power 
Privileges 

Franking privilege, postage and stationery: railroad passes; free distribution 

of books 

Immunities 

From arrest 

Restriction 

OfRsholding Instructions by electors 

Direct mandate See also 328.26 Direct legislation 

Sessions 

Method of summoning 

Parliamentary writ 

Date of session 

Fixt or movable 

Frequency of sessions 

Annual, biennial, quadrennial 

Length of session Life of legislature 

Recess 

Adjournment Prorogation Dissolution 
Executiv session: procedure 
Special session Extra session 



POLITICAL SCIENCE 



Internal organization and disciplin 

Verification of powers, credentials 

Oath of offis 

Offisers: appointment, election 
Presiding offiser, speaker 
President protem 
Secretaries, clerks 

Bill clerk Enrolling, engrossing clerks 

Sergeant at arms 

Pages, messengers, door keepers 

Payment of employees: gratuities, fees, extra pay 

Unnecessary attendants 

Committees 

Standing, special, joint 

Special commissions 

For investigation, not administrativ commissions 

Records 

Supplies: daily papers, postage stamps 

Telegraf and telefone bills 

Disciplin: suspension, investigation 
Bribery Illegal practises 

Graft bills, blackmail 

Lobbying 

Including that by heds of depts and institutions 

Legislativ procedure 
Rules, manuals 

See 8 under 328. 4-. 9 divided by country 

Petition, addresses 

Parliamentary inquiries, commissions 
Recommendations from executiv 

Bills 

Technic: bill drafting, introduction 
Printing, enrolling, engrossing 

Action by legislature before passage 

Readings: 1st, 2d 
Reference to committees 

Committee work or procedure: investigation, hearings, conferences 

3d reading 
Contest over passage 
Party caucuses, logrolling 
Final passage 

Rules committee, ' lifting ' committee, ' steering ' committee 

Vote: viva voce, by roll call; by ballot; obligation of voting in person, 

pairing 

Required majority. Veto, see 353.03 

Passing over veto. Bills left in hands of executiv: 30 day bills, pocket 
veto 

Bills which become law without executiv action 

Special bills 

Financial, omnibus riders 

Joint resolutions 
Local and private legislation 
Procedure in special cases 
Impeachment 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



328.39 Form of legislature 

.391 One chamber 

.392 Two chambers 

See also 328.31 Upper chamber; 328.32 Lower chamber 

•393 Other forms 

.394 Reform 
.395 Abolition 

.4-.g Of special countries 

Divided by countries like 940-999, and under each, works may be divided: 

1 Jurnals 3 Abstracts 5 Rules 9 History of bodies 

2 Debates 4 Documents 8 Legislativ manuals 

329 Political parties Party conventions 

329.01 U. S. presidential campain documents of all parties, arranged by campains 

.1 Federal 

.2 Anti-Federal 

.3 Democratic 

.4 Whig 

.5 American Knownothing 

.6 Republican 

•7 

.8 Minor parties 

.81 Prohibition, see also 178.5 Ethics; .82 Greenback, see also 332.5, Paper money, 
.83 Woman suffrage, see also 324.3 Woman suffrage; .84 People's; .85 Labor 
see also 331.8 Laboring classes 

.9 Parties in other countries Divided geografkv uke 940-999 



ECONOMICS 



330 Economics Political economy 



• I 


TVi r>nrv 
1 11 eui y 


. I I 


vJCllClcli LUllCCp L1UI1 lMclLUIC clllU. Lilcll ttL Lcl 




Definition Limits and extent 


.12 


Classification Divisions 


1 1 


Importance Utility 


.14 


Language, terminology, symbols, abbreviat 


•15 


Scientific systems 


•151 


M^rcantil system 


• l 5 2 


Physiocrats 


' l 53 


T 1K'CP7 fnifA 


■ l 54 


Historic school 


.19 


k plo f 1 Afic f/~v nf Itat piiccoo 
JXcldllUIls LL) (JLIltrl CJclbbca 




Divided like the Classification 


.1017 


to ethics 


.1932 


" politics 


.198 


" literature 


.2 


Compends 


•3 


Dictionaries 


.4 


Essays 


• 5 


Periodicals 


.6 


Societies 


.7 


Study and teaching 


.8 


Polygrafy 


#-v 
•y 


1110 lui y 


on 


Rv nprinH<; 


.901 


Primitiv -476 A. D. 


.902 


Medieval 476-1 500 A. D. 


.903 


Modern 1501-1900 A. D. 


.904 


20th century 


.92 


Biografy 




Preferably clast in 923.3 


•93-99 


History divided by country like 930-999 



331 Labor and laborers Employers Capital 

.01 Theory 

.011 Freedom of labor 

012 

.013 Importance, utility, dignity of labor 
.015 Psychology of labor - 

See 150 Psychology 

.02 Compends 

.03 Dictionaries 

.04 Essays, addresses 

.05 Periodicals 

.06 Societies, bureaus, etc. 

.061 Government departments, bureaus 

.062 

.07 Education Exhibitions 

See also 371.42, 607, and education in special subiects 

.08 Collected works 

.09 History 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION , 

i.i Relations of capital to labor 

Industrial arbitration. Disciplin: deductions, stoppage, fines 

.2 Remuneration for work 

Wages, hire, pay, salary, fees 

.21 General 

.211 Statistical theory 

.212 Wage fund 

.213 Relation of wages to production 

.214 u a u u cost of living Living wage 

.215 M inimum wage 

.22 Wage scales: scale contracts, sliding scale 
.225 Extra pay 

Extra wages, efficiency bonus, subsidies, bounties; progressiv wage Foi 
deductions, stoppage, fines, etc. see 331. 1 

.23 Bases of wages and methods of payment 

.231 By work done 

Job, task, piece. For farming out, sweting system, see 331.236 

.232 By time: hour, day, week, month, year 

.235 Methods of payment 

Truck system, store orders, shares, payment in kind 

.236 Intervention of middleman 

Subcontract, sweting system, commissions 

.238 Payment by other than employer: fees, tips, etc 

.24 Profitsharing 

.25 Pensions Insurance 

Old age, sickness, accident 

.26 State and wages 

.261 Legislation Law s 

.262 Wages for state labor 

.27 Professional remuneration 

.28 Wages divided by trade 

.29 " " " country 

•3 Labor Of Children See also 179.2 Cruelty to children 

4 Labor Of WOmen See also 396.5 Woman 

.5 Work at reduced wages 

.51 Prisons Convict labor 

See also 365 Prisons 

•52 

.53 Convents Ouvroirs (workshops) 

Ouvroirs are charity workshops paying beneficiaries nominal wages and market- 
ing products at prices so small as to lower wages of selfsupporting workers 

.54 Contract labor 

.55 Apprentis labor 

See also 33^.86 Training, apprentisship 

.56 Peonage 

.57 Compulsory labor Corvee 

.58 Slave labor 

See also 326 Slavery 

.6 Pauper labor Cheap foren labor Chinese 

See also 339 Pauperism; 362.5 Asylums 



ECONOMICS 



1.7 Skild and unskild labor 

.8 Laboring classes 

.81 Duration of work Rest 

.811 Length of day 

8-hour day, 10-hour day, etc. Shifts of work 

.812 Night work 

.813 Sunday work 

.814 Overtime Supplementary hours 
.815 

.816 Vacation Leave of absence 

.817 Holidays 

Weekly rest, Sundays, labor festivals, May I, festivals of patron saints 

.818 In special trades 

.819 " " countries 

.82 Places of labor Dangers 

See also 613.6 Hygiene; 622.8 Mining; 614.8 Protection of life 
.83 Food Clothes Shelter See also 640 Domestic economy 

.84 Morals and habits: thrift, temperance, amusements, 

temptations 

See also 170 Ethics; 790 Amusements; 263.6 Sunday 

.85 Helps: lectures, libraries, reading rooms, etc. 

Social settlements See also 374-S Home education; 020 Libraries; 263.7 
Sunday 

.86 Training Apprentisship 

.87 Organization of labor 

.88 Trade unions and other labor societies 

See also 338.6 Gilds 

.89 Strikes 

Combinations of workmen. Retaliation by employers 

.891 Attacks on freedom of work 

Picketing; methods of intimidation; scabs 

.892 Sympathetic strikes 

.893 Boycotting 

.894 Blacklisting Laying under interdict 

.895 Lockouts 

Private finance 

.1 Banks and banking 

See also 334.2 Cooperativ banks 

.11 National Federal reserv 

. 1 2 State 

.13 Private 

.14 Trust companies 

. 1 5 Foren 

.2 Savings banks 

Postal savings banks. See also 383 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



332.3 Loan institutes and special loans 

.3 1 Credit institutes 

.311 Agricultural banks and credits 

See also 631 . 16 

.312 Manufacturers credits 

.313 Loans on chattel mortgages 

.314 " " salaries 

.315 " " wages 

.32 Bilding associations See 334.1 Cooperation 

.33 Monts de piete* Governmental 

.34 Pawn shops Private 

.4 Money Coins and coinage 

.41 Coinage metals: production and value: gold, silver, 

nickel, copper 

.42 Single and double standard 

.43 International standards 

.44 Monetary congresses 

.45 Comparativ value of moneys 

.46 Mints 

.47 Coinage laws 
.48 

.49 In Special COUntrieS Divided geograficly like 940-999 
History, reports and laws 

.5 Paper money Public and private notes See also 329.82 

.6 Stocks and stock exchanges Bonds 

.7 Credit Credit system 

.8 Interest and USUry See also 336.31 Public securities 

.9 Counterfiting Forging s ee 343 criminal taw 

333 Land: ownership, rights, and rent 

Conservation of natural resources 

For other relations see Land in Relativ index following Tables 
.09 Special countries, divided like 930-999 

.1 State ownership 

.2 Community ownership 

See also 321.2 Village communities 

.3 Private ownership 

.4 Absentee owners Alien owners 

.5 Rent of land for cultivation 

Class here general works on rent 

.6 Rent of land for bilding 

.7 Special classes of land : forests, pasture, waste 

.8 Mines 

.9 Water rights : litoral, riparian, irrigation 



ECONOMICS 



334 Cooperation 

.i Bilding societies: loans, organization see also 332.32 

.2 Cooperativ banks s ee also 332 Banks 

,3 11 insurance SOCietieS See also 368 Insurance 

.4 a housekeeping See also 647-93 Domestic economy 

.5 " consumptiv associations Stores 

.6 " productiv associations Factories 

.7 Friendly societies 

.8 Burial societies 

335 Socialism and communism 

See also 334 Cooperation 
.01 Theory of property 

.1 English socialism 

.2 Saint Simonism 

.3 Fourierism 

.4 Communism 

.5 German socialism Social democracy 

.6 State socialism Socialism of the chair 

Professorial socialism 

.7 Christian socialism 
.8 

.9 Socialist communities 

Divided by countries like 930-999 

336 Public finance 

Federal and state. For local finances see 352.1 

.1 State domain and properties 

. 1 1 Management and income from rents 

. 1 2 Sale 

.13 Land claims 

.14 Land grants to railroads, colleges, etc. 

See also 379.123 Education 

.19 State monopolies 

e. g. French state monopoly of tobacco trade. See also 338.8 Monopolies 

.2 Taxation 

.21 Direct 

.22 Real estate 

.23 Personal property 

.24 Income 

.25 Poll 

.26 Customs: specific or ad valorem 

Regulations. Schedules of duties. See also 337 Protection 

.27 Excise, licenses, special taxes 

Liquor, dog, legacies, stamp duties 

For other relations see License in Relativ index following Tables 
.28 Local taxes See also 379-13 School funds 

.29 Assessment and collection of taxes Exemptions 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



336.3 Loans Public securities 

.3 1 Interest-bearing securities see also 332.8 interest 

.32 Floating det 

.33 Sinking fund 

.34 Public credit 

.35 Annuities 

.36 Repudiation 

.4-.O, Finance Of Special COUntrieS Divided geograficly like 940-999 

337 Protection and free trade 

See also 336.26 Customs 

.1 Absolute free trade No tarif 

.2 Free trade: i. e. tarif for revenue only 

.3 Protection 

Class in 337-2 discussions or histories which are arguments for free trade 
When doutful prefer 337-3, the general number for discussions 

.4 Subsidies 

.5 Duties on special articles: steel, wool, etc. 

.6 " " raw materials 

.7 " " books and works of art 

.8 Duty free importation for colleges, etc. 

See also 021.861 Libraries 

.9 Reciprocity 

338 Production Manufacture Prices 

.1 Agricultural products \^ 

.2 Mining prodUCtS See also 332.41 Coinage metals 

.3 Water " Fish, ice, etc. 

.4 Manufactured products Machinery in industry 

.5 Prices 

.6 Gilds See also 331.88 Trades unions 

.7 Corporate industries 

.8 Monopolies TrUStS See also 336.19 State monopolies 

.9 Industrial legislation Divided geograficly like 940-999 

339 Consumption of welth Pauperism 

Conservation; restrictions on use or waste of materials, including general works 
covering natural resources 

See also Pauper, Pauperism, Welth, in Relativ index following Tables 

34° Law 

General WOrkS Most periodicals belong in Private law, 347.05 

.1 Philosofy Theories Law of nature 

.3 Antiquities: torture, trial by ordeal, duel, etc. 

.4 Trial by jury 

.5 Comparativ legislation 

.6 Medical jurisprudence See also 614.23 Expert testimony 

.7 Education Law school Offis training 

.8 Polygrafy Collections 

.9 Legal anecdotes and miscellany 



LAW 

Public law 

341 International law 

.01 Philosofy; .02 Compends, etc. like 300 

.1 International congresses 

Of diplomatic agents for settling international relations; Hague tribunal, Leag 
of Nations. Congresses on special topics go with their subjects; e. g. 332.44' on 
Coinage 

.2 Treaties: texts and history 

Class with most important country, dividing like 940-999 

.3 Law of war Captivs Neutrals 

.4 International criminal law 

.5 International private law 

.6 Arbitration 

.7 Diplomacy 

.8 Consular systems 

342 Constitutional law and history 

Divided by countries like 930-999. Under each, works may be divided: 1 Texts of 
constitution; 2 Conventions; 3 Systems, commentaries; 4 Essays; 8 Polygrafy ; 
9 History 

For Administrativ law, see 350 

343 Criminal law 

.1 Criminal trials 
.2 Punishments 

Corporal. Deth penalty. Hard labor. Confinement 
•3~'9 Of Special COUntrieS Divided by countries like 930-999 

Under each country, works may be divided: 1 Penal codes; 2 Reports; 3 Criminal 
procedure; 4 Text books and manuals 

344 Martial law 

♦ Private law 

345 United States statutes and cases 

Divide each of the sections .1-.5, using 1 U. S.; 2 Individual states arranged alfa- 
beticly: e. g. Statutes at large of U. S. 345.11; Acts and resolvs of Mass. 345.12 

.1 Session laws 

.2 Codes Revised statutes 

.3 Law digests (of statutes) 

.4 Reports 

Use .4 U. S. supreme court; .41 U. S. circuit and district courts; .415 Periodical . 
collections of various states; e. g. Eastern Reporter, etc; .42 Reports of individual 
states 

.5 Digests of cases 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



346 British statutes and cases 

Divided like 345. Includes all reports in English language except U. S. reports 

347 Treatises American and English private law 

.01 Philosofy .02 Compends .03 Dictionaries .04 Essays .05 Periodicals 
.06 Societies, bar associations .08 Polygrafy .09 History 

Put law of special topics with the subject; e. g. Insurance law, 368. The divisions 
.1-.8 may be disregarded and all English law textbooks arranged in one alfabet by 
authors. An elaborate division, similar to Medicin, will be publisht after farther 
revision 

.1 Persons Legal capacity 
.2 Realty 

.3 Chattels Movables 
.4 Contracts 
.5 Torts 

.6 Family law and inheritance 
.7 Commercial and maritime 
.8 Equity 

.9 Civil trials Procedure 

.91 Civil trials 

.92 Pleading 
.93 Forms 

.94 Evidence Testimony in general not limited to civil trials 

.95 Remedies 

.96 Justises of the peace Notaries Sheriff 

.97 Organization of courts 

.98 Jurisdictions 

.99 History of special courts 

348 Canon law 

349 Foren law 

Divided like 030-900. and under each modern state divided like 34s with decimals 
.71 — .79 used for Treatises like 347; e.g. 349.4475 is French law of torts, 349.443 
is French code. Roman law is divided: 

.3 7 Roman law 

.01 Philosofy .02 Compends .03 Dictionaries .04 Essays .05 Periodicals 
.06 Societies .07 Education .08 Polygrafy .09 History 

.371 Sources: Ante- Justinian 
.372 " Justinian 

.373 History and criticism of sources 

.374 Institutes: ancient Roman law 

.375 Pandects: modern " " 

.377 Treatises on special topics 

Divided like 347 



ADMINISTRATION 



35° Administration 

Including Military science. .1 Theory; .2 Compends; .3 Dictionaries; .4 Essays; .5 Peri- 
odicals; .6 Societies; .7 Education; .8 Polygrafy; .9 History 

A large number of the questions properly placed under Administration are clast with 
related topics elsewhere. Some of these are repeated here, both to show the scope of 
the subject ' Administration ' and to provide for cross references by those specially 
interested. See also 342 Constitutional law and history 

351 Administration of central government 

.1 Organization of civil servis 

Ofhsers Method of selection: election or appointment Official functions and 
powers Mutual relations 

.2 Civil lists 
.3 Examination 

•4 Tenure Of OffiS DiSCipHn See 351.92 Power of removal 

.5 Pensions 

.6 Reform Spoils system vs offisholding class 
.7 Subjects of administrativ action 

See also 353 United States; 354 Foren states 

.71 Financial administration 

See 336 Public finance, public property, taxation 

. 7 2 Budget Public accounts 

.73 Internal affairs See also 323 Domestic relations 

.74 Police mesures 

•75 Public safety and order See also 352.2 Police; 36s Prisons, etc. 

.751 Press 

.752 Reunion and association 

.753 Wepons 

.76 Vice and good manners 

.761 Liquor regulation See 178 Temperance 

.762 Public gaming See 174-6 Ethics 

.763 Public begging See 339 Pauperism 

.764 Prostitution See 176.5 Ethics 

.77 Sanitary police 

See 352.4 Boards of helth; 614 Public helth, etc. 
.78 Accidents See 614.8 Public helth 

.781 Bildings See 614.85 

.782 Fires See 614.84 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



351.8 Promotion of public welfare 

.81 Means of communication 

See 380 Commerce, communication 

.8ll Highways See 386; 352.7 Local government 

.812 Railways See 38s 

.813 Waterways Sec 386; 387 

.814 Ferries 

.815 Bridges See 352.7 Local government 

.816 PostoffiS See 383 

.817 Telegrafs See 384 

.82 Trade and industry 

.821 Weights and mesures See 389 Commerce 

.822 Coinage and money See 332 Banks, money 

.823 Landed industry 

Agriculture See 630 Useful arts; 338.1 Production 

Forests See 634.9 Agriculture; 333.7 Land 

Mines See 622 Mining; 338.2 Production; 333-8 Land 

.824 Commercial and manufacturing industry 

See 380 Commerce; 338 Production 

.825 Institutions of credit See 332 Banks, credit 

Savings banks See 332.2 

Mutual benefit societies See 334 Cooperation 
Insurance See 368; 334.3 Cooperativ insurance 
Monts de piete See 332.33 
.83 Labor See 331 Capital, Labor, Wages 

.84 Public charity 

See 339 Pauperism; 360 Associations and institutions 

.85 Education and worship 

.851 Public education See 379 Education 

.852 Public libraries See 027.4 Library economy 

.853 Art museums See 708 Art 

.857 Worship See 322 Church and state 

Military and naval See 3S5-359 Army and Navy 
JuStis See 340 Law 

Foren affairs See 341 International law; 327 Political science 

.9 Control over the administration 

.91 Administrate Control By superior offisers 

.92 Disciplinary power 

Power of removal. See also 351.4 Tenure of offis 

.93 Supervision 

Power to annul or amend specific acts 

.94 Judicial control 

.941 Ordinary COUrtS See 347.5 Law of torts 

•945 Criminal COUrtS See 343 Criminal law 

.95 Administrativ courts 

.96 Parliamentary control 
.97 Petitions and addresses 

.98 Investigations 
.99 Impeachment 



ADMINISTRATION 



352 Local government: county, town, city 

See also 379 Public schools; 020 Libraries 

General questions of municipal administration 
.001 Growth and importance of cities 

.002 Cities and state control 

.003 City as a juristic person, a corporation 

See also 347.1 Law of corporations 

.004 City organization, municipal elections 

.005 Municipal civil servis 

.008 Forms of administration 

Commission, manager etc. 

Local administration of special countries and cities 

.03-.09 divided by countries like 930-999 

.042 Local government in England 

Arrange matter relating to special cities alfabeticly by name of city and sub- 
divide the remaining works as follows: 

1 County 

2 Municipal boro 

3 Parish 

4 Union See 339 Pauperism 

5 Sanitary districts See 614 Public helth 

6 School districts See 379 Education 

7 Highway areas See 352.7 

.043 Local government in Germany Special cities like 352 042 

1 Province: landtag, provincial committee, director 
2 

3 Circle Circle diet Circle committee Landrat 

4 Commune 

5 Towns 

6 Township 

.044 Local government in France Special cities like 352.042 

1 Department 

2 General council 

3 Departmental commission 

4 Prefect 

5 Arrondissement 

6 Commune 

7 Mayor 

8 Municipal council 

.1 Finances: city property and local taxation 

See also 336 Public finance 

.2 Police 

•3 Fire department See also 621.68 Fire engins; 614.84 Fires 

.4 Public helth: board of helth s ee also 614 Medicin 
.5 Public bildings and works 

.6 Water and Sewerage WOrks See also 628 Sanitary engineering 

.7 Streets Highways Bridges Parks 

See also these topics in Relativ index for other relations 

.8 Licenses: hack, huckster, entertainment, etc. 
.9 Other topics 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



353 United States and state government 

Operation of government, except legislativ branch. For U. S. congress and state legis- 
latures see 328. 73-. 798, where also are department reports in sets of congressional and 
state documents. Class separates of such reports with their subjects or with their re- 
spectiv departments in 353.1-.079S8 when they have no definit place elsewhere in the 
classification; but report of bureau of education 379.73, of agriculture dep't 630.6 
See also 342.73 Constitutional law and history 
.01 Administrate centralization 
.02 Separation of powers 
.03 President 
.04 Departments 
.05 Cabinet 

.1 State department 
.2 Tresury department 

Laws and rules governing tresury; but class reports 336.73 U. S. finance 

.3 Interior department 
.4 Postoffis department 

See 383 Postal servis 

.5 Judiciary department 
.6 War department 

See also 355 Army, military science 

.7 Navy department 

See also 359 Navy, naval science 

.8 Other departments 

.9 State government Di vided like 074-979 

Apply same decimals for state and foren governments. For departments not 
here specified use .8 and .9 and any of above numbers left blank; e. g. for a state 
having no navy, .7 is free for some local use. Judiciary dep't of D. C. 353.97535. 
353.9 includes history of regiments, unless covering a particular period of national 
history; e. g. the " history of the N. Y. 7th regiment in the civil war " is attracted 
to 973.74, but a general history of the same regiment is 353.97476 

354 Organization of central government Foren 
states 

See also 342 Constitutional law and history 

Divided geograficly by countries like 930-999. Under each country the U. S. 
divisions, 1 State, 2 Tresury, etc. may be used; e. g. State department of Great 
Britain, 354.421. Add also the following divisions: 

.42 Administration of England Central government 

01 Administrativ centralization 

02 Separation of powers 

03 Monarch 

04 Privy council 

05 Cabinet 

.43 Administration of Germany Central government 

01 Administrativ centralization 

02 Separation of powers 

03 Empire 

04 Bundesrat 

05 Emperor 

06 Ministry 

07 States Monarchs 

08 Landtag Ministers Council of state 

09 Free cities 

.44 Administration of France Central government 

01 Administrativ centralization 

02 Separation of powers 

03 President 

04 Ministers 

05 Council of state 

■ 



ADMINISTRATION 



355 Military science Army 

Military in broad sense of land and sea forces; but limited to military science, 
tactics, etc. For War department of U. S. see 353-6; for history of regiments 
see 353.9 and subdivision 4 under special wars in 973; e. g. Mexican war being 
973.62, regimental history of that war is 973.624. See also 623 Military engineering 
.01 Theory .02 Compends .03 Dictionaries .04 Essays .05 Periodicals 
,06 Societies .07 Education .08 Polygrafy .09 History 

.1 Military life 

Including honor, honors and insignia, and standards 

. 1 1 Servis periods and retirement 

.114 Termination of servis Resulting status 

.12 Military life in peace and war 

.13 Military honor Disciplin 

Professional morality; rewards 

.14 Uniforms 

System; distinguishing rank; style, color and esthetic considerations 
See also 355.81 Clothing of troops 

.15 Colors and standards 
.16 Military celebrations 

Commemorations, anniversaries, jubilees 

.2 Military resources 

.21 Preparedness 

Rediness of resources for mobilization 

.22 Men Recruitment 

Voluntary and compulsory enlistment; recruits from military schools. Obliga- 
tions of citizens with respect to national defense 

For relations of government to maintenance of public order see 351-74 Govern- 
ment police mesures 

.23 

.24 Raw material 

Agricultural, mineral, etc. 

•25 

.26 Manufactures, industries 
. 2 7 Transportation 

Roads, railroads, canals, ships 

.3 Organization of military forces 

.31 Army units and organization 

For special arms see 356 Infantry, 357 Cavalry, 358 Artillery. For classifi 
cation according to military obligation and field of servis see 3 55-3 5 

.33 Offisers Military hierarchy 
.331 Command in general 

General principles and rules of command, whether of large or small units 

.34 Special servis 

Outside the regular arm or grade 

.35 Armies General staff 

Armies clast according to military obligation and field of servis; e. g. Euro- 
pean armies of first line, 2d line, colonial armies 
For military units see 355.31 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



355-4 Tactics and strategy 

.41 Logistics and field servis 
.42 General tactics 

See each arm for its peculiar tactics 

.43 Strategy 

.44 Siege warfare 

For siege engineering see 623 2 

.45 National defense 
.47 Military geografy 

Divided like 930-999 

Geografic works from military point of view and works on strategic con- 
ditions of theaters of operations 

.48 Wars, campains, battles, military exploits 

Better clast with wars to which they belong in 930-999 

.5 Servis 

Garrison and field servis, mobilization; instruction of troops and .subaltern 
grades; maneuvers 

.52 Grand maneuvers Instruction camps 
.6 Military administration 

Class here only what concerns the workings of administrativ servises. For 

personnel and organization of these servises see 356.3 

.7 Military establishments 

Organization and servis 

See also 359 Naval establishments 

623 .63 Military establishments (military engineering) 

725.12 Architecture of military bildings 

.8 Military equipment and supplies 

.81 Clothing Camp outfit 
.82 Small arms and ammunition 

Administrativ questions - working and reserv supply; storage, issue, etc. 
For mechanism and relativ efficiency of different kinds see 623.4 

.83 Wagons Harness Transport outfit 
.84 Pioneering tools 
.85 Other tools Instruments 

356 Infantry 

1 Organization 

Light infantry, mounted infantry, cyclist infantry 

. 1 2 Special colonial infantry 

.13 Organizations eventually subject to mobilization 

.14 Volunteer corps 

. 1 5 Irregular troops 

' Corps francs ' existing only during war 

.16 Special infantry troops 

Sharpshooters, etc. 

.2 Staff and special servises 

.3 Administrativ staff and servises 

Personnel and organization 



ADMINISTRATION 



357 Cavalry Mounted servises 
.1 Cavalry proper 

.2 Remount and training servises 

.3 Army train 

358 Artillery, engineers and other technical servises 

For ordnance, gunnery, etc. see 623 Military engineering 

.1 Artillery 

.2 Engineers 

.3 Other technical servises 

359 Naval science 

Divided by .01-. 09 like 355. See also 623.8 Naval architecture 

360 Associations and institutions 

This covers what is best known as " Charities and corrections," and general 
works on this topic go in 360. Under each section .9 is used as in 362.9, for 
grouping by location; e. g. Clubs of London are 367.9421 

361 Charitable 

See also 377.7 Charity schools. For humane societies see 179-2 

362 Hospitals, asylums, and allied societies 

.1 Sick and wounded Incurables Eye and ear infirm- 
aries Lying-in hospitals Dispensaries 
.2 Insane 

For other relations see Insane, Insanity in Relativ index following Tables 

.3 Idiotic 

For other relations see Idiocy, Idiots, in Relativ index 

.4 Blind Def Dum 

See also 371.91 Education 

.5 Paupers 

For other relations see Pauperism, Paupers, in Relativ index 

.6 Aged Infirm Bereft 

Mothers pensions Aid in cases of deth 

.7 Children Orfans Foundlings 

Child welfare See also ethics, 179.2 Cruelty 

.8 Other 

.9 Special countries 

Divided like 930-999; e, g. 362.942 Hospitals of England 

363 Political 

Tammany, Primrose leag, Ku Klux, etc. 

364 Reformatory Criminology 

Schools; discharged convicts; criminal classes 

365 Prisons Disciplin 

See also 331.5 Convict labor 

366 Secret societies 

.1 Masons .2 Knights of Pythias .3 Odd Fellows .4 Rosicrucians 
See also 371.85 College secret societies 

367 Social clubs 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



Insurance 

See also 334.3 Cooperativ insurance 

1 Fire 

2 Marine 
.3 Life 

3 1 Annuities 

See also 336 35 Public annuities; 519.5 Probabilities 

4 Accident Liability 

5 Animal and crop, agriculture 
.6 Plate glass 

.7 Boiler 

8 Credit and bonds Land titles 

91 Government control Commissioners 

.04.-. 99 divided geograficly like 940-999; e. g. Insurance in New York 
(including state reports, etc.) is 368.9747 

Other associations and institutions 

I Hereditary and patriotic societies (American) 

II General associations 

I I I Regular army and navy union 

112 Society of veterans of the regular army and navy 

113 Military and naval order of the United States 

114 Medal of honor legion 

115 Military order of foren wars of the United States 

116 Order of the old gard 

Incorporated 31 Jan. 1896; organized 15 Oct. 1896 

1 1 7 Naval order of the United States 

118 Society of American wars 
119 

12 Colonial societies 

121 Society of colonial wars 

122 Society of colonial dames of America 

A New York society with chapters in other states known also merely 
as Colonial dames of America 

123 National society of colonial dames of America 

A federation of separately incorporated societies in about 40 different 
states 

124 Society of the Mayflower descendants 

125 Order of the founders and patriots of America 
.126 Colonial order of the acorn 

127 " society of Pennsylvania 

.128 " daughters of the 17th century 
.129 

.13 Revolutionary societies 

.131 Society of the Cincinnati 

.132 Society of the daughters of the Cincinnati 

.133 Sons of the American revolution 

.134 Sons of the revolution 

.135 Daughters of the American revolution 

.136 Daughters of the revolution 

.137 Children of the American revolution 



ASSOCIATIONS AND INSTITUTIONS 



369.14 

.141 Society of the war of 181 2 

.142 United States daughters of 1 776-1812 

.143 Military society of the war of 181 2 

.144 Society of the second war with Great Britain in the state of 

New York 

.145 Aztec club of 1847 

.146 National association of veterans of the Mexican war 

.147 
.148 

.149 

.15 Civil war societies, Union 

.151 G. A. R. (Grand army of the republic) 

.152 Military order of the Loyal legion 

.153 Society of loyal volunteers 

.154 Union veterans union 

.155 Union prisoners of war association 

.156 Society of the army and navy of the Gulf 

.157 National association of naval veterans 

.158 Society of the army of the Cumberland 

.159 

.16 

.161 Woman's relief corps 

.162 Woman's veteran relief union 

.163 

.164 

.165 Society of the sons of veterans, U, S. army 

.166 

.167 

.168 

.169 

.17 Civil war associations, Confederate 

.171 Confederate survivors association 

.172 Confederate veterans association 

.173 United sons of confederate veterans 

.174 " confederate veterans 

.175 Daughters of the confederacy 
.18 

.181 Spanish war veterans 

.182 Society of the army of Santiago de Cuba 

.183 Naval and military order of the Spanish American war 

.184 

.185 

.186 Societies arising from Great war of 1914-19 
.4 Young peoples societies 

For religious societies see 267.6 

.41 Mixt: boys and girls 

.42 Boys 

See also 136.77 The ' gang ' 

.43 Boy scouts 

.46 Girls 

.47 Campfire girls 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



370 Education 

Disciplin in broad sense 

.1 Theory of education Meaning Aim 

Including philosofy of education, science of education and general method- 
ology. Not limited to any curriculum, school or class of schools. For 

specific methods, pedagogics, see 371 

.109 History of educational theory 

.15 Psychology applied to education 

Imitation, suggestion, play, etc. Divided like 150 Psychology; e. g. 
function of memory in education 370.154 

.2 

.3 Dictionaries Cyclopedias 
.4 Essays Addresses 
.5 Periodicals 

General. For periodicals limited to a special topic see that topic; e.g. 
kindergarten magazines 372.205. See also 371.805, 378.05 

.59 Educational almanacs and kalendars for teachers 

.6 Organizations Conventions 

.61 

.62 Associations Clubs 

Permanent societies, their meetings and reports. Divided like 940-999 

.63 Congresses Conventions 

Occasional congresses and conferences: international or interstate 

.7 Study of education Institutions and organizations for training 
teachers 

Means and methods, including normal schools, institutes, etc. For need 
of training, kind and amount, see 371.12 

.71 Teachers meetings 

Class meetings of teachers of a single institution (faculty meetings) 
with the institution; see table for school and college publications under 
378.4-9 

.711 Plan and organization 

Frequency, time, place, control, cost, etc. 
.712 Programs, courses of study 

.714-9 In special places 

Divided geograficly like 940-999 

.72 Teachers institutes 

Divide like 370.71 above 

.73 Normal schools 

Institutions primarily for training teachers; e.g. state normal schools 
Teachers college of Columbia university; often with attach t 
'model' or practis schools, in which normal students teach under 
supervision of their instructors. For training classes attacht to 
regular schools see 370.75 

.731 Plan and organization Aims and functions Scope 

Length and time of terms. Support: public, private 

.732 Courses, programs Credentials 

.733 Adjuncts: practis or model schools 

•734~9 Special countries and schools 

Divided geograficly like 940-999 

.74 Education museums 

Including exhibits at international expositions, state and county fairs, etc, 

.75 Training classes 

Class here teachers classes attacht to regular schools. For normal 

schools see 3 70.73 

.8 Polygrafy 

.81 Collected writings of a single author 

If not limited to a definit topic; e.g. Horace Mann, Henry Barnard, etc. 

.82 Collected writings of several authors 



EDUCATION 



370.9 History, description 

General works covering both ancient and modern history, and including 
history of institutions, practis, and description of conditions. See also 
136.791 The child among uncivilized and semicivilized peoples 

.92 Educational biografy 

Preferably clast in 923.7 
•93~99 History of education in special countries 

Subdivided lika 930-999 
.9401 Medieval Europe 

.9402 Modern Europe 

371 Teachers Methods Disciplin 

Practical methods. See 370.1 for theories of education. The following 
divisions concern instruction of all grades 

.1 Teachers Teaching personnel Professors, 
masters, instructors 

See also 370.7 Training of teachers 

.101 Duties and responsibilities Mission 

.102 Personal influence 

.103 Relations to parents 

Mutual duties of parents and teachers 

.104 Relations to community Public status 

.105 Social status 

. 1 1 Qualifications Personality 

See also 371.18 

.12 Need of training; kind and amount 

Discussion of special preparation of teachers and professors for their 
vocation. For teachers training schools and classes, see 370.7 

.13 Examination Certificates Certified teachers 
Licenses 

.14 Appointment Organization of teaching force 
.142 Appointment Contract Discharge Tenure 

.143 Appointing body 

Board, committee, principal 

.145 Agencies 

Bureaus'and associations tor supplying teachers 

. 1 5 Professional status 

Permanent profession vs steppingstone theory 

.16 Salary and promotion Compensation Amount 
of servis 





For pensions and insurance see 371.17 


161 


Salary 


.162 


Fees 


.163 


Allowance for expenses 


.164 


Residence Living expenses 


.165 


Promotion Advance in rank 


For salary promotion see 3 71. 161 


.166 


Hours Daily or weekly servis 


.167 


Vacation Yearly servis 


.168 


Sabbatic year 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



371.17 Pensions and insurance for teachers 

Carnegie pension fund 

. 1 8 Women as teachers 

Feminization of teaching force 

.19 Other topics 

.2 School organization School records 

Diary. ' Logbook.' For government of students, disciplin, see 371.5. Foi 
(Ty^ v ooho ol supervision see 379.15 

.21 Admission Enrolment Matriculation 

For college entiance requirements see 371.214. Standards of individual 
schools are clast with the school 

.211 

.212 Grammar or intermediate school admission standards 

Including standards of German burgerschulen 

.213 High school standards 

Including standards of German gymnasia, French colleges and lycdes 

.214 College standards 

Undergraduate and nonprofessional graduate courses in (American) 

colleges and universities 

.215 Professional and technical school standards 

.22 Tuition fees Free tuition Scholarships 

See also 371.162 Professors fees; 379.13 Tuition fees of nonresident 
pupils in public schools; 378.34 Scholarships 

.23 Terms Vacations Holidays Breaking up 

See also Hygiene of vacations and holidays 613.76, 613.77; Closing for 
diseases, 371.712 

.234 Terms in 2 or more places 

For floating schools see 371.392 

.24 Hours Recess 

For exercise see 371.73 Care of body 

.25 Classes Grades 

For grading of schools, see 3 79-17- See also 3 71-394 Individual 
instruction 

.253 Length of school courses; e. g. 6 year course 

See also 378.241 Length of college course 

.26 Marking system . G^w&jjcvd^ tolo-«^c< 

.27 Examinations: oral, written Cramming v " c/a ^ 

See also 428.9 Language 

For competitiv examinations see 3 71-53 

.28 Promotions Degrading 

.29 Other topics 

.291 Graduation Diplomas 

May be subdivided like 371.21 See also 378.2 College degrees 



EDUCATION 



371.3 Methods of instruction and study 

Under the heds below class discussion of pedagogic value of these methods. 
For methods of teaching specific subjects, see those subjects; for their educa- 
tional value see 37s Curriculum; e. g. teaching of mathematics 510.7, place of 
mathematics in curriculum 375.51 

.31 Rote or concert teaching 
.32 Text books Recitations 

Use of textbooks. Textbooks themselvs are clast with the subjects 
treated 

.33 Lectures Oral and visual instruction 
.335 Visual instruction Lantern slides 

.34 Developing or induct iv method 
.35 Art of questioning _ Catechetic method 
.36 Topical method V '*j$**r\ 
.363 Correlation 
.365 Special days 

Historical days: Discovery day, Flag day, Memorial day, Constitu- 
tion day, Independence day. Birthdays: authors and other noted 
persons; Washington's birthday. Nature: Arbor day, Bird day. 
Other: Thanksgiving, Christmas, Easter, etc. 

. 3 7 Seminary method %l->^ 4r*=> 

.38 Laboratory method 

.39 Other 

.392 Floating schools or colleges 

Combining travel and shipboard instruction 

.393 Trips, excursions, visits 

.394 Individual instruction Batavia system 

By regular teacher or tutor, at home or at school. See aiso 373.1 

Private instruction J^r^W , &<Mj^ *&'a~J U>i*~<Ifc* 

.395 Small classes 

See also 371.47 Quincy system 

.4 Systems of education 

For Frobel's system see 372.2 Kindergarten 

.41 Bell and Lancaster, or monitorial Mutual 
system 

.42 Fellenberg or manual training; vocational 

schools, industrial education M vr^^W^^ o^A^ 

For equipment and cost of manual training schools or departments 
see 371.623 Machine shops, 371.676 Apparatus, etc. For subjects 
of study see 375.01— .9 For individual schools see 607 or 378.99 

.421 Educational value 

.422 In elementary schools 

.423 In secondary schools 



.424 In special schools 

.429 History and development 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



371.43 Military organization Military instruction 
.44 Pestalozzian 

Class here all Pestalozzi's educational writings 

.45 Jacotot 
.46 

.47 Quincy system 

.5 Government Disciplin Authority 

. 5 1 Rules 

.52 Attendance Truancy Tardiness Absences 

See also 379.23 Compulsory education 

.53 Rewards Prizes Favors Approbation 
•535 Interschool literary contests 

Competitiv examinations. For interschool and intercollegiate de- 
bates see 374.245 For interschool athletics see 371.75 » 

,54 Punishment Disciplinary penalties 

Limits of school jurisdiction. Disciplin of consequences 

.55 Corporal punishment 

.56 Other punishments 

Confinement; tasks; expulsion; suspension; discharge 

.57 Personnel responsible for disciplin Monitors 

.58 Moral government Alcott system 

.59 Student self government College systems 
.595 School city Ray system 

.6 School premises and equipment 

.61 Grounds Site 

# School playgrounds 

.62 Bildings 

Requirements peculiar to schools. See also 727 Architecture of educa- 
tional institutions. The following subdivisions apply to both special 
rooms and separate bildings 

.621 Study, lecture and assembly rooms 

.622 Library and museums 

Art, science, etc. See also 022 Library bildings; 371.64 Function 
of school libraries; 021.3 Relation of libraries and schools; 027. 7-. 8 
Reports of college and school libraries 

.623 Laboratories Observatory Machine shop 

See also 542.1 Chemic laboratories; 522.1 Observatories 
371.66 Scientific apparatus and supplies 

.624 Gymnasium 

See also 725-85 

.625 Other special rooms or bildings 

Dormitories, clubs, infirmaries, Y.M.C.A. and Y.W.C.A. 

.626 Sanitation Lavatories 

.627 Lighting 

.628 Heating and ventilation 

.629 Accessories 

Elevators, lifts, telefones, etc. 



EDUCATION 



Furnishing and decoration 
Furniture 

Blackboards, desks, chairs, benches. For globes and maps see 
371.66 

Musical instruments 
Floors : bare, coverd 

See also 721.6 Architectural construction 
022.96 Library bildings 
645 House decoration 

Walls: tints, covering 
Decoration 

See also 729 Architectural decoration 

Pictures, frescoes Glass 

Sculpture 

Plants 

Other decoration 

Libraries 

Character and functions. For relation to public library see 021.3; for 
relation to other school rooms and bildings see 371.622. See also 027.8 
School libraries; 027.7 College libraries 

Relations of library to faculty and students 
School traveling libraries 
School reading lists 

See also 028.5 Reading of young 

Elementary school libraries 
Secondary school libraries 
College and university libraries 

Departmental and seminar libraries 

Professional and technical school libraries 

In 371.645-8 may be clast matter pertaining to desirability and 
scope of such libraries, tho it is better in 027.7- 8 with reports and 
other matter pertaining to their management 

Museums : character and functions 

Divided if wisht like 010-999: e.g. 371-655 Science museums; 371.657 
Art museums. Limited to character and functions of museums attacht 
to teaching institutions: see also 708 Art museums, and form division 074 
under special subjects 

Scientific apparatus, laboratory equipment and 
supplies 

Divided like 500; e.g. 371.662 Astronomic observatory 

Other apparatus, equipment and supplies 

Divided if wisht like 010-999; e. g. 371.6791 Globes, maps, etc. 

School hygiene 

Helth of students Overstudy Fatigue 
Sanitary conditions and inspection 

Board of helth. For sanitary engineer's side see 371.626 

Medical inspection 

For personal conditions affecting helth and intellectual progress; 
e.g. clenliness, contagious diseases, nervous disorders, defectiv 
eyes, ears or teeth. Closing schools on account of epidemic or 
contagious diseases 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



37 1 -7 1 3 Posture 

See also 371.631 Furniture (ill designd desks and seats) 

.716 School meals 

Discussion. Administrativ problems: space, cost, whether wholly or 
partly free, etc. For management cf lunch room, suitable food, etc. 
see 642.58 

.718 Open air schools 

.72 Care of eyes Effect of study 

.73 Care of body Gymnastics Calisthenics 

For systems of gymnastics or physical training, and books of exercises 
see 613.71 

.731 Educational influence of physical training 

.732 Gymnastics Calisthenics 

2 In elementary schools 

3 In secondary schools 

4 In colleges 

5 In special schools 

6 In girls' schools 
.733 Military drill 

For military organization of school see 3 71-43 

.734 Fencing 

•735 Swimming Bathing 

.736 Riding 

•737 Walking School promenades 

.74 Recreations Games, etc. Athletics Di- 
versions 

See also 371.61 School playgrounds; 613.74 Hygiene of play; 796 
Outdoor sports 

.75 Championship games Boat races Inter- 
school athletics 

For other relations see Games in Relativ index following Tables 

.79 Other special topics 
.8 Student life and customs 

Various aspects of student life and student activities outside regular 
courses of study 

See also 784.6 College songs; 378.29 College costumes 
.805 Student periodicals 

Discussion here. Periodicals themselvs preferably with their schools 

.81 Student honor 

Cribbing Cheating Keys Ponies Copying 

.82 Fagging and hazing Bullying German 

student duels 
.83 Student organizations German corps 
.836 Ancient student societies 

.84 Literary societies 

.85 Secret societies 

Class all college chapters here, thus bringing the fraternity together, 
with reference from the college. See also 366 Secret societies 

.86 Society premises Society houses Halls 
Temples, etc. 



EDUCATION 



371.87 Student houses Lodgings Dormitories 
.88 Commons Student restaurants Eating 
clubs 

.89 Celebrations Customs Triumfs, burn- 

ings, etc. 

Anniversaries Ceremonious receptions Student banquets 

.895 School plays 

Divided by language like 400; e.g 2 English" 3 German 

.896 Class days 

Of special institution, with institution 

.9 Education of special classes 

General questions; kind and methods of education for these classes 
For institutions see 362, 364. For study of abnormal children see 136.76 

.91 Physically defectiv 

See also 362.4 Asylums for blind and def 

.911 Blind 

See also 655.38 Printing for the blind 

.912 Def 

Finger alfabet See also 378 for degreeconf erring colleges 

.913 Blind-def 
.916 Crippled 

.92 Mentally defectiv 

Divided like 132. See also 362.3 Idiot asylums, 920.8 Lives of idiots, 
cranks, etc. 

.93 Morally defectiv Delinquents 

See also 364 Reformatories. Criminal classes 

.94 Other abnormal classes 

See also 136.764-9 in Childstudy 

.945 Exceptional Precocity 

.947 Dependents 

See also 362 Hospitals, asylums and allied societies 
•95 C ^-»^QVwY*<^-Vv-0^l 

.96 Special ranks 

See also 375.002 Courses for different social classes 

.961 Princes 
.962 Nobles , v 

.97 Special types 

See also 136.77 Boys, the ' gang ' 

.974 Freedmen Negroes 

See also 3 78. 75-. 76 for degreeconferring colleges 

.975 Indians 
.976 Orientals 

.98 Special nationalities 

Special schools for foreners; e. g. Germans, Hungarians, Russians, 
Japanese in United States 

.99 Coeducation of races 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



— - 172 Elementary education 



Primary schools. Dame schools. Infant schools (under 7 years) 
e-t«J~ er^ *£a^> .rio, o*-^*— g ee a ] SQ r) a y nurseries 362.7; Minding schools 362.5 or 362.7; Creches 362.7 



.01 Pedagogics and didactics of primary schools 

.1 

May be used like 136.7 by those who insist on having childstudy with 

education 

.2 Kindergarten 

See also 371.44 Pestalozzian, for theory and early history. Put Frobel's 
work and development of his system here 

.201 Theory Principles 

.202 

.203 

.204 Essays 

.205 Periodicals 

.206 Societies 

.207 Training of kindergartners 
.208 

.209 History 

Divided if wisht like 940-999 

.21 Methods 

.211 Gifts and occupations 

.212 Gifts 

.213 Occupations 

.214 Stories 

.215 Songs and games 

.22 Influence of kindergarten 

.23 Relation to other schools 

.3 Observing powers Object teaching Science 

.35 Nature study 

Divided like 500-599; e.g. Birds 372.35982 

.36 Gardening 

.4 Reading Alfabet Fonics and word methods 
Spelling 

See also 428.6 Elementary readers 

.45 Simultaneous teaching of reading, writing and 
spelling 

.5 Elementary writing and manual work 

See also 741 Freehand drawing 

. 5 1 Writing 

First efforts, imitating printed roman letters 

. 5 2 Drawing Design 

See also 741 Drawing 

.53 Clay modeling 
.54 Sewing, etc. 

.55 Elementary basketry, weaving and braiding 



EDUCATION 



372.6 Elementary grammar Language lessons 

See also 400 Philology, subdivision 8 under each language 

.61 Mother tung 
.65 Second language 
.7 Elementary arithmetic 

Including mental arithmetic. See also 511. For Abacus see 511.2 

.8 Other studies 

Divided if wisht like 010-999; e.g. 372.82 Religion 

.89 Elementary geografy 

See also 910.7. Elementary textbooks may be put with their subjects 
but a primer of geografy is more useful to a student of elementary schools 
and methods than to one interested in Geografy, Description, and 
Travel. Text books, except primary, go with their subjects 

.9 Special countries and schools : history, reports, etc. c^drota 

Divided like 940-999; e.g. 372.942 English elementary schools. Put here 
elementary schools whether public, endowd or private 



373 Secondary Academic Preparatory 

Class here discussions of general theories, methods, etc. pertaining specifically 
to secondary education, regardless of source of support. Class here also all 
private or endowd secondary schools for boys or both sexes; but class all 
public (taxsupported) schools in 3 79.4~-9, all primary schools (regardless of 
VvA^rrv^/V \V S ' support) in 372.9, all schools and colleges solely for women in 376, and all 

colleges for men or coeducation in 378. Class methods and questions peculiar 
to monastic, diocesan and parochial schools in 377, but class the schools them- 
selvs in 372, 373, 378, etc. according to their grades 
For specific topics see 371 

.1 Private instruction: tutor, governess, coach 

.11 Relativ advantages of instruction at home and 
in school 

See also 371.394 Individual instruction 

.2 Day schools Boarding schools 

.4-9 Special countries and schools: history, reports, etc. 

Divide like 940-999; e. g. 373.42 Higher English schools, Eton, Harrow, etc. 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 

Home education Self education and culture 

Cultural, personal aspect of education 

Subdivided by o with form numbers if wisht; e.g. 374.05 magazines pertaining 
to this work, 374.06 Conferences, conventions, institutes, general meetings. 
The term Home education covers the broad field of adult self education thru 
private reading, study clubs and reading circles, summer, vacation, evening 
and correspondence schools, lecture courses and other forms of extension 
teaching and other agencies for extending more widely opportunities and 
facilities for education outside the usual teaching institutions. 
For relations of this work to libraries, the natural centers for such activities, 
see 021.2 See also 378.13 University extension 

With or without personal guidance 
Solitary study Private reading Conversation 

Advantages to be derived. from reading. Study alone with or without aid 
of reading lists, syllabuses, etc. 

Reading lists themselvs, syllabuses and other aids to study belong with 
other bibliografies (016) or with compends under their subjects. They may 
however, if preferd, be kept together under 374.19, divided like trie classi- 
fication; e.g. syllabus on English history 374.19942; on library economy 
374.io° 2 

See 028, for preparation of guides, policy, methods, etc. 

Vocational guidance Choice of vocation is clast here because usually discust 
"with self education and closely related to it and preparation for life, and is also 
often determind thru personal advice or conversation 

Associated study Clubs 

Study clubs 

Class here ' travel clubs ' which study about places without traveling 
to see them. See also 374.25 

Reading circles Book and periodical clubs 

Lyceums Literary clubs 

Debating societies Oratorical clubs 
Interschool and intercollegiate debates 

For interschool literary contests see 371 .535 

Traveling clubs Educational value of travel 

Clubs which travel for education. See also 371.392, 37L393, 374-21 

Community centers 

Whole community as a club of varied interests. Put here discussion of use 
of school bildings for various community purposes 

With personal guidance 

Either alone or in groups, clubs or classes 

Correspondence teaching Manuscript aids 

Including methods of correspondence teaching 

Societies for encouraging home study 
.49 Correspondence schools 

General schools divided like 940-999. Special schools are better clast 
with their subject, with only a reference here: e.g. correspondence schools 

of agriculture 630.714 

Lectures 

Single lectures, or series of lectures on different subjects; courses on the 
same subject unsupported by any other of the 7 factors of a complete exten- 
sion course: i.e. 

1 Lectures 3 Class 5 Guided reading 7 Examination 

2 Syllabus 4 Papers 6 Club 



EDUCATION 



374.6 Extension courses Lecture study 

.62 Lecture study 

3 or more lectures on the same subject, with 2 or more of the 7 factors 

.64 Extension courses 

5 or more lectures on the same subject with 4 or more of the 7 factors 

.8 Continuation schools 

Summer, winter, vacation, night (adult) etc. German auxiliary school-i 
Divided like 940-999 For evening or night schools see also 379.19 

.9 Central organizations, state departments, institutes 

N.Y. state library extension division, Brooklyn institute, Cooper institute 
Chautauqua, etc. 

375 Curriculum 

.001 Order of studies 

.002 Single course 

.003 Parallel courses 

.004 Optional courses Electiv system 

.005 Balanced courses Group system 

Special topics 
.006 Overcrowding curriculum 

.007 Courses for different classes of society 

1 For bredwinning vs culture 

2 Failure of course to develop efficiency 
.008 Courses for schools of special kinds 

Courses in schools of Roman catholic order of St Ann; outline of study 
for common schools; courses in French lycges, etc. 
See also special schools under their respectiv subjects 

.009 Courses for institutions in special countries 

Divided like 900. See also 3 79. 4-. 9 

.01-.9 Subjects of study 

Divided like the classification 010-999; e.g. 375.5 Place of science in the 
curriculum, 375.84 French literature in the curriculum, 375.88 Classics 
in the curriculum 

Methods of teaching individual subjects, also textbooks, may be kept with 
educational literature by adding letters to 375 as follows: A general, B edu- 
cational value of specific subjects, C place in curriculum, D methods of 
teaching specific subjects, E textbooks; 
e.g. 3 75-3 2 B Educational value of political science 

3 75 3 3 C Place of political science in the curriculum 

376 Education of women 

See also 396.4 

.1 Physical capacity of women 
.2 Mental capacity of women 

See also 136 1 Mental characteristics as influenced by sex 

.3 Home or domestic instruction 

By tutor or governess. See also 374 

.4 Fashionable education ' Finishing ' schools 

Discussion. For prospectuses, catalogs, etc, see 376.9 

.5 Convent education 

Discussion. For prospectuses, catalogs, etc, see 376.9 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



Higher education of women 

Secondary and college 

Secondary : preparatory schools for girls 

All between primary and college. Discussion. For girls highschools see 
3 79-4-. 9*. for private preparatory schools see 376.9 

Influence of college education on women 
Associations of college women 

Association of collegiate alumnae. Alumnae of a single college with that 
college 

Coeducation Segregation Separation 

Discussion of collegiate education of women in separate institutions or those 
for both sexes, whether in the same or separate classes. See 378 for coedu- 
cational institutions, 376.8 for separately organized colleges, either affiliated 
like Barnard and Radcliffe or independent like Vassar, Smith, etc. 
Class here by attraction general discussion of coeducation of sexes in college 
and secondary school 

Colleges for women 

Degreeconferring colleges go here. Arrange material of each college by 
"Table for school and college publications" following 378.99. All other 
schools for women go in 376.9 

Special countries and schools: history, reports, etc. 

Subdivided like 940-999; e.g. 376.943 Education of women in Germany 

Religious, ethical and secular education 

Relations of religious to secular education. For inculcation as well as actual 
teaching of definit ethical or religious doctrins see 375; e. g. instruction in 
duties of citizenship, patriotism 375.172, course in Christian evidences 375.239. 
Class catalogs, history, etc. of a denominational school regardless of religious 
affiliation, but class here books dealing in general with schools of a certain 
denomination or order; e.g. educational system of the Jesuits 377.35 

Religious instruction Bible in public schools 

Including sectarian instruction or influence in public schools. Public school 
teachers in religious garb. Conscience clause of English elementary school 
code 

Ethical education 

Ethical training, without religious teaching, as advocated by ethical societies 
See also 170.7 Study of ethics; 375.17 Place of ethics in curriculum 

Monastic or abbey schools 

Ecoles congr^ganistes. Divide like 271. See also 271 Monastic orders; 

376.5 Convent education of girls 

Diocesan schools Cathedral schools 

Domschulen, stiftschulen 

Parochial schools 

See also 257 Parochial schools 

Missionary schools 

Establishment and conduct of schools as part of mission work. See also 266 

Missions 

Charity schools 

Mainly for elementary education. See also 361 Charitable institutions 

Church and education 

Subdivided like 280; e.g. 377.82 Relation of Roman catholic church to 
education. Discussion of denominational schools or educational associations 
e.g. 3 7 7-82 Association of Catholic colleges of United States 
See also 261.5 Church and intellectual development 

Nonchristian religions and education 

Subdivided like 290; e.g. 377.97 Relation of Mohammedanism to education 



EDUCATION 



378 Colleges and universities 

With power to confer degrees. For men only and for both sexes. Foi women's 
colleges see 376.8 

.01 Definition of college and university Aim 

Advantages and influence of college training; e.g. on business capa ity 
.014 College terminology, ' slang ' 

Including also student slang. See also 427. «t37. etc. 

.05 Academic periodicals 

Periodicals devoted to college and university interests. Those issued 
by colleges, schools, etc. are scatterd either by subject or under college 
numbers 

,06 General college associations 

Association of New England colleges See also 370.6 
.068 Associated alumni University clubs 

For alumni associations of any one college, see T under college 
number 

.069 Duties of college men as a body 

.1 Organization Government Location Scope, 
field 

Classes, colleges, graduate departments, etc. 

.11 Administrativ offisers 

.113 Disciplinary offisers, judicial corps, university court 

President, deans, etc. 

.12 Teaching staff Faculty 

Exchange of professors. For qualifications see 3 71. 11 

.121 Freedom of teaching 

See also political science, 323.444 

.13 University extension 

Conducted by universities. See also 374 

.14 College year Summer or vacation instruction 

All the year session 

.15 Location and size Large vs small 

.153 City vs country colleges 
.16 
.17 

.2 Academic degrees and costume College colors 

See also 614-21 Medical degrees 

Degrees 

.21 Degree conferring body and powers 

College, university or state. See also 614.21 State regulation of medical 
education 

.22 Graded degrees 

Pass, honor, cum laude, magna cum laude, etc. 

.23 Degrees in course 

Advanced degrees conferd at specified periods on graduates in good 
standing, without evidence of advanced attainments 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



378.24 Degrees for completion of courses 

With or without examination 

.241 Time and residence required Length of college 

course 

.242 Subjects allowable for liberal degree 

Whether technical courses should be credited toward liberal degrees 

.243 Differentiation of degrees: B.A. B.S. B.L. etc. 

.244 Degrees on examination 

With or without residence 

.25 Honorary degrees 

.26 Degrees by purchase or forgery 

Insignia 

.27 Seal Coat of arms Motto 
.28 Colors: institution and class College flags 
.29 Academic gowns and hoods 
.3 Endowment of research Fellowships Scholar- 
ships Student aid 

•3 1 

.32 Endowment of research 

Carnegie institution. Incentivs to research. Prizes. Opportunities for 
research. Nobel prizes. Competitions 

.33 Fellowships 
.34 Scholarships 

Rhodes scholarships Traveling scholarships 

•35 

.36 Student income and expenses 

.362 Loan funds Student aid societies 

.364 College employment bureaus Faculty committees 

Other organizations for securing work for students 

.365 Student earnings 

Working way thru college Ways of earning 

.368 Student expenses: extravagance, economy 

4-.98 Special countries and colleges : history, reports, etc. 

For women's colleges, see 376.8 

Subdivide like 940-999; e.g. 378.42 English universities; 378.741 Maine 
colleges 

The various colleges of any section may be given each a number or be 
arranged alfabetically. Under each college arrange publications by the 
following table, placing these letters after the letter (or letter and figures) 
used to designate the college; e.g. a history of Harvard college would be 
markt 378.744 H E, and a second history would be numberd 378.744 H Ei. 
The practical convenience of this plan outweighs the objection that it 
introduces classification into the book numbers 

If preferd, colleges and universities may be arranged alfabetically under 
continent number, insted of being clast first by country or state; e.g. 
European universities under 378.4 in alfabetic order regardless of country, 
United States colleges and universities all in one alfabet under 378.7.1 



EDUCATION 



.99 Professional, technical and other special schools 
Professional education 

Best kept with subject, but may be compactly groupt here. Divided 
like the classification: e.g. 378.992 Theologic schools, 378.9934 Law schools, 
378.9961 Medical schools 

TABLE FOR SCHOOL AND COLLEGE PUBLICATIONS 



A Charter and statutes 

B Trustees Regents Resolutions, reports, etc 

C Administration President, chancellor Reports, etc 

D Finances Tresurer's reports 

E History Foundation, growth, etc 

F Biografy Necrology 

G General catalogs Triennials, etc 

H Annual catalogs Attendance, registers, etc 

I Handbooks Circulars of information 

J Bulletins Official periodicals 



K Commencements, inaugurals, etc Baccalaureate and other 
addresses 

L Programs Tickets Memorabilia 

M Faculty (as a body) Publications Regulations Certificates 
for admission 

N Lectures Class manuals Examination questions 

O Student theses Orations, essays, etc 

P Student catalogs Society annuals, etc 

Q Student periodicals 

R Student societies, including periodicals 

S Student miscellany Songs Class day, etc 

T Alumni Societies, committees, etc 

U Classes Histories, records, etc 

V Pictures Class albums 

W Bildings and grounds Descriptions, maps, etc 

Z Schools: divinity, law, medical, etc 

379 Public schools Relation of state to education 
.1 Public school system 

.11 School funds 

.12 National and state aid to education 

.121 Public aid to private and sectarian schools 

.123 Land grants 

See also 336.14 Public finance 

.124 Subsidies 
.13 Local support 

Taxation Bonds Endowment Nonresident tuition See also 
336.28 Taxation 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



379.14 - School laws and regulations School age 

Divided like 940-999 

.15 School supervision and control: national, state 

and local Centralization 
.151 National 

.152 State: department, inspectors, etc. 

.153 Local: superintendent, school committee, board 

Supplies, free textbooks, etc. For school meals see 371.716 

.154 Individual: parents and others 

.156 State textbooks 

.16 Public colleges and universities: national, state 
and local 

Only discussion here; for individual colleges see 3 78. 4-. 9 

.17 Secondary schools 

Discussion. For individual schools see 3 79.4-. 9 

.171 Highschools Academies 

6 year highschools 

.172 Grammar schools 

.173 Rural schools 

.175 Central plan Conveying pupils 

.18 Primary schools Kindergartens 

Questions of public maintenance. For individual schools see 372.9 

.19 Evening schools 

See also 374.8 

.2 Illiteracy Instruction of illiterates 

.21 Illiteracy and crime Education and crime 

Criminal illiterates 
.22 Illiteracy and pauperism Indigent illiterates 

See also 339 Pauperism; 362.5 Pauper asylums 

.23 Compulsory education 

See also 371.52 Truancy 

.24 

.3 Public vs private and endowd schools 



4-.9 Special countries, sections, cities, etc. 

Subdivided like 940-999: e.g. 3 79-73 Reports of U.S. commissioner 
of education; 379.744 Education in Massachusetts; 379.7471 in Nefl 
York city. Keep state departments separate from city and other local 
systems by numbering state reports. A1-A8, using A9 followd by 
author's initial (lower case) for history of schools of any state; e.g. 
Fitch's New York public schools 379.747 Agf 



COMMERCE COMMUNICATION 

380 Commerce Communication 

Public utilities. The technical side of these questions goes mostly in 650 Useful arts. 
Here belong discussions of social and political relations. 

.16 Government control of public utilities 

381 Domestic trade 

382 Foren trade Consular reports 

Trade between mother country and colony 

383 Postal servis 

See also 353-4 U. S. administration 

384 Telegraf Cable Telefone 

See also 621.38 and 654 ^ 2 » S' 

385 Railroad and express 

Government ownership or control. Interstate commerce commission. See also 656 
Railroading 

386 Canal and highway transport 

Stages (horse or motor) 
See also useful arts, 656 Transportation 

387 RivCTfhrk e, ocean and air transport 

History of shipping. Ship subsidies 
See also useful arts, 656 Transportation 

388 Local transit: city and interurban 

See also engineering 625 

389 Weights and mesures Metrology 

See also 658 Business manuals 



r 




DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



390 Customs Costumes Popular life 

These heds are for discussions by topic. Customs, etc. ot any special country go in 
913-919- Books on a special topic in a special country go here, as the grouping by topics 
is the more important; e.g. Marriage in Japan is 392.5. but Japanese customs, 915 2. 
For customs of primitiv man, see 571 

391 Costume and care of person 

See also 646 Clothing; 613.4 Hygiene 

.1 Costumes of men 
.2 " " women 

.3 " " children 

.4 Extremities: hats, gloves, sandals, shoes, stockings, etc. 

.5 Hairdressing Barbers 

Ste also 646.7 Toilet 

6 Care of person Bathing Toilet 

.7 Ornaments and jewelry 

.8 

392 Birth, home, and sex customs 

.1 Birth customs: christening, circumcision 

.2 Sacrifice and exposure 

See also ethics, 173.4 Infanticide 

.3 Family and home relations 

.4 Betrothal 

.5 Marriage 

.6 Sex relations Concubinage 

393 Treatment of the ded 

See also 614.6 Public helth 

.1 Earth burial 

See also 719 Cemeteries 

.2 Cremation 

.3 Embalming, mummies 

.4 Exposure 

.9 Special funeral customs: wake, suttee 

394 Public and social customs 

.1 Eating, banquets 

.2 Shows and diversions 

.3 Games Dances, etc. 

.4 Ceremonies 

Coronations, durbars, etc. 

.5 Processions Pageants 

.6 Fairs Kermess 

.7 Chivalry Tournaments 

.8 Dueling Suicide 

For other relations see Dueling in Relativ index following Tables 



CUSTOMS POPULAR LIFE 



395 Etiquet 

Codes of social procedure and behavior. For social ethics see 177 

396 Woman's position and treatment 

For costumes, see 391.2; biografy, 920.7 

If a special library about women is wisht, 396 is the best place for it. Suffrage 
education, and employment can then be put here, with references from 324.3 
376, 331-4. etc. but it would be unwise to bring everything about women here, 
e. g. to remove 618, Diseases of women, from the rest of medicin. Books on 
woman in general go in 396 

.1 Emancipation 

.2 Legal status, property, rights, etc. 

.3 Political status 

See 324.3, Suffrage; 329.83, Woman suffrage party 

.4 Education 

See also 376, Education of women 

.5 Employment 

See 331.4, Labor of women; 371.18, Teachers 

Divided like the general classification; e. g. woman as scientist, 396.55; woman's 
exchange, 396.56; woman as painter, 396.575; woman as author, 396.58, etc. 

.6 Woman in home 

.7 Delineation of woman in art 

.8 Delineation of woman in literature 

.9 Woman in history, politics, war Amazons 

397 Gypsies Nomads Outcast races 

People without nationalities who do not coalesce with the ruling people 
among whom they live. This includes Gipsy language, which till recently had 
no place in the linguistic groups of 400, as the Gipsy people have no place 
in the geografic divisions of history 

398 Folklore Proverbs, etc. 

See also 291-3 Mythology 

This section is for material needed in studying Folklore. Mere stories for 
children, unless having a value to students of folklore, go in 823, or in J, if 
there is a Juvenil collection 

.1 Primitiv traditions 

.2 Legends, tales, traditions 

Legends of Arthur, Charlemagne, Roland, Faust, Reynard the fox, etc. But poems, 
dramas, etc. based on these legends class in literature 

.3 Folklore, traditional beliefs and customs, popular super- 

stitions 

.4 Fairies, elvs, ogers, monsters 

Bogies, gnomes, dragons, vampires, werewolvs, etc. 

.5 Chapbooks 

.6 Riddles 

.7 Dream books 

.8 Song books 

Including only popular collections, hardly ranking with Poetry or Music, 
but useful in the study of Folklore, etc. 

.9 Proverbs 

399 Customs of war 

Wepons War dances Treatment of captivs Scalping Mutilation Burn- 
ing Cannibalism See also 623.4 Firearms 



Philology 

400 Philology in general 



In philology the general works put under 400-419 deal almost entirely with the 
Indo-European languages. They are put here because they covei most of the 
divisions of this class, and in practis are most convenient here. Under 439, 479 
and 489 are placed books limited to the Teutonic, Romance, or Hellenic groups, 
and under 491 are placed only such general works as are specifically limited to 
the Indo-European group 



401 Philosofy Origin of language 

402 Compends, outlines 

403 Dictionaries, cyclopedias 

404 Essays, lectures, addresses 

405 Periodicals 

406 Societies, transactions, etc. 

407 Education, teaching languages 

408 Polygrafy Collections 

.9 Universal language 

.91 Volapuk 

409 History of language 



410-419 includes comparativ works in general and also those on the Indo-European 
group in general, but general and comparativ works on Teutonic group are 439; on 
Romance group 479; on Hellenic group 489. Everything about an individual 
language is put with that language. 410-418 may be subdivided like 420-428 



411 Orthografy Orthoepy Alfabets 

412 Etymology, derivation 

413 Dictionaries, lexicografy 

414 Phonology Visible speech 



415 Grammar, morfology, syntax 

416 Prosody 

417 Inscriptions Paleografy 



See 421.7, 4717, 481.7, etc. Rare early mss are put in 091 



410 



Comparativ 



See also 612.78 Physiology of speech 



418 
419 



Texts 

Hieroglyfics 



See also 493.1 



.1 



Sign language 



For def mute alfabets, see 371.912 



PHILOLOGY 



420 English philology 

.1 Philosofy .2 Compends .4 Essays .5 Periodicals .6 Societies .7 Study and 
teaching .8 Collectiv works .9 History of the language 

421 Orthografy 

See also this hed treated in general grammars placed under 425 

.1 Alfabet 

For def mute alfabet., see 371.912 

.2 Vowels Difthongs Aspirates 

.3 Consonants 

.4 Phonetic spelling Spelling reform 

.5 Orthoepy 

.6 Accent 

.7 Paleografy Inscriptions 

.8 Abbreviations 

For stenografic and other uncommon contractions and abbreviations, see 
653 Shorthand 

.9 Punctuation 

422 Etymology Derivation 

422 is limited to derivation. For inflection, also called etymology, see 425.1 

.1 Origin and laws of language 

.2 Prefixes Suffixes 

.3 Reduplication 

.4 Foren elements 

.5 Noun forms: case, number, diminutivs 

.6 Adjectival forms Degrees of comparison 

.7 Pronominal forms: personal, possessiv, relativ, etc. 

.8 Verbal forms: moods, tense, voice, etc. 

.9 Particles: adverbs, prepositions, etc. 

423 Dictionaries Idioms 

.1 Idioms .2 English .3 German, etc. Put a dictionary of two 
languages with the less known language. Under 423 put only English- 
English dictionaries. Put an English-French dictionary with French, 
443.2; a French-Latin dictionary with Latin, 473.4. If in several 
languages, put with 413, or with least known. Put Fiench-French 
dictionaries 443, not 443.4, so that the standard home dictionaries shall 
come first in each language. This plan brings together under each of 
the less known, all the dictionaries for translating either into or from 
that language. Some prefer to put each dictionary under the first 
language; i. e. that by which it is alfabeted. This gives under each 
language, regardless of its familiarity, all dictionaries for translating 
from it, but none for translating into it. -These must be sought under 
the language from which the translation is to be made. For a cosmo- 
politan library this plan is simplest and best; but in an English library, 
the first plan, with only English dictionaries in 423, and both in and 
out dictionaries together under little known tungs is more convenient. 
References in either case show what may be found in the other place 



424 



Synonyms Homonyms 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



425 Grammar 

425 includes general works, covering also orthografy and prosody 

.1 Morfology Inflection 

Divided like 425.2 Syntax; e. g. .5 Nouns, etc. See 422 

.2 Syntax 

.3 Arrangement of words and clauses 

.4 Particular sentences: conditional, hypothetic, etc. 

.5 Nouns 

.6 Adjectivs Articles 

.7 Pronouns 

.8 Verbs 

.9 Particles 

426 Prosody 

See also the hed Prosody, in general grammars 425 

.1 Quantity and accent 

.2 Versification 

.3 Feet 

.4 Figures of prosody 

.5 Meters 

.6 Rimes 

.7 Strophe and antistrophe 

.8 Textbooks for writing verse 
•9 

427 Dialects Early forms of language Slang 

Subdivided by geografic divisions like 942. The Yorkshire dialect is 427.74; 
Gloucestershire dialect 427.41. The dialects of other languages take the 
geografic subdivisions of their countries. Dialects not provided for in these 
heds are placed with the last; e. g. American and Scotch with 427.9. The 
division by time is made with a 5th figure after o; the earliest form of 
the language is markt .01; .09 is used for modern slang, e. g. 427.01 Old 
English 

428 School books Texts for learning the 
language 

Including only books for learning the language, with grammatic or philo- 
logic notes, etc. For other works see literature of the language, 820 

.1 Spelling books 

.2 First lessons Elementary composition For Rhetoric see 808. 

Including in other languages books like Fasquelle, Ollendorff, Chardenal, 
Latin prose, etc. See also 372.6, Elementary grammars 

.3 Errors of speech Vulgarisms Use of words 

See 427.09 Slang; 424 Synonyms 

^3ao*Ac~o ft^u^M^rv ^ Elementary readers See also 372.4 Education 

-tS rUL<2^ . For primers and primary readers see 372.4. Class here 3d and 4th readers, and 

put higher readers with literature collections; 808.8 if general, 820.8 if English 
or English and American, etc. 

.7 Selections 

.8 Texts of individual authors 

With grammatic notes and questions. Preferably clast in 800 with cross 
references here 

.9 Examination papers 

429 Anglo-Saxon 



PHILOLOGY 



43° German 



437-01 Old High German; 437.02 Middle High German 

439 Minor Teutonic 

Including general works on Teutonic group 

1 Low German 

2 Frisian Old Saxon 

3 Dutch Flemish 

4 Plattdeutsch 

5 Scandinavian 

6 Old Norse Icelandic 

7 Swedish 

8 Danish Norwegian 
o Gothic 



Faroese 



440 French 



447-9 
449 

450 



Old French, as the earliest form of the language, is 447.01 

Canadian and Creole French, etc. 

Provengal Catalan 



Italian 



Rumanian 



459 Wallachian 

.9 Romansh 

460 Spanish 

469 Portuguese 

470 Latin 

479 Minor Italic Medieval Latin 

Including general works on Romance group 

480 Greek 

Divide 487, Greek dialects, like 930; e. g. 487.2 Alexandrian Greek; 487.3 
New Testament Greek; 487.81 Macedonian; 487.923 Ionic, etc. 

489 Minor Hellenic Modern Greek 

Including general works on Hellenic group 

Works on Latin and Greek together, unless very clearly most useful in 
Latin, go with Greek, which here as well as elsewhere is made to include 
general works on the ancient classics 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



490 

491 



.1 
.2 
.27 
•3 
•4 

.41 
.42 
•43 
•44 
•45 
.46 

•47 
.48 
• 49 

•5 

•51 
•52 
•53 
•54 
•55 
•56 
•57 
58 
•59 

.6 

.61 

.62 
•63 
.64 
.65 

.66 
.67 
.68 
.69 

7 

•79 



Minor languages 

Each language subdivided if wisht like 420 English 

Minor Indo-European 

Besides Teutonic, 420-439; Italic, 440-479; and Hellenic, 480-489 
This hed, 491, includes general works on the Indo-European tungs, but 
general works on the Teutonic languages go in 439, on the Romance group in 
479, on the Hellenic group in 489, while most of the material placed under 
400-419 is really Indo-European; but see also 410 

Indie 
Sanskrit 

Sanskrit dialects Prakrit 
Pali 

Modern East Indian languages 

Excluding Dravidian, which is 494 

Sindi 
Panjabi 

Hindustani Hindi 

Bengali 

Uriya Orissa 

Marathi 

Gujerati 

Singhalese 



Iranic 

Old Persian 

Zend (Avestan) Old Bactrian 
Pehlevi (Huzwaresh) 
Armenian 
Modern Persian 

Ossetic 

Kurdish 

Afghani 



Keltic 

Gadhelic group 
Irish 

Gaelic or Scotch 
Manx 
Cymric group 
Welsh or Cymric 
Cornish 

Armorican or Bas Breton 
Basque 

Russian 

Ruthenian 



PHILOLOGY 



491.8 


Other Slavonic 




Southeast Slavonic group 


.81 


Bulgarian (Church Slavonic) 


.82 


Serbian 


•83 


Kroatian 


.84 


Slovenian 




^Vest Slavonic group 


8q 


Polish 


.86 


Bohemian 


.87 


Moravian Slovakian 


.88 


Sorbian 


.89 


Polabian 


•9 


L/ettic 


.91 


Old Prussian 


.92 


TyifVinanipn 

-LV1 L 11 LI CXI Ilea 11 


n 1 


Lettish (Livonian) 


492 


Semitic 




Northern group 


.1 


Aramaic 


.19 


Babylon and Nineveh cuneiform 


.2 


unaiaee 


•3 


oyriac (.resniio ) 




central group 


.4 


Hebrew 


.5 


odrudi lid 11 


.6 


Phenician (Carthaginian) 




Southern group 


•7 


Arabic 


.8 


Ethiopic (Amharic) 


•9 


Himyaritic 


493 


Hamitic 


.1 


Old Egyptian 




See 419 Hieroglyfics 


.2 


Coptic 



494 Scythian Ural-Altaic Turanian 

Dravidian Tamil Finnish Turkish Magyar, Hungarian 

495 Eastern Asiatic Chinese Japanese 

496 African 

Excluding 493 Hamitic, 492.8 Ethiopic, etc. included in families above 

497 North American 

498 South American 

499 Malay-Polynesian and other 



Natural Science 



500 Science in general 

501-509 all have Science in general ,as their subject, but it is treated in these 
various forms. A periodical on Chemistry goes with 540.5, not 505, which is only 
for periodicals on Science in general, o in any class number in any part of the 
classification shows the subject to be general, not specific 

501 Philosofy, theories, utilities, etc. 

502 Compends, outlines Ancient and medieval 

science 

503 Dictionaries, cyclopedias 

504 Essays, lectures, addresses 

505 Periodicals, scientific magazines 

506 Societies: transactions, etc. 

507 Education, methods of teaching and study 
Museums 

508 Polygrafy: collected works, extracts, etc. 

.1 Extracts .2 .3 General scientific travels .4 — .9 Travels and 

surveys (if general) divided geograficly like 940-999 

509 History of science 

510 Mathematics 

Works on Mathematics in general not limited to any one or two sections, are 
groupt by form of treatment like Science in general above; i. e. into Mathe- 
matical 

510. 1 Philosofy .2 Collections, compends .3 Dictionaries .4 Essays, papers 
tracts, letters .5 Periodicals .6 Societies .7 Education .8 Logarithmic and 
other tables, instruments .9 History 



511 Arithmetic 

See 372.7 Teaching elementary arithmetic 

.1 Systems of arithmetic 

See also 512.81 Theory of numbers 

.2 Notation and numeration Fundamental rules Abacus 

.3 Prime numbers 

.4 Fractions 

.5 Analysis Permutation and combination 

.6 Proportion and progression 

.61 Magic squares 

.7 Involution and evolution 

.8 Mercantil rules Interest Alligation Mensuration 

Gaging 

See also 658 Business manuals 

.9 Problems and tables 



NATURAL SCIENCE 



512 Algebra 

.1 Systems of algebra 

.2 Numeric equations Imaginary expressions 

.21 Equations, 1st to 4th degrees 

.22 Higher numeric equations 

.23 Indeterminate equations Diophantin analysis 

.24 Imaginary expressions 

.3 Algebraic equations Maxima and minima 

.4 Series Fractions Binomial theorem Taylor's theorem 

.5 Combinatory analysis 

.6 Proportion and progression 

.7 Involution and evolution 

.8 Higher algebra 

.8l Theory Of numbers See 511. 1 Systems of arithmetic 

.82 Theory of equations Complex variable See also 517.8 

.83 Determinants 

.84 Symmetric functions 

.85 Elimination: eliminants and discriminants 

.86 Transformations Substitutions 

.87 Quantics 

.88 Invariants Covariants Contra variants 
.89 

.9 Problems and tables 

513 Geometry 

Plane and solid geometry bound together is put 513. Descriptiv geometry is 515 
See also 744 Mathematic drawing 



.1 


Plane geometry 


.11 


Right lines 


.12 


Intersecting lines 


•13 


Parallel lines 


.14 


Triangles 


•15 


Quadrilaterals 


.16 


Other polygons 


•17 


Similarity 


• l8. 


Areas 


.19 


Maxima and minima 


.2 


Curvs 


.21 


Circles 


.22 


Conic sections 


•23 


Ellipse 


.24 


Hyperbola 


•25 


Parabola 


.26 


Higher plane curvs 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



513.3 Volumetric or solid geometry 

.31 Lines and planes 

.32 Intersecting planes 

.33 Parallel planes 

.34 Polyedrons 

.35 Pyramids 

.36 Prisms 

.37 Regular 

.4 With curvd surfaces 

.41 Sphere 

.42 Cone 

.43 Cylinder 

.5 Modern geometry 

.51 Points Lines Planes Duality 

.52 Transversals 

.53 Cones Conies Involution 

.54 Radical axes and centers of similitude 

.55 Poles and polars Reciprocal polars 

.56 Harmonic and anharmonic properties 

.57 Correspondence Correlation of figures 

.58 Quadric surfaces: spheroconics, curvs of double curvature 

.59 Surfaces of higher order: cubics 

.6 

•7 

.8 Absolute or non-Euclidean geometry 

.9 Problems 

514 Trigonometry 

.1 Trigonometric functions General formulas see 522.7 

.2 Trigonometric series 

.3 Exponential formulas 

.4 Solution of trigonometric equations 

.5 Plane trigonometry : solution of plane triangles ; analytic 

.6 Spheric trigonometry General formulas 

.7 Solution of spheric triangles 

.8 Differences of triangles, plane and spheric 

.9 Problems 



NATURAL SCIENCE 



515 Descriptiv geometry and projections 

See also 744 Mathematical drawing 

.1 Orthogonal projection on 2 planes 

. 1 1 Straight lines Planes 

.12 Single curvd lines 

.13 Double curvd lines 

.14 Single curvd surfaces 

.15 Double curvd surfaces 

. 1 6 Surfaces of revolution 

.17 Warpt surfaces 

.18 Intersections of surfaces 

.2 Isometric and analogous projections 

.3 Oblique projection 

.4 Conic projection 

•5 Spheric projection See 526.8 Map projection 

.51 Orthografic 

.52 Globular 

.53 Stereografic 

.54 Polar 

. 5 5 Gnomonic 

.56 Conic 

•57 Cylindric 

.6 Perspectiv See also 742 Drawing 

.61 Plane Parallel Oblique Angular 

See also Scene painting 

.62 Cylindric 

See also Panorama painting 

.63 Shadows; natural and artificial light 

.64 Reflections 

.65 Circles, cylinders and spheres 

.66 Distortions and corrections 

.67 Human figure 

.68 New methods Special devices 

.7 Shades and shadows 

.8 Stereotomy 

.8l StoneCUtting See also 693.12 Masonry; 730 Sculpture 

.82 Carpentry See also 694 Bilding 

.83 Stairbilding See also 694.8 Bilding; 729.39 Architectural design 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



16 Analytic geometry 

Plane loci 

Right lines 



i 

ii 

12 
13 
14 
.2 

.21 

.22 

.23 
.24 

•25 

,26 

•3 

•31 
•32 

•33 

•34 

4 

.41 

.42 

•43 

•44 

•45 

.46 

•5 

51 
52 
■53 
■54 
55 
56 
57 
■58 
•59 
.6 

•7 
.8 



Transformation of coordinates 
Curvs 

Conic sections 

Ellipse 

Hyperbola 

Parabola 
Higher plane curvs 
Loci in space 
Right lines 
Planes 

Transformation of coordinates 
Curvd surfaces 

Conicoids or quadric surfaces 

Ellipsoid 

Hyperboloid 

Paraboloid 
Surfaces of higher order 
Modern analytic geometry 
Systems of coordinates 
Abridged notation 
Conies 

Higher plane curvs 

Poles and polars Reciprocal polars 
Harmonic and anharmonic properties 
Method of projection 

Quadric surfaces : spheroconics, curvs of double curvatures 
Surfaces of higher order: cubics 



Quaternions : calculus of direction and position 
Problems 



NATURAL SCIENCE 



517 Calculus 

.1 Infinitesimal Method of exhaustions 

Differential and Integral calculus, bound together, is put here 

.2 Differential 

.21 Series 

.22 Indeterminate forms 

.23 Change of the independent variable 

.24 Theory of plane curvs Curv tracing 

■25 

.26 Theory of curvd surfaces 

.27 Maxima and minima 
.28 

.29 Problems 

.3 Integral 

.31 Formulas of reduction and integration 

.32 Definit integrals Eulerian integrals 

.33 Rectification Quadrature Cubature 

.34 Multiple integrals 

.35 Laplace's functions Bessel's and allied functions 

.36 Elliptic and hyperelliptic functions Abelian functions 

•37 

.38 Differential and partial differential equations 

.39 Problems and tables 

.4 Of variations 

.5 Of functions 

.6 Of finite differences 

.7 Of operations 

.8 Of imaginaries Complex variables see also 512.82 

' .9 Problems 

519 Probabilities 

.1 General principles Direct and inverse probabilities 

.2 Mathematical and moral expectation 

.3 Testimony : decisions of juries and tribunals 

.4 Probability of future events deduced from experience 

.5 Life contingencies: annuities, life insurance see 368.3 

.6 Errors of observation Mean or average values 

•7 

.8 Method of least squares 

.9 Problems 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



520 Astronomy 

520.1 Astrology, see 133. 5 5-'0-2 Compends 520.3 Dictionaries 520.4 Essa> s 

520.5 Periodicals 520.6 Societies 520.7 Study and teaching of astronomy 
520.8 Collections, etc. 520.9 History of astronomy 
See also note under Natural science in general, 500-509 

521 Theoretic astronomy 

Mathematical investigation of celestial motions, specially of the S.«lir system. 
Motions of individual bodies are clast under separate heds in 523 

.1 Celestial dynamics 

.1 1 General laws of equilibrium and motion See also 531.2 

. 1 2 Law of universal gravitation and motion 

See also 531 -Si 

.13 Problem of 3 bodies 

. 1 4 Figures of hevenly bodies 

. 1 5 Rotation of hevenly bodies 

.2 Geocentric and heliocentric place 

. 2 1 Plane of orbit in space 

.22 Position of orbit in its plane 

.23 Position of body in its orbit 

.24 Position of body in space 

.25 Heliocentric longitude and latitude 

.26 Geocentric longitude and latitude 

.27 Variations of right ascension and declination 

.28 Variations of longitude and latitude 

.29 

.3 Orbits 

.3 1 Definitions of orbits 

.32 Determination from 3 observations 

.33 Determination from 4 observations 

.34 Variation of elements of orbit 

.35 Correction of approximate elements of orbit 

.36 Application of method of least squares 

.37 Kepler's problem 

.38 Equation of center and radius vector 

•39 

.4 Perturbations 

.41 Mutual action of planets 

.42 Action of satellites 

.43 Nonsphericity of planets 

.44 Resisting medium 

.5 Theory of planets 

.6 Theory of satellites 

.7 Theory of comets 

.8 Theory of eclipses 

.9 Precession and nutation See also 522.95-.06 



NATURAL SCIENCE 



522 Practical and spheric 

.1 Observatories 

.11 General plan, location 

.12 Material and mechanism of dome, drum, etc. 

.13 Transit bildings, wings, etc. 

.14 High altitude observatories 

. 1 5 Portable 

.19 History, reports and serial publications of observat ories 

.2 TeleSCOpeS See also 535-83 Optics 

.21 Reflecting 

.22 Refracting 

.23 Eye piece and accessories 

.24 Object glass 

.25 Mounting, tube, etc. 

.26 Equatorial mounting 

.27 Transit mounting 

.28 Observing chairs, etc 

.29 Famous telescopes 

.3 Meridional instruments 

.31 Finding meridian line 

.32 Mural circles 

.33 Meridian circles 

.34 Transit: placing in position 

.35 Collimation constant 

.36 Level constant 

.37 Azimuth constant 

.38 Other constants, flexure, index error, etc. 

.4 Extra meridional instruments 

.41 Sextant and quadrant, reflecting circle, astrolabe 

.42 Altazimuth 

.43 Zenith telescope 

.44 Transit out of meridian 

.45 Heliometer 

.46 Equatorial 

.47 Prime vertical 

.5 Auxiliary instruments 

. 5 1 Sidereal clock and chronometer 

. 5 2 Electrochronograf 

.53 Micrometers 

.54 Personal equation machine See 522.97 

.55 For illumination 

.56 For solar observation 

.57 Artificial horizons 

.58 Heliostat 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



522.6 Auxiliary observations 

.61 

.62 Photometry See 53S.2 Optics 

.63 PllOtOgrafy See 535.85 Optics; 770 Photografy 

.64 

.65 Polarization See 535.5 Optics 

.66 

.67 Spectroscopy See also 535-84 



Technic; application to astronomy and use with telescope. For results see 
523.37, 523-57, 523.67, 523.77, 523.87 

.68 
.69 



.7 Spheric astronomy see also 514.6 

. 7 1 Celestial sphere Spheric coordinates 

.72 Rectangular coordinates 

.73 Transformation of coordinates 

.74 Differential variations of coordinates 

. 7 5 Interpolation 

.76 Meridian line Variation of compass 

.77 Reduction of observations to the meridian 

.78 Use of globes 
•79 

.9 Corrections 

.91 Parallax 

.92 Refraction See 535.3 Optics 

.93 Semidiameter of celestial bodies 

.94 Aberration 

.95 Precession See 521.9 

.96 Nutation 

.97 Personal equation See 522.54 

.98 Instrumental errors 

•99 

523 Descriptiv astronomy 

.1 Universe 

. 1 1 Structure of universe 

. 1 2 Nebular hypothesis 

.13 Plurality of worlds 

.14 Space and its temperature 

. 1 5 Resisting medium 

.16 Cosmic dust 

. 1 7 Repulsiv force 



NATURAL SCIENCE 



523.2 Solar system 

.21 Distributiv laws of planets 
.22 

.23 Conjunctions and oppositions 

.24 Motion of solar system in space 

.25 Constitution of planetary system 

.26 Stability of solar system Ecliptic 
.27 

.28 Orrery, planetarium, gyroscope, etc. See 531.34 Rotation 

.29 Zodiac 

.3 Moon 

.31 Constants: size, mass Distance and parallax 

.32 Heat and light Phases 

.33 Orbit and motions 

Sidereal month, tropical, perigee and apogee, sun and eaith's attraction, 
librations. See also 521.6 for Orbit 

.34 Features of surface: mountains, plains, etc. 

.35 Atmosphere 

.36 Physical condition 

.37 vSpectrum 

.38 Eclipses 

.39 Charts, photografs, etc. 

.4 Planets 

.41 Mercury and intramercurial 

.42 Venus 

.43 Mars 

.44 Asteroids 

• 45 Jupiter 

.46 Saturn 

.47 Uranus 

.48 Neptune and transneptunian 

.49 Charts, photografs, etc. 

.5 Meteors and zodiacal light 

. 5 1 Meteorites 

.52 Fireballs 

.53 Meteoric showers, radiant points, etc. 

.54 Systems of meteors 

•55 

.56 Connection of comets and meteors 

. 5 7 Spectrum 

.58 Hight of atmosphere from observation 

.59 Zodiacal light Aurora (borealis and australis) 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



523.6 Comets 

.61 Appearance and development 
.62 

.63 Orbits 

.64 Remarkable comets 

•65 

.66 Physical constitution 

.67 Spectrum 

.68 

.69 Charts, photografs, etc. 

.7 Sun 

.71 Constants, dimensions 

.72 Heat and light: theories as to source 

.73 Apparent motion Rotation See 525 38 Tables 

.74 Spots, faculae, and other features of surface 

.75 Prominences, chromosphere, corona 

.76 Theories of physical constitution 

. 7 7 Spectrum 

.78 Eclipses 

.79 Charts, photografs, etc. 

.8 Stars 

.81 Stellar parallax, distance 

.82 Heat and light Photometric observations Magnitude 

Visibility 

.83 Proper motion, stardrift 

.84 Variable, double, and multiple stars 

.85 Clusters and nebulas 

.86 Physical constitution 

.87 Spectrum 
.88 

.89 Constellations, maps, catalogs, etc. 

.9 Transits and occultations 

.91 Transits of Mercury 

.92 Transits of Venus and solar parallax 

.93 Delisle's method 

.94 Halley's method 

.95 Photografic method 

.96 Transits of Venus to 1874 

.97 Transit of 1882 

.98 

.99 Occultations 



NATURAL SCIENCE 



524 Maps, observations, and tables 

Series of observatory publications may be kept together under 524, or under 522.19 
with the history and reports of the observatory. Special maps or observations, e. g. 
on Sun or Moon, are better placed in subsections 9 under those heds in 52.5, with 
charts and photografs, e. g. 523.79, thus leaving these bracketed numbers 524 to 
524.9 blank They are printed to provide a place in case it is wisht to keep all maps 
and observations together 

•3 Of mOOIl See also 523 39 

•4 Of planetS See also 523 49 

•5 

.6 Of COmetS See also 523 69 

• 7 Of SUn See also 523.79 

.8 Star catalogs s ee also 523. 89 

525 Earth 

.1 Constants 

.11 Mass Weight 

. 1 2 Density 

.13 Dimensions, diameter 

.14 Figure: geomorfy, equatorial belt 

.15 Distance from sun 

. 1 6 Parallax 

.2 Heat Light 

.3 Orbits and motions 

.31 Period of revolution 

.32 Obliquity of ecliptic to equator 

.33 Eccentricity 

.34 Perturbations 

.35 Rotation 

.36 Foucault's pendulum 

.37 Deviation of falling bodies and projectils 

.38 Tables of the sun Apparent motion See 523. 73 Sun 

.4 Geografic coordinates 

.41 Finding latitude See also 527.1 

.42 By meridian altitudes 

.43 By Pole star 

.44 By altitude of 2 or more stars 

.45 By other methods 

.46 Finding longitude See also 527.2 

.47 Terrestrial means: chronometers, telegraf, signals 

.48 Celestial signals: eclipses, occultations, transits 

.49 Lunar methods 

.5 Seasons 

.51 Effect of inclination of equator to ecliptic 

.52 Effect of eccentricity of earth's orbit 

.53 Secular changes of seasons 

.54 Seasons on Mars and other planets 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



525.6 Tides 

.61 Mathematical theory 

.62 Effect of sun and moon in producing tides 

.63 Distribution, diurnal inequality, spring and neap, priming 
and lagging 

.64 Establishment of a port Coast form modification 

.65 Velocity of hight of tide wave 

.66 Tides on inland seas 

.67 Supposed effect- in retarding Earth's revolution 

.68 Tide registering and predicting machines 

.69 Tide tables 

.7 Twilight 

526 Geodesy 

526. 2-. 8 apply to surveys of large tracts, requiring allowance for earth's curva- 
ture and more exact methods of determination. For lo^al surveys see 526.9 

.1 Theory and determination of Earth's figure 

. 1 1 Potentials of ellipsoids 

.12 Equilibrium of rotating spheroid 

.13 Law of ellipticity 

.14 Airy's and Pratt's theories as to attraction of mountains 

.15 Determination of figure by Airy, by Bessel, and by Clarke 

.16 Ellipsoidal figure and position of axes 

. 1 7 Geoidal figure 

.2 Base mesuring and apparatus 

. 2 1 Standards of length and temperature 

.22 Apparatus of Struve, Bessel, Colby, U. S. coast survey, 

U. S. lake survey, etc. 

.23 Adjustments of apparatus 

.24 Location of base line 

.25 Field operations 

.26 Calculation of results and corrections 

. 2 7 Verification 

.3 Field work of triangulation 

.3 1 Reconnaissance 

.32 Stations 

Names, signals, tripods, scaffolds and towers, surface and underground monu 
ments 

.33 Observations, instruments and records 

.34 Reduction to station's center 

.35 Corrections for phase of signal and eccentricity 

.36 Spirit leveling 

„ „ r> 1 ■ 1 1 • These are methods. See 551.53. 

.3 7 Barometric leveling f for results> lists of high ^ ; t ; 

.38 Trigonometric leveling | 

•39 



NATURAL SCIENCE 



526.4 Computation of triangulation 

.41 Spheric excess 

.42 Legendre's theorem 

.43 Chord process 

.44 By spheric trigonometry 

.45 By spheroidal trigonometry 

See also application of least squares, 522.6 

.46 L M Z formulas and applications 

.47 Direct deduction by Bessel 

.48 Deduction by Puissant 

.49 Tables for computation 

.5 Theory of least squares in adjustment of figures, etc. 

.51 Method of independent angles 

.52 Adjustment of a quadrilateral 

.53 Adjustment of triangulation net 

.54 Method of directions 

.55 Adjustment for closure of a circuit 

.56 Method of repetitions 

.57 Adjustments of base mesures 

.58 Adjustments of leveling 

.6 Astronomic determinations and their connection with 
geodetic results 

.61 Latitude determinations 

.62 Longitude determinations 

.63 Azimuth determinations 

.64 Effect of irregularities of Earth's surface on latitude 

longitude and azimuth 

.65 Effect of same on angles of triangle 

.7 Gravity experiments and results 

.71 Mathematical theory 

.72 Pendulum apparatus 

.73 Pendulum operations 

. 7 4 Corrections 

.75 Reduction of results 

.8 Map projections See 5150 Spheric projections 

.81 Prospectiv projections 

.82 Orthomorfic projections 

.83 Development projections 

.84 Zenithal projections 

.85 Equivalent projections 

.9 Surveying 

.91 Instruments and methods See 526.2 

.92 Mesurement of distances 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



526.93 Mesurement of angles 

.04 Mesurement of hights 

.95 Leveling See 526.36-.38 

.96 Plotting 

.97 Computation of areas 

.98 Topografic drawing 

.99 For special purposes: military, naval, railroad, mining, etc. 

527 Navigation 

.1 Finding latitude at sea See also 525 41 

.2 Finding longitude at sea See also 525 46 

.3 Finding time at sea See also 520.74 

.4 Sumner's method 

.5 Great circle sailing 

528 Ephemerides Nautic almanacs 

. 1 American 

.2 English 

.3 German 

.4 French 

.5 Italian 

.6 Spanish 

.7 Slavic 

.8 Scandinavian 

.9 Construction of ephemeris 

529 Chronology 

.1 Sidereal and solar day- 
Apparent and mean time, equation of time, causes of inequality 

.2 Solar year, months 

.3 Calendars; including early and Oriental 

.4 Calendar of Julius Caesar 

.5 Calendar of Gregory, 1582- Almanacs 

.6 Ecclesiastic calendar: determination 

For feasts, etc. and calendars themselvs, see 264.021, 264.031, etc 

.7 Horology 

.71 Finding time by transit 

.72 Finding by equal altitudes 

.73 Finding by single altitude 

74 Finding by sextant See also 527. .5 

75 Time systems, and standards 
.76 Distribution of time 

.77 Cosmic time 

.78 Instruments for mesuring: dials, hourglasses, clocks, 
watches, etc. 

See 522.51 for Sidereal clocks and chronometers 
See 681 for Clock and watch making 



NATURAL SCIENCE 



530 Physics 

Like Science in general: viz, general works only are arranged 

530.1 Philosofy .2 Compends, textbooks .3 Dictionaries .4 Essays, lectures, etc. 
.5 Periodicals .6 Societies .7 Education, methods of teaching, experiments 
.8 Physical units, mcsuring instruments .9 History 

531 Mechanics 

.1 Pure motion Kinematics 

.2 Statics Grafic statics 

.21 Force and its mesure 

.22 Composition of forces and motions 

.23 Moments 

.24 Parallel forces Center of gravity 

.3 Dynamics Kinetics 

.31 Rectilinear motion 

.32 Vibration 

.33 Undulation 

.34 Rotation 

.35 Centrifugal and centripetal force 

.4 Work Friction See 621.89 Lubrication 

.41 Unit of work 

.42 Diagram of work 

.43 Laws of friction Modulus of machines 

.44 Sliding friction 

.45 Rolling friction 

.5 Gravity 

.51 Law of universal gravitation 

.52 Laws of falling bodies 

.53 Pendulum 

.54 Mass. density, etc. 

.55 Projectils 

.58 Apparatus for illustration 

.6 Conservation of energy 

•7 

.8 Machines Transmission of force 

See also 621.8 Mechanism of transmission 

.81 Lever and balance 

.82 Wheel and axle 

.83 Cord and catenary 

.84 Pulley 

.85 Inclined plane 

.86 Wedge 

.87 Screw 

.88 

.9 Tables Problems Questions 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



532 Liquids Hydrostatics Hydraulics 

.1 Properties of liquids Pressure 

.2 Equilibrium of liquids 

.3 Buoyant effects Floating bodies 

.4 Specific gravity Hydrometer 

.5 Liquids in motion Hydrodynamics 

.51 Theoretic flow 

.52 Orifises, adjutages, fluid vein 

.53 Weirs, overfalls 

.54 Pipes, open channels, rivers 

.55 Bends, valvs, sudden enlargements and contractions 

.56 Efflux; variable pressure 

.57 Hydrometry Velocity 

.58 Impulse and resistance 

.59 Theory of waves 

.6 Capillary attraction 

.7 Osmose Absorption 

.8 Applications Machines See 621.2 water engins 

Except for libraries making Physics much more prominent than Useful arts, all 
the ' Applications ' will be more useful under their proper heds in Useful arts. 
It is better to keep all the material in one place, referring to it from the other, 
rather than attempt division 

.81 Hydraulic press See also 621.266 

.82 Hydraulic engin See also 621.25 

.83 Water ram See also 621.27 

.84 Water wheels See also 621.21 

.85 Water blast See also 621.269 

.9 Tables Problems Questions 

533 Gases Pneumatics 

.1 Properties of gases and vapors Absorption 

.2 Laws of compressibility 

.3 Atmosphere 

.4 Barometer 

.5 Air pump 

.6 Aeronautics 

.7 Kinetic theory of gases 

.8 Applications See 621.6 Blowing and pumping engins 
Preferably clast in Useful arts, see 532.8, note 

.82 Manometer Pressure gages See 621.18 steam generation 

.83 Condensing pump 

.84 Force pump 

.85 Suction pump 

.86 Diving bell 

.87 Forge bellows 

.88 Pneumatic dispatch 

.9 Tables Problems Questions 



NATURAL SCIENCE 



534 Sound Acoustics 

.1 Theory Undulations 

.2 Propagation of sound: velocity, diffraction 

•3 Musical SOUnd Tuning forks See also 781. 1 Theory of music 

.4 Analysis of sounds Resonators 

.5 Superposition of vibrations 

.6 Grafic representations 

.7 Physiologic : ear and larynx 

For other relations see Ear, Larynx, in Relativ index following Table 

.8 Applications Preferably clast with topics elsewhere See 532.8, note 

.8l 
.82 

.83 Signals in navigation See also 6549 Communication 

.84 Applications to architecture 

.85 Musical instruments See also 780 Music 

.86 Phonograf 

.9 Tables Problems Questions 

535 Light Optics 

.1 Theory 

.2 Propagation Velocity Mesurement of light 

.3 Reflection Refraction Absorption 

See also 522.92 Astronomy 

.4 Dispersion Diffraction Interference 

.5 Polarization Polariscope Double refraction 

.6 Color 

.7 Physiologic: eye 

Optical principles of sight. See also Eyes in Relativ index 

.8 Applications Preferably clast with topics elsewhere See 532.8, note 

.81 Lenses and prisms 

.82 MicrOSCOpeS and magnifiers See also 578 Microscopy 

.83 TeleSCOpeS See also 522.2 Astronomy 

.84 Spectroscopes and spectrum analysis 

Most general number. See also Spectroscopy, Spectrum, in Relativ index for 
other relations and applications 

.85 PhotOgrafy See also 770 

.86 Other applications of lenses 

.87 Mirrors and reflecting instruments 

.88 Lighthouses See also 627.9 Harbor engineering; 656 Commerce 

.89 

.0. Tables Problems Questions 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



536 Heat 

.1 Theory Nature 

.2 Communication 

.3 Action of bodies on heat 

.31 Reflection 

.32 Refraction 

.'33 Radiation 

.34 Absorption 

.35 Diathermancy 

.4 Effects Action of heat on bodies 

.41 Expansion 

.42 Liquefaction 

.43 Solidification 

.44 Vaporization and condensation 

.45 I ncandescence 

.46 Combustion Flame 

.5 Temperature See also 551-52 Meteorology; 613.18 Hygiene 

. 5 1 Thermometry 

. 5 2 Pyrometry 

.53 Electric methods of mesuring 

.6 Calorimetry 

.7 Thermodynamics Mechanical equivalent 

.8 Applications Preferably go in Useful arts. See 532.8, note 

.8l Steam enginS See 621. i Engineering 

.82 GaS enginS See 621.43 Engineering 

.83 Heating See 697, 621.19, 628.8, 644 

.84 Ventilation See 697, 622.4, 628.8 

.9 Tables Problems Questions 

537 Electricity 

See also 621.3 Electric engineering 

.1 Theory Nature 

.2 Static 

.21 Quantity, potential 

.22 Conduction, distribution 

.23 Machines 

.24 Condensers 

.25 E lectr ome t er s 

•3 

.4 Atmospheric Lightning rods 

.5 Dynamic 

.51 Theory of coils Constants 

.52 Induction spark 

.53 Induction spark in rarified gases 

.6 Electro dynamics 

.7 Electric mesurements 



NATURAL SCIENCE 



537.8 Applications Preferably clast in Useful arts. See 621.3, and 532.8, note 

.8l Tele^raf For telsgraf business see 654 

.82 Telefone Microfone 

For telefone business see 654.6 

.83 Dynamos Electric lighting 

.84 Tranmission of power Storage 

.85 Electrometallurgy 

.86 Galvanometers Batteries Coils 

.87 Medicin See also 615.84 

.88 Electric signals See 654 

.0 Tables Problems Questions 

538 Magnetism 

For Animal magnetism, Mesmerism, etc., see 134 

.1 Theory Properties of magnets Lines of force 

.2 Communication Induction Touch 

.3 Electromagnetism 

.4 Diamagnetism 

•5 
.6 

.7 Terrestrial magnetism 

.8 Applied Magnetic machines 

.9 Tables Problems Questions 

539 Molecular physics 

.1 Theory Molecular structure Vortex rings 

.2 Properties of solids 

.3 Elasticity Torsion 

.4 Strength of materials 

See also 620.1 Engineering materials 

.5 Permanent displacement of molecules 

.51 Malleability 

.52 Ductility 

.53 Hardness 

.54 Tempering 

.6 Intermolecular forces 

.7 Radioactivity 

See also 541.38 Radiochemistrv; 546.432 Radium 

.8 

.9 Tables Problems Questions 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



540 Chemistry 



Pure or theoretic chemistry 

.1 Early theories, alchemy, phlogiston .2 Compends .3 Dictionaries, cyclo- 
pedias .4 Essays, lectures, etc. .5 Periodicals .6 Societies .7 Education, 
methods of teaching .8 Collectiv works .9 History 

SUMMARY 

541-542 General chemistry 

541 Chemic theories 

542 Operativ and experimental chemistry 
543-545 Analytic chemistry 

543 Analysis 

544 Qualitativ analysis 

545 Quantitativ analysis 

546 Inorganic chemistry 

547 Organic chemistry 

REFERENCES 

612.015 Physiologic chemistry 660 Chemic technology 

()i5 Medical " 669 Metallurgy 

61 6. 076 Pathologic " 770 Photografy 

541 Theoretic chemistry Physical chemistry 

Modern chemic theories General properties of bodies from chemic point of 
view Composition Constitution Elements and compounds Affinity 
Formulas Nomenclature 

.1 

.2 Atomic theory 

Ultimate constitution of matter. Nature and phases of ultimate particles: 
atoms, ions, anions, kations, electrons. Atomicity. Relationship of mass to 
chemic properties of bodies. Laws of chemic combination: weight, definit 
proportions, equivalence, multiple proportions. Laws of volume for gases. 
Simple or compound nature of chemic elements. Molecules. Atomic and 
molecular weights; methods of determination. Atomic and molecular volumes 
Laws fundamental to atomic theory; see also 541 .9 Classification, periodic law, 
etc. 

See also physics, 532.4 Specific weights 

.3 Physical chemistry 

Borderland between physics and chemistry. Including densities in different 
phases; chemic affinity, statics and dynamics; thermochemistry and electro- 
chemistry 

31 Solid state 

See also physics, 536.43 Solidification; 539.2 Properties of solids 

.32 Liquid state 

See also physics, 532.1 Properties of liquids; 536.42 Liquefaction; 541.34 
Solution 

.321 General 

Surface tension, vapor tension, viscosity, capillarity 

•3 2 5 Special types of liquids: gelatinous liquids 
.326 Inorganic liquids 

327 Organic liquids 

.33 Gaseous state 

Subdivide like 541.32. See also physics, 533.1 Properties of gases; 5^'. 44 
Vaporization 



NATURAL SCIENCE 



541.34 Solute state Solubility 
.341 General 

Surface tension, viscosity, diffusion, osmosis, conductivity. See also 
532.7 Osmose of liquids; 542.7 Dissolving 

1 Theories : kinetic, hydrate and dissociation 

2 Laws Terminology 

.342 Solution pressure Solubility 

Tables of solubility 

.344 Solubility and solution of different forms 

1 Solids 2 Liquids 3 Gases Absorption 

.341, Solution types 

2 Colloid solutions Emulsions 

Including general discussion of colloids 

.346 Solvents 

. 3 5 Photochemistry 

Relation of light to chemic action of polarized light to chemic structure, etc. 

.36 Thermochemistry 

Relationship of heat to chemic properties of bodies. Thermodynamics and 
energetics applied to chemistry. Relations between specific heat and 
chemic constitutions. Molecular heats; atomic heats; latent heats of 
physical, allotropic, and chemic transformations. Principle of initial and 
final phases. Study of changes of phase. Melting points and boiling 
points. Liberation and absorption of heat in reactions. Exothermic and 
endothermic reactions. Variation with temperature of the quantity of heat 
used in transformations. Principle of maximum work 

.37 Electrochemistry 
.378 Magnetochemistry 
.38 Radiochemistry 

Chemistry of radioactiv substances. See also 539.7 Radioa tivity; 546.432 
Radium 

.39 Chemic dynamics, statics and equilibrium Affinity 

Homogeneous and heterogeneous chemic equilibriums. Kinetic theory of 
chemic equilibriums (of Guldberg and Waage, Pfaundler, van't HofT); 
thermodynamic theory (of Willard Gibbs, of Horstmann, of van't Hoff, of 
Duhem, etc) Reaction velocities. Accelerating and retarding influences. 
Catalysis. See also in physics 536.7 Thermodynamics and energetics 
Variation of affinity with physical conditions. Valence. Combinations. 
Unlimited and limited decomposition. Dissociation, efflorescence, limits of 
dissociation and maximum dissociation. Combustion 

.4 Various types of compounds 

Acids, bases, salts, alloys 

.5 Molecular types 
.6 Compound radicals 

Stereochemistry Formulas of structure 

.7 Allotropy 

Isomerism Amorfous and crystallin states Tautomerism Polymerism 
Class here material on structure not included in 541 .6 

.9 Othsr general subjects 

Classification Nomenclature Notation Formulas Stoichiometry 
Tables Periodic law 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



Practical and experimental chemistry 

Manipulations Chemic operations For analyses see 543~545 

1 Laboratories 

Interior construction and installation General arrangements For archi- 
tecture see 727 . 5 

2 Apparatus and manipulations For special apparatus see *4 2.3-.<, 

21 Manipulations Arrangements Procedure 

22 Preparation of substances 

Mechanic separation: trituration, pulverization, porphyrization ; mortars 
and pe.-tles, crushers, sifting and sivs. Disintegration by wetting heated * 
mass. Levigation 

23 Laboratory receptacles and their accessories 

For uses of receptacles see also various- processes and operations 

231 Glass and quartz 

Beakers, bottles, flasks, retorts, test tubes, funnels, adapters, glass rods 
and tubing 

5 Glass manipulation: blowing, grinding 

232 Porcelain 

Evaporating dishes, tubes, retorts. Refractory pottery: cruc ibles, plates 

233 Metallic 

Containers made of platinum, silver, iron, nickel, aluminum etc. 

24 Supports Fixt. adjustable, wood. Triangles, tripods, clamps 

25 Stoppers Glass, cork, rubber Corkborers 

26 Rubber tubing Luting and cements 
29 Other appliances 

3 Mesuring apparatus 

32 Determination of weights and density 

Balances and weights Descriptions and directions for use 

33 Specific gravity apparatus Class preferably in 5^2.4 

35 Determination of volume 

Mesuring volume of liquid Calibrated vessels Graduated pipets, burets 
and cylinders 

4 Heating Distillation 

See also 536.5 Mesurement and regulation of heat; 542.53 Blowpiping 

41 General 

42 Heating with coal 

Laboratory furnaces: trough, cupola, reverberatory, tubular, cupel, blast 
Tube furnaces for organic analysis 

43 Heating With liquid fuels, etc. Lamps; special burners 

44 Heating with gas 

Coal gas, carburetted air, acetylene, etc. 

Fishtail and Bunsen burners; gas furnaces and grates; pressure regulators 

.46 Indirect heating 

Baths and heaters: water baths; salt, metal and oil baths; metal plates or 
wire gauzes ' 

.47 Electric heating 

Heaters, muffles and furnaces; kryptol furnaces 
See also 542.8 Electric and galvanic manipulations 

.48 Operations 

Melting, fusing, boiling. Vaporization, distillation. Distilling apparatus, 
alembics or stills. Deflegmators. Vacuum operations 

Evaporation with heat: sublimation, dessication. For evaporation in vac- 
uum see 542.77 

.49 Other heating operations 



NATURAL SCIENCE 



Flames Blowpipes 

See also 544-2 Dry methods of analysis; 669.9 Assaying 

Flame 

Nature of flame; candle flame; oxidizing and reducing flames 

Coloration of flame 

Beads, colord beads Composit flames 

Blowpipes 

Varieties of blowpipes and how to use them 

For applications see Blowpiping in Relativ index following Tables 

Aqueous and liquid treatment 

Dissolving, aqueous separation, levigation, etc; alcohol, ether, carbondisulfid, 
hydrocarbons, etc. 

Dissolving Solution 

Solvents, maceration, digestion, decoction, lixiviation 

Determination of solubility Supersaturation 

Supersaturated solution 

Diffusion 

Lowering the solidification point or surfusion 

Dialysis Dializers 

See also qualitativ analysis 544-5 Dialysis 

Solidification 

Precipitation, crystallization, crystallizers 

Decantation 

Decantation funnels, Florentin receivers, sifons, pipets 

Filtration and filters 

Filtration with textils, with paper, thru cotton, asbestos, powders, etc. 
Hot nitration Filtration in seald vessels, by suction, by compression 
Filter presses 

Expression and presses Drying of press residues; drying machines 
Washing Continuous, automatic; decantation, wash bottles 

Gas manipulation 

See also 545-7 Eudiometry 

General 

Gas production 

Gas collecting and decanting 

Pneumatic trof, gas sampling -tube, gas pipets; displacement and decant- 
ing 

Washing and dissolving gas 

Wash bottles Apparatus for drying and absorbing gas 
GaS Storage Gasometers, rubber bags 
GaS meSUrement Graduated tubes, meters 

Rarefaction of gas 

Pumps: air, vacuum, mercury; blowing engins, bellows, suction gasometers, 
manometers; vacuum regulators; trompes 
See also physics, 533.5 Air pumps 

Gas compression 

Seald tubes and bulbs, bellows, compression pumps, gasholders 

Gas liquefaction and solidification 

Faraday tubes Apparatus for expansion; of Thilorier; of Caillet^t and 
Linde 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



542 8 Electric and galvanic manipulations 

See also physics, 537-85 Applications of electricity to chemistry. Class here 
only apparatus for preparing chemic substances, not apparatus for study of 
phenomena. For analytic apparatus see special substance under 543 or special 
process under 544 or 545 

.9 Other operations 

Attacks by acids and gases: oxidat'ons. reductions etc 



543-545 Analytic chemistry 

543 Analysis 



Divided by material analyzed, whether qualitativly or quantitati vly , i.e. substance 
takes precedence of process. Class in 543 general works covering both qualitativ 
and quantitativ analysis 
See also 614.3 Adulterations 

.1 Analysis of food and drink 

See also 613.2 Hygiene, 612.39 Nutrition 

.2 Dairy products Milk 

See also agriculture, 637 Dairy products 

.3 Water 

See also hygiene 613.31 Water as a beverage; and therapeutics 615.79 Min- 
eral waters 

.4 Analysis of drugs and medicins 

See a'so 614.35 Inspection of drugs; 615 Medicin 

.5 Poisons 

See also 615.9 Toxicology 

.6 Analysis of rocks and ores 

See also 549 Mineralogy, 669 . 9«Assaying, 631 Agricultural chemistry 

.7 Analysis of inorganic products in general 

For general works and special matter not provided for in previous subdivisions 
of 543 

.8 Analysis of organic products in general 

For general works and special matter not provided for in previous subdivisions 
of 543 

.9 Analysis of organic products of animal origin 

For general works and special matter not provided for in previous subdivisions 
°f 5-43 See also 577 Biology 



NATURAL SCIENCE 



544 Qualitativ analysis 

Determination of chemic elements of substances General processes and methods 

.i Wet method 

. 1 1 Reagents 
.12 Determination of bases 
.13 Determination of acids 

.2 Dry method 

See also 669.9 Assaying 

.3 Blowpiping 

For other relations see Relativ index 

.4 Gas analysis Reactions 

Identifying an isolated gas Analysis of gaseous mixtures See also 545-7 
Eudiometry 

.5 Dialysis 

For technic see 542.64; for electric dialysis see 542.8 

.6 Spectrum analysis 

See also physics, 535.84 Spectrum analysis 

.7 Polariscopic analysis 

See also physics, 535.5 Polarization 

.8 Microscopic examinations 
.9 Other methods 

Electro analysis 

.92 Capillary analysis 

545 Quantitativ analysis 

. 1 Gravimetric 

Analysis by weighing, sampletaking 

.2 Wet method 

Titration solution, alkalimetry, acidimetry 

.3 Electric methods 

See also physics, 537.85 Electrometallurgy 
For galvanoplastics see 671 

.711 Constant current analysis 

.312 Constant voltage analysis 

.36 Catalytic analysis 

.4 Dry method 

Quantitativ analyses with blowpipe, cupellatior, etc. 
See also 669.9 Assaying 

.5 Titrometric methods in general 

.6 Volumetric analysis of liquids 

See also 542.3 Mesuring apparatus 

.7 Volumetric analysis of gases 

Eudiometry and eudiometers; gas burets, absorption pipets 
See also 544.4 Gas analysis 

.8 Other methods 

Colorimetric Polarimetric Refractometric 

.9 Synthesis 

General processes 

.97 Electric synthesis 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



546-547 Inorganic and organic chemistry 

Inorganic chemistry 

.1 Nonmetallic elements 

.11 Hydrogen 

.12 Halogen group 

,13 Chlorin 

,14 Bromin 

.15 Iodin 

.161 Fluorin 

,17 Nitrogen group Nitrogen 

18 Phosphorus 

.191 Arsenic 

2 Oxygen group 

.21 Oxygen 

.22 Sulfur 

,23 Selenium 

.241 Tellurium 

,25 Carbon group 

26 Carbon 

,27 Boron 

.28 Silicon 

.29 Helium group 

.291 Helium 

.292 Neon 

.293 ' Argon 

.294 Krypton 

.295 Xenon 

.3 Metals 

.31 Alkali group 

.32 Potassium 

.33 Sodium 

.34 Lithium 

.35 Rubidium 

.36 Caesium 

•37 
38 
•39 

.4 Alkalin earths 

Calcium and magnesium groups considered together 

.41 Calcium 

.42 Strontium 

.43 Barium 

.432 Radium See als:> 539.7 Radioactivity; 541.38 Radiochemistry 

.44 Magnesium group 

.45 Beryllium or glucinum 

.46 Magnesium 

.47 Zinc 

.48 Cadmium 

•49 



NATURAL SCIENCE 



546.5 Led and silver group 

.51 Led 

.52 Thallium 

•55 Silver group 

.56 Copper 

.57 Silver 

.58 Mercury 
•59 

.6 Cerium group Rare earths 

.61 Yttrium 

.62 Cerium 

.63 Lanthanum 

.64 Didymium 

.642 Praseodymium 

.643 Neodymium 

.65 Erbium 

.652 Ytterbium 

.653 Terbium 

66 Aluminum 

67 Indium 

68 Gallium 

.69 Other metals of rare earths 

691 Scandium 

.692 Samarium or decipium 

.694 Gadolinium 

.695 Germanium 

.696 Europium 

.697 Thulium 

.7 Iron group 

Iron and chromium groups considerd togethei 

.71 Manganese 

.72 Iron 

.73 Cobalt 

.741 Nickel 

.75 Chromium group 

.76 Chromium 

.77 Molybdenum 

.78 Tungsten or wolfram 

.791 Uranium See also 541.38 

.8 Tin group 

Tin and vanadium groups considerd together 

.81 Tin 

.82 Titanium 

.83 Zirconium 

.841 Thorium See also 541-38 

.842 Actinium See also 541.38 

.85 Vanadium group 

.851 Vanadium 

.86 Antimony 

.87 Bismuth 

.88 Tantalum 

.891 Niobium or columbium 

.892 Polonium See also 541.38 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



Platinum group 

Gold 

Platinum 

Iridium 

Osmium 
Ruthenium group 

Ruthenium 

Rhodium 

Palladium 
False and putativ e'ements 

Arrange alfabeticly 

Organic chemistry 

Cyanogen and its compounds 
Hydrocarbons Fatty series 

For occurrence as minerals sec 549.8 

Paraffins 

Olefins 

Acetylenes 

Valylene Dipropargyl, etc. 
Aromatic series 

Benzenes 
Diphenyl group 

Naphthalene Anthracene Phenanthrene 

Higher series 
Alcohols Phenols 
Ethers: simple, compound; haloid 
Aldehydes 

Ketones Quinones 

Acids: acid halids, acid anhydrids, sulfo-acids 
Nitroderivates : amins, compound ammoniums, amids, 

amic acids, azo-bodies, azoxy-bodies, hydrazo-bodies 

diazo-bodies 
Compounds with metals 



NATURAL SCIENCE 



548 Crystallografy 



General; phenomena of a special mineral belong with that mineral; e. g 
cleavage of borates 549.73 

.1 Systems of crystallization 

.2 Twin crystals Crystallin aggregations 

.3 Cleavage Isomorfism Polymorfism 

.4 Irregularities Internal imperfections 

.5 Formation and growth of crystals 

.6 Pseudomorfs 

.7 Mathematic: mesurement of angles 

.8 Physical 

.9 Optical 

549 Mineralogy 

.01 Philosofy, classification .02 Compencls .03 Dictionaries .04 Essays, papers , 
etc. .05 Periodicals .06 Societies .07 Study and teaching, museums .08 Col- 
lectiv works .09 History 

.1 Determinativ Blowpiping 

See also 543.6 Methods of analysis of rocks and ores 

See 542.53 Blowpipes and their manipulation. For other relations see Blow- 
piping in Relativ index following Tables 

.2 Nativ elements 

.3 Sulfids, tellurids, selenids, arsenids, antimonids, bismuthids 

.4 Compounds of chlorin, bromin, iodin, and fluorin 

.5 Oxygen compounds: oxids 

.6 Silicates 

.61 Anhydrous 

.65 Hydrous 

,7 Other ternary oxygen compounds 

,71 Tantalates Columbates 

72 Phosphates Arsenates Vanadates Antimonates 
Nitrates 

73 Borates 

,74 Tungstates Molybdates Chromates 

,75 Anhydrous sulfates 

.76 Hydrous sulfates 

, 7 7 Tellurates 

.78 Carbonates 

.79 Oxalates 

.8 Hydrocarbons 

Occurrence as minerals. For chemistry of hydrocarbons see 547.2; for 
economic geology see 553.2 

.9 Geografic distribution 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



550 Geology 



1 

1 1 
1 2 
13 

2 

21 

22 

23 
24 

3 

31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
4 

41 

42 

43 
44 
45 
46 

47 

48 

49 
5 

5i 

52 

53 
54 
55 

57 
58 



550. 1 Philosofy, theories, geologic time .2 Compends 
papers, tracts, letters .5 Periodicals .6 Societies 
museums .8 Collectiv works .9 History 



.3 Dictionaries .4 Essays 
.7 Study and teaching. 



551 Physical and dynamic geology 



Including geophysics (physiografy, physical geografy) and geochemistry broadly 
treated; see also 551.94. For Cosmic geografy, see 523 

Structure of earth as a whole 

Interior of earth 
Internal heat 

Earth's crust 

Conductivity of rocks 
Seismology 

Volcanoes 

Earthquakes 

Hot springs, geysers 

Oscillations of the earth's crust 
Erosion and deposition 

Glaciers and glacial phenomena 
Moraines 

Transported materials, till 
Icebergs 
Aqueous erosion 

Coast changes 
Aerial erosion 
Surface features of the earth 

Physical geografy 

Continents 
Hands 

Mountains Valleys Orology 
Caves 
Plains 
Oceans 

Ocean currents 
Rivers Lakes 
Springs Wells Ground water 
Meteorology Climate 
Atmosferic currents Winds 
Thermometry, heat 

For other relations see Heat, Temperature, in Relativ index following Tables 

Hypsometry, elevations See 526.36-8 for methods 

Barometry, pressure 

Storms 

See also 537-4 Atmosferic electricity , . 

Moisture: rainfall, flow of streams, floods, U&s^J*^. 
Prairies, forests, and deserts 



Division of Oceans for use under .46 
and .47 

1 Atlantic North sea Baltic 

2 Mediterranean Black sea 

3 Gulf of Mexico Caribbean 

4 Southern Atlantic 

5 Pacific 

6 Eastern Pacific or American coast 

7 Indian Bay of Bengal Red sea 

8 Arctic 

9 Antarctic 



NATURAL SCIENCE 



551.6 Metamorfism 

.7 Stratigrafic geology 

.71 Archean 

.72 Primary, paleozoic, Cambrian 

.73 Silurian 

.731 Lower Silurian 

.732 Upper Silurian 

.74 Devonian Old red sandstone 

. 7 5 Carboniferous 

.76 Secondary, mesozoic, triassic and Jurassic: lias, oolite 

. 7 7 Cretaceous 

.78 Tertiary, cenozoic 

.781 Eocene, oligocene 

.782 Miocene 

.783 Pliocene 

.79 Quaternary Postpliocene Glacial 

.791 Recent 

.8 Structural geology 

.81 Stratification 

.82 Curvature and contortion 

.83 Ripple marks and sun cracks 

.84 Joints Cleavage Polarity in rocks 

.85 Dip Outcrop Strike 

.86 Anticlinal Synclinal 

.87 Faults and folds Dislocations 

.88 Veins Dykes Necks Bosses 

.89 

.9 Agents of geologic work 

.91 Frost 

.92 Water 

.93 Atmosphere 

.94 Geochemistry 

Chemic changes: heat. See also note to 551 

.95 Animals 

.96 Coral reefs 

.97 Plants 

.98 Segregation and concretion 

.99 Other agents 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



552 Lithology Petrografy Petrology 



.1 Igneous rocks 

.2 Volcanic rocks 

.21 Lavas Scoria 

.22 Volcanic ashes Volcanic tufa Tuff 

.23 Obsidian Pumis Pitchstone 

.24 Trachyte 

.25 Rhyolite 

.26 Andesite Dacite Phonolite 

.27 Felsites 

.28 Basalt 

.29 Other volcanic rocks 

.3 Plutonic rocks 

.3 1 Porphyry Porphyrite 

.32 Syenite 

.33 Granit 

.34 Diabase and gabbro 

.35 Dolerite 

.36 Diorite 

.37 Norite 

.38 Peridot ite 

.39 Other Plutonic rocks 

.4 Metamorfic rocks 

.41 Granits and syenites 

.42 Gneiss 

.43 Schists 

.44 Slates Argillite Phyllite 

.45 Quartzite Novaculite Itacolumite 

.46 Marble Crystallin limestone 

.47 Serpentine 

.48 Chrysolitic rocks 

.49 Other metamorfic rocks 

.5 Sedimentary rocks 

.51 Sandstone Conglomerate Sand Gravel 

.52 Shale Clay Silt 

•53 Gypsum Salt 

.54 Limestone Marl Ooze 

.55 Dolomite 

.56 Oolite 

.57 Infusorial or diatomaceous earth 

.58 Glauconite Greensand 

.59 Other sedimentary rocks 

.6 Meteorites 

.7 Decay of rocks 



NATURAL SCIENCE 



552.8 Microscopic petrografy 

.81 Determination of rock minerals 

.82 Rock structure 

553 ECOnOmiC geOlOgy Seealso 622 Mining engineering 

.1 Ore deposits 

.11 Formation and structure 

. 1 2 Classification 

.13 Superficial: placers 

.14 Stratified: beds, etc. 

. 1 5 Unstratified 

.16 Disseminated thru eruptiv rocks 

.17 Stockwerks Fahlbands Contacts 

.18 Chambers and pockets Impregnations 

.19 Mineral veins 

.2 Carbon series Whi]e the history of all 

• 2I Peat other products goes in 553, 

.2 2 Lignite and jet history of metals is more 

.21 Cannel coal Bituminous shale useful in 669, Metallurgy 

.24 Bituminous and semibituminous coals 

.25 Anthracite and grafitic anthracite 

.26 Grafite Plumbago 

.27 Asfalt and asfaltic coals Ozocerite 

.28 Petroleum Natural gas 

.29 Fossil gums and resins 

.3 Ores of iron 

.4 Ores of metals other than iron 

.41 Ores of gold 

.42 Ores of silver 

.43 Ores of copper 

.44 Ores of led 

.45 Ores of zinc and tin Mercury 

.46 Ores of manganese and chromium 

.47 Ores of antimony and arsenic 

.48 Ores of nickel and cobalt 

.49 Other metallic ores 

.5 Bilding stones 

.51 Marbles and limestones 

.52 Granits and syenites 

.53 Sandstones 

.54 Slates 

. 5 5 Serpentines Soapstones 

.56 Porphyries 

.57 Trap 

.58 Tufa Peperino 

.50 Other bilding stones 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



553.6 Earthy economic minerals 

.61 Fire clays Brick clays Potter's clays 

.62 Sands 

.63 Rock salt Gypsum 

.64 Phosphates Apatite Guano See also 631,85 

.65 Emery Corundum 

.66 Hevy spar Sulfur 

.67 Asbestos, etc. 

.68 Limes and mineral cements 

.69 Other earthy economic minerals 

.7 Mineral waters 

Divide general works with geograficly like 930-999; e.g. 
Mineral waters of Germany, 553-7043 

. 7 1 Alkalin 

.72 Salin 

.73 Chalybeate, ironbearing 

.74 Sulfuric 

.75 Calcic 

See also 551-23 

.8 Gems Ornamental stones 

.9 Other economic minerals 

GeOlOgy Of EurOpe 554-559 subdivided by countries like 940-999 

555 Geology of Asia 

556 Geology of Africa 

557 Geology of North America 

558 Geology of South America 

559 Geology of Oceania Polar regions 

f?f\(\ \J O 1 O ATI l C\ 1 OO* V ^ se f° rm divisions as in 550 and divide .9 geograficly 

3 WV/ CUwUHMJlVgJr like 930-999; e. g. Paleontology of England is 560.942 

561 PlantS 56i is subdivided like Botany, 580 

562 Invertebrates 56 2 -s6 9 is subdivided uke zoology, 592-599 

563 Protozoa Radiates 

564 Mollusks 

565 Articulates 

566 Vertebrates 

567 Fishes Batrachia 

568 Reptils Birds 

569 Mammals 



NATURAL SCIENCE 



570 Biology Archeology 

570. 1 Philosofy .2 Compends .3 Dictionaries .4 Essays, lectures, etc. 
.5 Periodicals .6 Societies .7 Study and teaching, museums; mture study 

.8 Collectiv works .9 History 

571 Prehistoric archeology 

For Customs, see 390 For Archeology of special countries, see 913 

.1 Paleolithic, or early stone age 

.ii Drift remains 

. 1 2 Cave men 

.13 Remains of animals Shells 

. 1 4 Chipt stones 

.15 Flint flakes Arrow heds Knives, etc. 

.16 Other stone remains 

.19 Other remains 

.2 Neolithic, or late stone age 

. 2 1 Stone quarries 

.22 

.23 Remains of animals 

.24 Polisht stones 

.25 Sharpend stones: celts, tools, wepons 

.26 Perforated stones: spindles, net sinkers, pipes 

.27 Hollo wd stones: mortars, cups, food vessels 

.28 Other stone remains 

.29 Other remains 

.3 Bronze age 

.31 Ancient copper and tin mining 

.34 Bronze remains 

.35 Tools Wepons, etc. 

.37 Cups Vessels 

.39 Other remains 

.4 Iron age 

.5 Other remains 

.51 Implements of wood 

.52 Implements of bone 

.53 Basket work 

.54 Textil fabrics 

.55 Pottery 

.56 Glass 

.6 

.7 Rudiments of art Ornaments 

. 7 1 Drawings 

.72 Paint 

.73 Sculptures 

.74 Beads 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



571.8 Dwellings 

.81 Natural caves 

.82 Earth houses Pit dwellings Weems 

.83 Lake dwellings Crannoges 

.84 Cliff dwellings 

.85 Pueblos 

.86 Tents as dwellings 

.9 Mounds and monuments 

.91 Mounds and mound bilders 

.92 Grave mounds 

.93 Kitchen middens Shell banks 

.94 Monoliths Cromlechs 

.95 Circles Labyrinths 

.96 Cairns ^ 
•97 6 ' 



98 

99 

572 Ethnology Anthropology 

See also 136.4 Mental race characteristics 

.1 Unity of the human race 

.2 Diversity of races 

.3 Migrations of men 

.4 Original home of man: Eden, Atlantis, etc. 

•5 
.6 

.7 Savages: races divided by practises 

Class description of savages of special country in 914 -919; e. g. Australian bush- 
men 919.4 

.8 Races divided by language like 400 

.9 Races divided by countries like 930-999 

Divide by countries where possible. Use language divisions for groups like 
Semitic, Aryan, Teutonic, English, etc. 

573 Natural history of man Somatology 

.1 Man's place in nature 

.2 Origin of man 

.3 Antiquity of man 

.4 Influence of climate and surroundings 

.5 Color in man 

.6 Anthropometry 

.7 Craniology 

.8 Dwarfs and giants 

.9 Monstrosities 

See also 611.012 Teratology; 613.91 Congenital defects; 617.3 Deformities 



NATURAL SCIENCE 



Homologies 
Evolution 

See also 213 Creation; 215 Religion and science; 239.8 Apologetics 

Heredity 

For other relations see Heredity in Relativ index following Tables 
Variation See also 591 .15 Physiologic zoology 
Environment See also 136.2 Mental; 573-4 

Natural selection Survival of the fittest 
Sexual selection 
Development 
Degeneration 
Origin of species 
Origin of sexes 

Origin and beginnings of life 

Spontaneous generation 
Protoplasm Bioplasm 
Cells 

Beginnings of motion and sensation 



See also 591.36 Embryology 



[576-577 are undergoing 
revision that will change 
some numbers and great- 
ly enlarge them in a later 
edition] 



Properties of living matter 

Chemic : difference between organic and inorganic 
Life : difference between ded and living matter 
Difference between vital and physical phenomena 
Conditions of life : moisture, temperature 
Difference between plants and animals 
Vital force 

Deth See also 612.013 

Sex in nature 

Microscopy s ee ai so 535.82 optics 

Varieties of microscopes 
Optic parts 
Mechanical parts 

Accessory apparatus and management of microscope 

Illuminating apparatus 
Preparation and mounting of objects 
Special preparation and study of inorganic material 
botanic material see ssi.s Histology 
„ zoologic material "5918 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 

579 Collectors manuals 

.1 Preparing skeletons 

.2 Preservativs and hardening fluids 

.3 Injections 

.4 Taxidermy 

.5 Mounting specimens 

.6 Collecting 

.611 Alluring; bait, light, etc. 

.612 Hunting; nets, collecting bottle, etc. 

.613 Killing 

.614 Exchange Purchase 

.615 Rearing 

.616 Transporting 

.7 Arrangement of specimens in museums 

.71 Cabinets .72 Labels 

.8 Preservation of specimens 

.81 Museum pests .82 Pestifuges .83 Prevention of moisture .84 Re- 
tention of colors 

•9 



NATURAL SCIENCE 



Botany 

580.1 Philosofy, classification, nomenclature .2 Compends .3 Dictionaries, 
cyclopedias .4 Essays .5 Periodicals .6 Societies .7 Study and teaching, 
herbariums, botanic gardens .8 Collectiv works .9 History 

Physiologic and structural botany 

Subdivided where wished like 591 

Physiology 
.2 Pathology Teratology 



.21 Diseases 

.22 Teratology 

.23 Parasites 

.3 Embryology Germination 

.4 Morfology Comparativ anatomy 

.5 Habits 

.6 Economic 

.7 Organografy Descriptiv anatomy 

.8 Histology See 578.8 

.9 Geografic 

.91 Distribution of plants 



Subdivide .93~-99 like 930-999 Use .92 for ocean, marine flora 
This Geografic classification is to be used only for general works and cross references. 
'Flora of North America' is put 581.97; but ' North American cryptogams ' is 
clast 586 with a reference from 581.97. but North American phanerogams go with 
581.97 because it so completely covers the subject 

General works covering both Phanerogamia and Cryptogamia are put under 580 
as books covering Vertebrates and Invertebrates are put under 590 
In applying these numbers to Fossil plants, 561, note that one more figure must be 
used than in fossil animals. The Zoology numbers are alredy given in the 3d place 
in Paleontology, e. g. 592 Invertebrates, 562 Fossil invertebrates, and so on to 599 
Mammals, and 569 Fossil mammals. But in Fossil plants, 561, all 8 sections are 
groupt together and the section number must be repeated. Fossil phanerogams 
are 561.2 not 562, which is assignd to Invertebrate zoology as more important. 
Lichens are 561.91, etc. In the same way the Fossil flora of North America is 
561.197, i. e. the first 2 Botany figures, 58, are changed to 561 to give the corre- 
sponding Fossil botany number, while in zoology the only change Is from 59 to 56 
for first 2 figures, except in 591 which can not change to 561, which is assignd to 
Botany. The Fossil fauna of North America must therefore go among general 
works under 560.97 

Phanerogamia See also 715 Trees; 634.9 Forestry 

The subsections below are taken from the recognized authority, Bentham and 
Hooker's Genera plantarum 

Dicotyledons 



.1 Polypetalae 

.11 Ranales 

.111 Ranunculaceae 

.112 Dilleniaceae 

.113 Caly canthaceas 

.114 Magnoliaceae 

.115 Anonaceae 

.116 Menispermaceae 

.117 Berberideae 

.118 Nymphaeaceae 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



583.12 Parietales 

.121 Sarraceniaceae 

.122 Papa veraceae 

.123 Cruciferae 

.131 Capparideae 

.133 Resedaceae 

.134 Cistineae 

.135 Violarieae 

.137 Canellaceae 

.138 Bixineae 

.14 Polygalineae 

.141 Pittosporeae 

.142 Tremandreae 

.143 Polygaleae 

.145 Vochysiaceae 

.15 Caryophyllineae 

.151 Frankeniaceae 

.152 Caryophylleae 

.153 Sileneae 

. 1 54 Alsineae 

.155 Polycarpeae 

.156 Portulaceae 

. 1 58 Tamariscineae 

.16 Guttiferales 

.161 Elatineae 

.162 Hypericineae 

.163 Guttiferae 

.166 Ternstroemiaceae 

.167 Dipterocarpeae 

.168 Chlaenaceae 

.17 Malvales Malvaceae 

.18 Sterculiaceae 

.19 Tiliaceae 

.21 Geraniales 

.211 Lineae 

.213 Humiriaceae 

.214 Malpighiaceae 

.221 Zygophylleae 

.223 Geraniaceae 

.23 Rutaceae 

.241 Simarubeae 

.245 Ochnaceae 

.247 Burseraceae 

.251 Meliaceae 

.255 Chailletiaceae 



NATURAL SCIENCE 



583.26 


Olacales 


.261 


Olacineae 


.269 


Ilicineaj 


.27 


Celastrales 


.271 


Celastrineas 


.274 


Stackhousieas 


•275 


Rhamneae 


.279 


Ampelideos 


.20 


bapindales 


rtQf 
.201 


Sapindaceas 


.291 


Sabiaceae 


.292 


Anacardiaceaj 


.297 


Anomola 


.298 


Goriarieae 


.299 


M^oringeas 


•3 


Rosales 


•31 


Connaraceae 


•32 


Leguminosae 


•37 


Rosaceae 


.30 


Saxifrageas 


•39 


Crassulaceas 


•393 


Droseraceaj 


•394 


Hamamelideae 


•396 


Brumaceas 


•398 


Halorageas 


•4 


Myrtales 


.411 


Rhizophoreae . 


.414 


Combretaceae 


.42 


Myrtaceas 


•43 


Melastomaceas 


.441 


Lythrarieas 


•445 


Onagrarieas, Oenotheras 


•45 


jr assinordicS 


•45 1 


Samydaceae 


•453 


Loaseas 


•455 


Turneraceae 


•456 


Passifloreas 


.461 


Cucurbiyacea; 


.400 


Begoniaceae 


.469 


Datisceae 


•47 


Ficoidales 


.471 


Cacteas 


•475 


Ficoideae 


.48 


Umbellales 


.481 


Umbellifen 


.491 


Araliaceae 


•497 


Cornaceae 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



583.5 Gamopetalae 

.51 Rubiales Caprifoliaceae 

.52 Rubiaceae 

.53 Asterales 

.531 Valerianeae 

.541 Dipsaceae 

.546 Calysereae 

.55 Compositae 

.57 Campanales Stylidieae 

.58 Goodenovieae 

.59 Campanulaceas 

.6 Ericales 

.61 Vacciniaceae 

.62 Ericaceae 

.63 Monotropeae 

.64 Epacrideae 

.65 Diapensiaceae 

.66 Lennoaceas 

.67 Primulales 

.671 Plumbagineae 

.672 Primulaceas 

.677 Myrsineae 

.68 Ebenales 

.681 Sapotaceas 

.685 Ebenaceae 

.686 Styraceas 

.7 Gentianales 

.71 Oleaceae 

.716 Salvadoraceae 

.72 Apocynaceae 

.73 Asclepiadeae 

.74 Loganiaceas 

.75 Gentianeae 

.76 Polemoniales 

.761 Polemoniaceas 

.764 Hydrophyllaceae 

.77 Boragineae 

.78 Convolvulaceae 

.79 Solanaceae 

.8 Personales 

.81 Scrophularineae 

.821 Orobanchaceae 

.825 Lentibularieae 

.829 Columelliaceae 

.83 Gesneraceae 

.84 Bignoniaceas 

.85 Pedalineae 

.86 Acanthaceas 

.8^ Lamiales 

.871 Myoporineae 

.876 Selagineae 

.88 Verbenaceac 

.891 Labiatae 

.899 Ordo anomalus Plantagineae 



NATURAL SCIENCE 



583.9 Apetalae 

.91 Curvembryeae 

.911 Nyctagineae 

.912 Illecebraceae 

.913 Amarantaceae 

.914 Chenopodiaceae 

.915 Phytolaccaceae 

.916 Batideae 

.917 Polygonaceae 

.92 Multiovulatae aquaticae 

.92 1 Podostemaceae 

.922 Multiovulatae terrestres Nepenthaceae 

.923 Cytinaceae 

.924 Aristolochiaceae 

.925 Micrembryeas Piperaceae 

.926 Chloranthaceae 

.927 Myristiceae 

.928 Monimiaceae 

.93 Daphnales 

.93 1 Laurineae 

.932 Proteaceae 

.933 Thymelaeaceas 

.934 Penaeaceae 

.935 Elaeagnaceae 

.94 Achlamydosporeae 

.941 Loranthaceae 

.943 Santalaceas 

.947 Balanophoreae 

.95 Unisexuales 

.951 Euphorbiaceae 

.961 Balanopseas 

.962 Urticaceag 

.971 Platanaceae 

.972 Leitnerieas 

•973 Juglandeae 

.974 Myricaceae 

.975 Casuarineae 

.976 Cupuliferac 

.98 Anomali 

.981 Salicineae 

.983 Lacistemaceae 

.984 Empetraceae 

.987 Ceratophylleae 

584 Monocotyledons 

.1 Microspermeae 

.11 Hydrocharideae 

.13 Burmanniaceae 

.15 Orchideae 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



584.2 

.21 

.22 

•23 
.24 

.25 
.26 

.27 
•3 
.31 
•32 

•34 

•35 

•36 

•37 

•38 

•39 

•4 

.41 

•45 

•5 

.6 

.61 

.62 

.63 
.64 
.68 
•7 
.71 
.72 
•74 
.8 
.81 
.82 
.83 
84 
9 

585 

.1 
.2 
•9 



Epigyneae 

Scitamineas 

Bromeliaceae 

Haemodoraceae 

Irideae 

Amaryllideae 

Taccaceae 

Dioscoreaceae 
Coronarieae 

Roxburghiaceae 

Liliaceae 

Pontederiaceae 

Philydraceae 

Xyrideae 

Mayaceae 

Commelinaceae 

Rapateaceae 
Calycinese 

Flagellarieae 

Juncaceae 

Palmae 
Nudifloreae 

Pandaneae 

Cyclanthaceae 

Typhaceae 

Aroideae 

Lemnaceae 
Apocarpeae 

Triurideae 

Alismaceae 

Naiadaceae 
Glumaceae 

Eriocauleae 

Centrolepideae 

Restiaceae 

Cyperaceae 

Gramineae 



Gymnospermse 

Gnetaceae 

Coniferae 

Cycadaceae 



TPtogamia 
Pteridophyta 



Isoeteae 
Equisetae 
Filicinae 
Lycopodinae 




NATURAL SCIENCE 



588 Bryophyta 

.1 Sphagna 

.2 Musci 

.3 Hepaticae 

.4 Characeae 

589 Thallophyta 

.1 Lichenes 

.11 Basidiolichenes 

.15 Ascolichenes 

.16 Angiocarpas 

.17 Gymnocarpae 

. 1 8 Gelatinosae 

.19 Byssaceae 

.2 Fungi 

.21 Carposporeae 

.22 Basidiomycetes 

.221 Gasteromycetes 

.222 Hymenomycetes 

.224 Tremellinae 

.225 Uredineas 

.227 Ustilagineae 

.229 Entomophthoreae 

.23 Ascomycetes 

.231 Tuberaceae 

.233 Discomycetes 

.235 Pyrenomycetes 

.238 Gymnoasceae 

.24 Oosporeae 

.25 Peronosporeae 

.26 Saprolegnieae 

.27 Zygosporeae 

.28 Zygomycetes 

.29 Myxomycetes, mycetozcx. 

.3 Algae 

.4 Carposporeae 

.41 Florideae 

.47 Coleochaeteae 

.5 Oosporeae 

.6 Zygosporeae 

.61 Conjugateae 

.67 Zoosporeae 

.7 Protophyta 

.8 Chlorophyllaceae 

.9 Achlorophyllaceae 

.91 Saccharomycetes Yeast 

.95 Schizomycetes Bacteria Microbes 

For other relations see Bacteria in Relativ index following Tablt 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



590 



Zoology 



1 1 

12 
121 
122 
123 

125 

126 

127 

129 

13 

131 

132 

i33 
i34 
135 
136 
137 
138 

139 
,14 
141 
142 

143 
144 

145 
146 

147 

148 

149 

15 

151 

,152 

■153 
■154 
■i55 
.156 

•157 
.158 

•159 



590. 1 Philosofy, classification .2 Compends .3 Dictionaries .4 Essays, 
lectures, etc. .5 Periodicals .6 Societies .7 Study and teaching, zoologic 
gardens, aquaria, museums .8 Collectiv works .9 History 



Circulation 
Respiration 

Nature 

Dermal 

Aquivascular 

Branchial 

Tracheal 

Pulmonary 

Exhalation of aqueous vapor 
Nutrition 

Acquisition of food 

Digestion of food 

Assimilation of food 

Growth 

Development 

Repair of waste 

Production of organic material 

Conditions of nutritiv activity 

Longevity, vitality 
Secretion and excretion 

Mucous and sebaceous 

Sericeous 

Digestiv: salivary, gastric, pancreatic 

Odoriferous, sweet, etc. 

Poisonous, gall formation, caprification 

Mammary, spermatic 

Lacrimal 

Biliary 

Urinary and fecal 

Variation See also S75.2 Evolution 

Polymorfic 

Geografic 

Heterofagic 

Polygoneutic 

Mimetic 

Sexual 

Colorational 

Hybrids 

Monstrosities 



591 



1 



Physiologic zoology 

Physiology 




NATURAL SCIENCE 



591.16 Generation 

. 1 6 1 Abiogenesis 

.162 Parthenogenesis, neuters 

.163 Metagenesis, pedogenesis, nurses 

.165 Fission and gemmation 

.166 Fecundation 

.167 Hermaphrodites 

.168 Vivipara 

. 1 69 Superf etation 

.17 Histogenesis 

.171 Development of sperm cells 

.172 Development of germ cells, micropyle 

.179 Reparation of wounds 

.18 Nervous functions and sensation 

.19 Physiologic chemistry 

.2 Pathology 

.3 Embryology 

.33 Development of embryo 

.34 Metamorphosis, larva, pupa, molting 

.35 Hypermetamorphosis 

.36 Production of sexes 

See also 575 -9 Origin of sexes 

.4 Morfology Comparativ anatomy Homologies 

.41 Circulatory organs 

.42 Respiratory organs 

.43 Nutritory organs 

.44 Secretory and excretory organs 

•45 

.46 Generatory organs 

.47 Motory organs 

.48 Nervous system 

.49 Integument Dermoskeleton Skeleton 

.5 Habits and behavior 

Including popular books; animal stories, except fiction 

. 5 1 Instinct Reason 

.52 Abode Migration 

.53 Food 

.54 Seasons Hibernation 

.55 Sociability 

.56 Philoprogenitivness Breeding 

.57 Means of protection Fascination 
.58 

.59 Other habits 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



1.6 Economic 

.61 Usefulness 

.62 In nature 

.63 As food and medicin for man 

.64 In chemistry and manufactures 

.65 Noxiousness 

.66 Offensiv animals 

.67 Animals causing diseases [substances 

.68 Injuring vegetable and animal products and inorganic 

.69 Injuring living plants and animals Parasites 

.7 Organografy Descriptiv anatomy 

Subdivided like 591.4 Morfology 

.8 Histology See also 578.9 Microscopic zoology 

.9 Geografic distribution of animals 

Subdivide like 930-9991 using .92 for ocean, marine fauna 

Invertebrates 

593 Protozoans Radiates 

.1 Protozoans 

. 1 1 Rhizopoda 

. 1 2 Foraminif era 

.13 Heliozoa 

.14 Radiolaria Polycystina 

. 1 5 Infusoria 

.16 Flagellata 

. 1 7 Ciliata 

.18 

.19 Gregarinidse 

.2 Radiates 

.3 Coelenterata Acalepha (old use of term, now limited to 593-73) 

.4 Sponges Porifera Spongia 

.5 Cnidaria 

.6 Actinozoa Polyps Corals and sea anemones 

.61 Rugosa Tetracorolla 

.62 Alcyonaria Octocorolla 

.63 Zoantharia Hexacorolla 

.64 Antipatharia 

.65 Actinaria 

.66 Madreporaria 

.7 Hydrozoa 

.71 Hydromedusse 

.72 Siphonophora 

•73 Acalepha 

•74 Calycozoa 

.76 Marsupialida 

•77 Discophora Jelly fish 

.8 Ctenophora Jelly fish 



NATURAL SCIENCE 



593.9 Echinodermata 

.91 Crinoidea, sea lilies 

.92 Asteroidea, star fish 

.93 Stelleridea 

.94 Ophiuridea 

.95 Echinoidea, sea urchins 

.96 Holothuroidea, sea cucumbers 

.97 Pedata 

.98 Apoda 

.99 Enteropneusta 

594 Mollusks 

.1 Lamellibranchiata Bivalvs 

.2 Scaphopoda 

.3 Gastropoda Univalvs : snails, slugs s ee also 632 Pests 

.4 Pteropoda Wingd shells 

.5 Cephalopoda Squids and cuttle fish 

.6 Molluscoidea 

.7 Bryozoa (Polyzoa) Sea mats 

.8 Brachiopoda Lamp shells 

.9 Tunicata (Ascidia) * Sea grapes 

595 Articulates 

.1 Worms Vermes See also 632 Pests 

.2 Arthropoda 

.3 Crustacea 

.31 Entomostraca Cyclops, shrimps, etc. 

.32 Phyllopoda 

.33 Ostracoda 

.34 Copepoda 

.35 Cirripedia Barnacles, etc. 

.36 Malacostraca Sandbugs, crabs, lobsters, etc. 

.37 Arthrostraca 

.38 Thoracostraca 

.39 Gigantostraca Trilobites 

.4 Arachnida Spiders Scorpions Mites see also 632 Pests 

.5 Onychophora 

.6 Myriopoda : centipedes, etc. see also 632 Pests 

.7 Insects Insecta Hexapoda s ee also 632 Pests 

.71 Thysanura: bristletails, springtails, etc. 

.72 Orthoptera: grasshoppers, etc. 

.73 Pseudoneuroptera : dragon-flies, white ants, etc. 

.74 Neuroptera: caddis flies, etc. 

.75 Rhynchota: (hemiptera) bugs, etc. 

.76 Coleoptera: beetles 

.77 Diptera: flies, etc. 

.78 Lepidoptera: butterflies, moths 

.79 Hymenoptera: bees, wasps, etc. 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



596 Vertebrates 

597 Fishes Pisces 

.1 Pharyngobranchii Lancelet 

.2 Marsipobranchii Lampreys 

.3 Elasmobranchii Sharks, rays, etc. 

.4 Ganoidei Sturgeons, garpikes, etc. 

.5 Teleostei : true bony fishes 

.6 Batrachia (Amphibia) 

.7 Ophiomorpha 

.8 Anura Toads, frogs 

.9 Urodela Salamanders 

598 Reptils Birds 



T 


U entile 


.11 


Lacertilia Lizards 


.12 


Ophidia Snakes 


•13 


Chelonia Turtles 


.14 


Crocodilia Crocodiles 
• 


•15 


Ichthyopterygia 


.16 


Sauropterygia 


•17 


Anomodontia 


.18 


Pterosauria 


.19 


Dinosauria 


.2 


Birds Aves 


•3 


Grallatores, waders 


•4 


Natatores, swimmers 


•5 


Cur sores, runners 


.6 


Rasores, scratchers 


•7 


Scansores, climbers 


.8 


Insessores, perchers 


•9 


Rap tores, birds of prey 



599 Mammals Mammalia 

.1 Monotremata Duckbild platypus 
.2 Marsupialia Kangaroos, opossums 
.3 Edentata Rodentia Insectivora Sloths Rodents 
Moles 

.4 Cheiroptera Bats 

.5 Cetacea Sirenia Whales, etc. 

.6 Proboscidea Hyracoidea Elephants Hyrax 

.7 Ungulata Carnivora Domestic mammals s ee also 636 

.8 Quadrumana Apes 

•9 Bimana Man See also 573 Nat. hist, of man; 610 Medicin 



Useful Arts 



600 Useful arts ^-^-^ c r±f u^^ 

601 Filosofy Theories, etc. 

602 Compends, outlines 

603 Dictionaries, cyclopedias 

604 Essays, lectures, addresses 

605 Periodicals, magazines, reviews 

606 Societies Fairs Exhibitions 

Special exhibitions go with their topics. This is general only 

607 Education Schools of technology 

Divided like 940-999 

608 Patents Inventions 

609 History of useful arts in general 

For its history, see each special department 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



o Medicin 

610.1 Filosofy, theories .2 Compends .3 Dictionaries, cyclopedias .4 Essays 
.5 Periodicals .6 Societies .7 Study and teaching .71 Medical schools; 
divided like 940-999 .72 Medical education of women .73 Training schools 
for nurses .77 Medical museums .8 Collections .9 History of medicin 

1 1 Anatomy 

See also 591.4 Comparativ anatomy; 591.8 Zoologic histology 
SUMMARY 
611. 01 Theory 
.012 Teratology 
.013 Embryology 
.014 Anthropologic anatomy 
.016 Paleontologic 
.018 Histology 
.019 Comparativ anatomy 
.1 Circulatory system 
.2 Respiratory " 
.3 Digestiv " 
.4 Glandular and lymphatic system 
.6 Geni to-urinary system 
.7 Motor and integumentary system 
.8 Nervous system 
.9 Regional anatomy 



.01 Theory 

.0111 Notion, definition, value 

.0113 Classification, division 

.0114 Terminology 

.012 Teratology Anomalies 

To be subdivided like revised 617.3 Orthopedic surgery 

.013 Ontogeny Embryology 

See also physiology, 612.6 Reproduction and development 

1 Germinativ cells 

1 1 Sperm 

12 Spermatogenesis See also 611.63 Male genital organs 

15 Ovum 

16 Ovogenesis See also 611.65 Female genital organs 

17 Maturation Corpus luteum 

2 Copulation Fecundation Fertilization 

See also Fecundation, in botany 581.166; in zoology 591.3 

3 Germ layers 

31 Segmentation Cleavage Blastula 
314 Blastula 

32 Gastrula 

33 Primitiv streak 

34 Blastopore Primitiv mouth 

35 Archenteron Primitiv gut 

36 Neurenteric canal 

37 Entoderm, entoblast, hypoblast or endoderm 

38 Ectoderm, epiblast or ectoblast 

39 Mesoderm or mesoblast 

395 Mesenchyme 

4 Entodermic, entoblastic or hypoblastic organs 
41 Notochord 

5 Ectodermic, epiblastic or ectoblastic organs 

Epidermal layer 

5 1 Neural furrows, folds and canal or medullary plates 

See also 61 1.8 Nervous system 



medicin: anatomy 



611.0136 Mesodermic organs 

61 Protovertebrae Mesoblastic somites, or primitiv 

vertebrae 

64 Somatopleure, body wall, or musculocutaneous plate 

Outer lamella of lateral plates 

65 Splanchnopleure, fibrous wall of alimentary canal, or 
gut fiber plate 

Inner lamella of lateral plates 

66 Coelom, pleuroperitoneal or body cavity 

See also 611.389 Coelom 
68 Blood or primitiv vessel wall 

See also 611.0185 Histology of blood 

7 External form of embryo 

8 Fetal appendages 

81 Vitellin sac 

82 Allantois 

83 Amnion 

835 Amniotic fluid 

84 Chorion 

85 Placenta Umbilic cord 

9 Experimental embryology 
.014 Anthropologic anatomy 

See also 572 Anthropology 

.016 Paleontologic anatomy 

See also 560 Paleontology 

.018 Histology 

Microscopic structure of organs 

1 Cells Cytology 

See also 576.3 Cytology For special cells see tissues to which 
they belong 

1 1 Protoplasm 
13 Nucleus 

15 Cell division See also 611.01331 

16 Centrosome 

18 Cilia Cellular membrane 

2 Connectiv tissue 

Connectiv, cartilage and bone tissue together known as ' sup. 
porting tissues ' 

21 Connectiv tissue cells 

22 Connectiv tissue fibers 

23 Ground substance or matrix 

24 Reticular and adenoid tissue 

Areolar or interstitial tissue Reticulum 

25 Mucous or gelatinous tissue Mesenchyme 

See also embryology, 611. 013395 Mesenchyme 

26 Adipose or fat tissue 

27 Elastic or yellow fibrous tissue 

28 Fibrous or white fibrous tissue 

29 Pigment and pigment cells 

3 Cartilaginous tissue 

True or hyalin cartilage, cartilage cells or chondroblasts For 
Elastic, yellow fibrocartilage, or reticular cartilage see 
• 611. 01827; for Fibrocartilage, fibrous or white fibrocartilage 
see 611. 01828 
34 Perichondrium 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



6 1 1 . o 1 84 Bone or osseous tissue 

41 Bone cells 

Osteoblasts Osteoclasts Howship's lacunae Myelo- 
plaques of Robin 

43 Ground substance or matrix 

Spongiosum, spongy substance, or cancellated or spongy bow- 
Compact substance 

Structure: lacunae, canaliculi, lamellae, Haversian canals 
Volkmann's canals 

44 Periosteum 

Osteogenetic layer or cells; fibers of Sharpey 

46 Bone marrow or medulla 

5 Blood 

See also physiology, 6 12. 11 Blood 
Foi sperm, see 611.01311 and 612.616 

57 Lymf 

See also 612.42 lymphatic system 

6 MllSCular tissue Sarcoplasm 

61 Smooth, unstriped, unstriated or involuntary muscle 

62 Striped, striatedjor voluntary muscle 

Sarcolemma 

63 Cardiac muscle 

64 Histology of muscular contraction 

7 Epithelial tissue 

72 Glandular system 

73 Mucous membranes 

74 Serous " Endothelia 

8 Nervous tissue 

81 General structure Tectology Neurone 
Regeneration 

82 Nerv cells 

Nissl's chromophilic bodies 

83 Prolongations and nerv fibers 

Cylinder-axis process; cylinder axis. Appendixes, varicosities 

833 Neurilemma Schwann's sheath 

834 Myelin Ranvier's nodes Medullary sheath 

835 Adventitious sheath, perineurium Epineurium 
Endoneurium 

837 Dendrites 

84 Neuroglia Ependymal cells, amyloids 

86 Terminations 

861 Motor terminations 

866 Sensory 

.019 Comparison with anatomy of lower animals 

Usually better clast in 591-4 

Form divisions 

.02 Compends 

.03 Dictionaries Cyclopedia? 

.04 Essays Addresses 

.05 Periodicals 

.06 Societies Clubs 



medicin: anatomy 



611.07 Teaching Methods 

.072 Laboratories Dissection 

.077 Pedagogic methods 

.078 Instruments Apparatus 

.08 Polygrafy 

.09 History 

.1 Circulatory system 

. 1 1 Pericardium 

. 1 2 Hart 

.122 Left hart 

.123 Right hart 

.124 Ventricles 

2 Right s Left 

.125 Auricles 

2 Right 5 Left 

.126 Endocardium 

3 Valvs 

4 Auriculoventricular valvs 
42 Mitral or bicuspid valvs 
46 Tricuspid valvs 

5 Valvs of aorta and of pulmonary artery 

Sinuses of Valsalva 

52 Aortic valvs 

50 - Pulmonary or semilunar valvs 

6 Valvs of right auricle 

2 Eustachian 5 Coronary 

.127 Myocardium 

.13 Arteries 

.131 Pulmonary artery 

2 Right branch 5 Left branch 

.132 Aorta 

1 Aortic arch Ascending aorta 

2 Coronary arteries 

2 Right 5 Left 

5 Innominate artery 

.133 Carotid arteries 

1 Common carotid 

2 External " 

21 Superior thyroid 

22 Lingual 

23 Facial, or external maxillary 

24 Ascending pharyngeal 

25 Posterior auricular 

26 Occipital 

27 Superficial temporal 

28 Internal maxillary 

281 Sphenopalatin arteries 

289 Middle or great meningeal 

3 Internal carotid 

32 Ophthalmic artery 

33 Cerebral arteries, anterior and middle 

For posterior cerebral artery see 611.13/19 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



6 1 1. 1 34 Subclavian arteries 

1 Axillary 

Superior thoracic, acromiothoracic, long thoracic or external 
mammary, alar thoracic, subscapular, " posterior and anterior 
circumflex 

2 Brachial or humeral 

Superior and inferior profunda, nutrient, anastomotica magna, 
muscular 

3 Forearm arteries 

31 Radial 

3 5 Ulnar 

4 Hand arteries 

5 Internal mammary Superior epigastric 

6 Costocervical trunk 

7 Thyrocervical trunk 

8 Posterior, or dorsal scapular, transversa colli 

9 Vertebral Basilar, posterior cerebral, circle of Willis 

.135 Thoracic aorta and branches 

1 Parietal branches 

4 Intercostal " 

Subcostal, diaframatic, vas aberrans 

5 Visceral branches 

Bronchial, esofageal, pericardial, mediastinal 

.136 Abdominal aorta and branches 

1 Inferior frenic 

2 Lumbar 

3 Middle sacral ; caudal 

4 Celiac axis 

Celiac mesenteric, umbilic mesenteric or omphalomesenterica 

41 Hepatic 

Pyloric, gastroduodenal, superior pancreaticoduodenal, right 
gastro-epiploic, cystic 

42 Splenic, lienalis 

Pancreatic, vasa brevia, left gastro-epiploic 

43 Left gastric, gastric, or coronary gastric 

5 Mesenteric 

51 Superior mesenteric 

Rami intestini tenuis, or branches of small intestin; inferior 
pancreaticoduodenal; middle, right and ileocolic; terminal and 
appendicular branches 

52 Inferior mesenteric 

Left colic, sigmoid, superior hemorrhoidal 

6 Middle suprarenal 

7 Renal 

8 Spermatic 

9 Ovarian 
.137 Iliac arteries 

1 Common iliac 

2 Hypogastric, or internal iliac 

3 Parietal branches 

4 Lateral sacral 

5 Obturator 



medicin: anatomy 



I. 1376 


Gluteal 


61 


Superior gluteal 


65 


Inferior gluteal Sciatic 


7 


Visceral branches 


71 


Umbilic, superior vesical 


7a 


Inferior vesical and deferential 


73 


Uterin and vaginal 


74 


Middle hemorrhoidal 


75 


Internal pudic 


Q 




j2/XLeriicii iiidL ditery 


8l 


Inferior epigastric, or deep epigastric 


82 


Deep circumflex iliac 


83 


Femoral 


04 


JJccJJ IclnUIal) piuiuiiud ICIUUIlS 




2 External circumflex 5 Internal circumflex 


85 


Arteria genu suprema, or anastomotica magna 


86 


Popliteal 


87 


Anterior tibial 


9 


Tibiofibular trunk, truncus tibioperoneus 


91 


Posterior tibial 




X CI vJJLlCcLl 


93 


Arteries of foot 


94 


Dorsalis pedis 




Tarsal, metatarsal, dorsal interosseous, dorsalis h 


95 


Plantar 


.14 


Veins 


.141 


Pulmonary 


.142 


Cardiac or venae cordis 


• I 43 


Subintestinal, or fetal portal vein 


.1 Ad. 


Cardinal 


.145 


Superior vena cava 




Innominate veins Veins of neck 


I 


Internal jugular vein 




Thyroid veins 


1 1 


Cerebral veins Sinuses of dura mater 


13 


Emissary vein 


15 


Superior ofthalmic 


16 


Inferior " 


17 


Facial 


2 


External jugular 


O 


Posterior external jugular and vertebral 


4. 


Subclavian and axillary 


41 


Deep veins of upper extremity 


46 


Superficial veins of upper extremity 




2 Basilic 5 Cephalic 


6 


Azygos 


7 


Spinal veins 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



6 1 1. 1 46 Inferior vena cava 

1 Lumbar veins 

2 Renal 

3 Suprarenal " 

4 Hepatic " 

5 Inferior frenic 

6 Spermatic 

Pampiniform or spermatic plexus 

7 Ovarian 
.147 Iliac veins 

1 Hypogastric or internal iliac 

Hemorrhoidal plexus 

2 External iliac 

3 Femoral Popliteal 

33 Long, or internal saphenous 

3 7 Tibial veins 

38 Short, or external saphenous 
3 9 Veins of foot 

.149 Portal vein 

1 Superior mesenteric 

2 Inferior " 

3 Ventricular coronary, gastric, or venae gastricae Pyloric 

4 Splenic, or lienalis 

5 Cystic 

7 Fetal hepatic veins Omphalomesenteric 

Ductus venosus Aranzii, or sinus venosus, large vein passing 

directly thru fetal liver 
g Umbilic 

. 1 5 Capillaries 

.2 Respiratory system 

Nose 

See also 611.86 Organs of smell 
External nose 

.22 Larynx 
.221 Cartilages 

Epiglottis, thyroid, arytenoid, cuneiform, cornicular 
>223 False vocal cords 

224 Ventricles 

.225 Cavity of larynx Glottis 

True vocal cords Rima glottidis or chink of glottis 
227 Ligaments 

.229 Muscles of larynx 

.23 Trachea and bronchi 
.231 Trachea 
.233 Bronchi 

See also 611.24 below 

.24 Lungs, or pulmones 

.25 Pleura 

.26 Diafram 

.27 Mediastinum 

'28 Gills 

See comparativ anatomy, 591-42 Respiratory organs 
39 Other organs, including air bladder swimming bladder See 591.42 



21 



.21 



medicin: anatomy 



611.3 Digestiv system 

.3 1 Mouth, buccal cavity or cavum oris 
.313 Tung 

S Papillae 

.314 Teeth 

.315 Palate, palatum, or roof of mouth Soft palate, or 

velum pendulum palati Uvula 
.316 Salivary and other glands of mouth 

1 Submaxillary and sublingual glands 

5 Parotid glands Stenson's duct 

.317 Lips 
.318 Cheeks 

.32 Pharynx Esofagus 
.321 Pharynx 
.322 Tonsils 

.323 Faucial tonsils 

.324 Pharyngeal or Luschka's tonsils 

.325 Lingual, buccal or 4th tonsil 

.326 Other tonsils: laryngeal, nasal 
.337 Topografy or regions of pharynx 

1 Nasal or epipharynx 

2 Oral, buccal, or meso pharynx 

3 Laryngeal or hypo pharynx 

4 Back 

5 Sides 

.329 Esofagus 

1 Cervical 2 Thoracic section 3 Abdominal section, 
including diaframatic 

.33 Stomach 

Gastric glands: true, oxyntic or peptic; pyloric; cardiac 
.333 Cardia 
.33 4 Pylorus 

.335 Greater curvature, or lower convex surface 

.336 Lesser " " upper concave w 

.34 Intestin 

.341 Small intestin 

2 Meckel's diverticulum 

3 Peyer's patches, or tonsillae intestinales 

4 Plicae circulares 

5 Glands of Lieberkiihn and solitary glands 
.342 Duodenum Brunner's glands 

.343 Jejunum 
.344 Ileum 

.345 Cecum 

1 Ileocecal valv 

2 Vermiform appendix 

.347 Large intestin 

Including cecum Appendices eptploicae 

.348 Colon 

2 Ascending 

3 Transverse 

4 Descending 
.349 Sigmoid flexure 

.35 Rectum Anus 

.351 Rectum Houston's or rectal valvs 

.352 Anus 

.353 Perineum See also 61 1.96 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



611.36 Liver 

.361 Bile ducts Bile capillaries or canaliculi 

.362 Hepatic duct 

.366 Cystic duct Gall bladder 

.367 Common bile duct, or ductus communis choledicus 

Process and ampulla of Vater 

.37 Pancreas 

.373 Pancreatic duct, or canal of Wirsung 

.375 Duct of Santorini 

.376 Glandular portion 

.377 Interalveolar cell-ilets, intertubular cell masses, Hands of Langerhans 

.38 Peritoneum Mesentery Omentum Coelom 
,381 Peritoneum 

2 Parietal 5 Visceral 
.382 Omentum, epiploon 

Lesser or gastrohepatic, great or gastrocolic, gastrosplenic 
.3 S3 Mesentery 

Transverse and sigmoid mesocolon; mesorectum; mesoappendix 
.384 Retroperitoneal fossae 

.389 Coelom or pleuroperitoneal cavity 

.39 Adipose bodies 

.4 Glandular and lymfatic system 

Put glands of any special system with that system. See 611.36, Liver; 
611. 61, Kidneys; 611. 316, Salivary glands; 61 1.69, Mammary glands. But 
class here chromaffin tissue in general 

.41 Spleen 

.415 Malpighian bodies 

.418 Capsule of spleen 

.42 Lymfatic vessels or lymfatics and capillaries 

For lymfatics of an organ or tissue, see name of organ or tissue 
Lymfatic soaces 

.421 Lymfatics by region 

1 Hed 

2 Face 

3 Neck 

4 Thorax 

5 Abdomen 

6 Pelvic region 

7 Upper extremity 

2 Arm 4 Forearm 6 Hand 

8 Lower extremity 

2 Thigh 4 Leg 6 Foot 

9 Tail 

.423 Receptaculum chyli or cistern of Pecquet 

,424 Thoracic duct (left) 

.425 Right lymfatic duct 

.426 Lacteals 

5 Villi 

,43 Thymus 

•435 Accessory thymus 

,44 Thyroid gland 

.445 Accessory or aberrent thyroids 

.447 Parathyroids 

,45 Suprarenal capsules or bodies 

Accessory suprarenal capsules 



medicin: anatomy 



611.46 Lymfatic glands 

.461 Glands of hed 

.462 " " face 

Internal maxillary Submental 

.463 Glands of neck 

1 Suboccipital or occipital 

2 Mastoid, retroauricular or postauricular 

6 Retropharyngeal 

7 Cervical or jugular 

8 Subclavian 
.464 Glands of thorax 

1 Diaframatic 

2 Mammary lymf 

3 Intercostal 

4 Mediastinal 

.465 Abdominal lymf glands 

1 Iliac and hypogastric: sacral, lumbar 

2 Abdomino-aortic 

21 Juxta-aortic 

22 Preaortic: gastric, splenic, hepatic 

23 Retroaortic 

4 Glands of small intestin: mesenteric 
6 Glands of large intestin: colic, rectal 

.467 Lymf glands of upper extremity 

1 Axillary 

2 Epitrochleal or supratrochleal and other glands 

5 Pectoral 

.468 Lymf glands of lower extremity 

1 Inguinal 

2 Femoral 

3 Popliteal 

4 Anterior tibial 

.47 Carotid gland or body 

.48 Coccygeal gland 

.6 Genito-urinary system Brests 

.61 Kidneys 

Class here urinary organs in general 

.615 Uriniferous tubules 

.617 Ureter 

'.018 Pronephros 

.619 Mesonephros 

.62 Bladder Urethra 

.621 Bladder 

3 Urethral openings - 

.622 Ligaments: urachus 

For pedicle of allantois see also embryology, 611. 01382 

•623 Urethra 

1 For female urethra see 61 1.674 

Prostatic part 

Verumontanum or caput gallinaginis 
Sinus pocularis or uterus masculinus 

2 Membranous part 

3 Spongy, cavernous or penial part 

4 Lacunae Littr^'s glands 
.627 Bulbo-urethral or Cowper's glands 
629 Urogenital sinus 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



611.63 Male genital organs 

.631 Testicles or testes 

1 Seminiferous tubules 

Straight tubules, tubuli recti or vasa recta; cohi vasculosi or 
vasa efferentia 

3 Tunics of testes: vaginalis, albuginea, vasculosa 

5 Mediastinum testis or Highmore's body; rete testis of Haller or 

Haller's network 
.632 Epididymis 
.633 Appendixes of testes 

Vasa aberrantia; hydatids of Morgagni, or pedunculated bodies; 

paradidymis or organ of Giraldes 
.634 Vas deferens 

.635 Ejaculatory ducts 

.636 Seminal vesicles 

.637 Prostate 
.638 Scrotum 

4 Dartos 

.639 Spermatic cord 

Infundibula; intercolumnar or spermatic and cremasteric fascia 

.64 Penis 

.641 Root 

.642 Body Prepuce 

.643 Glans penis, or acorn 

.644 Meatus 

,645 Corpora cavernosa 

.646 Corpus spongiosum 

.647 Bulb of urethra 

.65 Female genital organs Adnexa 

.65 1 Ovaries 

1 Medullary substance Stroma 

2 Graafian follicles 

Capsule of ovum, membrana granulosa, discus proligerus 

3 Cortical layer 

.652 Corpus luteum or corpora lutea 

See also embryology 611.01317 
.656 Fallopian tubes 

.66 Uterus 

.662 Endometrium 

.664 Cornua % 

.665 Body or parenchyma 

.666 Neck, cervix 

.667 Ligaments 

For placenta see embryology, 611.01385 and gynecology 618 36 

2 Broad or lateral 

3 Round Canal of Nuck 

4 Uterosacral and uterolumbar Pouch of Douglas 

Posterior ligaments 

6 Epoophoron, parovarium, or organ of Rosenmuller Gartner's duct 

7 Paroophoron 

669 Muller's duct Oviducts of lower vertebrates 

Class oviducts of lower vertebrates in 591.46 except in com- 
parison with human organs 

.67 Vagina Vulva 

.671 Vagina 

,672 Hymen Vestibulum 

.673 Vulva 

1 Mons veneris 2 Labia majora 3 Labia minora 
Female urethra 
Clitoris Bulbus vestibuli 
^677 Bartholini's, or vulvo-vaginal glands 

.69 Brests 

5^1 Nipple and areola Glands of Montgomery 

f ) g 2 Acini, acinous glands 

6p-j Galactoforous or lactiferous ducts 



.674 
.675 



medicin: anatomy 



611.7 Motor and integumentary systems 

.71 Osteology Bones Skeleton 

.711 Spinal colum 

1 Cervical vertebrae 

2 Atlas 

3 Axis or epistropheus 

5 Thoracic or dorsal vertebrae 

6 Lumbar vertebrae 

7 Sacrum or sacral vertebrae 

8 Coccyx 

.712 Ribs Thorax 

5 Costal cartilages 

.713 Sternum or brest bone 

Menubrium; gladiolus; zyphoid or ensiform 

.714 Bones of hed Skull 

1 Calvaria or cerebral cranium 

Sutures, fontanelles, supernumerary or Wormian bones 

3 Base of cranium 

6 Orbits 

7 Nasal cavity Inferior conchae 

.715 Cranium, cranial bones 

1 Occipital 

2 Sphenoid 

3 Temporal 

4 Parietal 

5 Frontal 

6 Ethmoid 

7 Lacrimal 

8 Nasal 

9 Vomer 

.716 Bones of face or visceral cranium 

1 Maxillary, upper jaw or superior maxillary 

2 Palate 

3 Malar or zygomatic 

4 Mandible, lower jaw or inferior maxillary 
41 Alveolar limbus 

43 Ramus of mandible 

5 Hyoid 

6 Skeleton branchiae Better clast in 59i-4 

.717 Bones of upper extremity 

1 Scapula, shoulder blade 

Shoulder girdle as a whole Acromion 

2 Clavicle or collar bone 

3 Coracoid process 

4 Humerus 

5 Radius 

6 Ulna 

7 Carpus, carpal bones or wrist bones 

71 Scaphoid or navicular 

72 Semilunar, or os lunatum 

73 Cuneiform, or os triquetrum 

74 Pisiform 

75 Trapezium, or os multangulum majus 

76 Trapezoid or " u minus 

77 Os magnum, or os capitatum 

78 Unciform or hook or os hamatum 

7 9 Central 

8 Metacarpus, metacarpal bones 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



611.7179 Phalanges of hand 

91 Basilar or proximal phalanges 

93 Middle phalanges 

95 Ungual or distal phalanges 

99 Sesamoid 

.718 Bones of lower extremity 

For pelvis see 611.96 

i Hip bone, or os coxae or mnominatum 

Acetabulum or cotyloid cavity 

11 Ilium 

12 Ischium 

13 Pubis 

4 Femur 

45 Patella See also 611.7283 Knee joint and 611.983 Knee 

5 Tibia 

6 Fibula 

7 Tarsus 

71 Astragalus, ankle bone, or talus 

73 Calcaneum, heel, or os calcis 

75 Cuboid 

76 Scaphoid or navicular 

78 Cuneiform or wedge bones 

Internal or first, middle or second, external or third cuneiform 

8 Metatarsal bones 

9 Phalanges of foot 

91 Basilar or proximal phalanges 

93 Middle or second " 

95 Ungual or third " 

99 Sesamoid bones 

.72 Ligaments Joints 

.721 Articulations of vertebrae and of cranium 

t Occipito-atlantal and occipito-axial 

3 Intervertebral articulations 

5 Atlanto-axial or atlo-axoid and atlanto-odontoid 

6 Lumbosacral 

7 Sacrococcygeal 

8 Coccygeal 

.722 Costovertebral articulations 

.723 Costosternal, costochondral, chondrosternal, interchon- 
dral, intersternal 

.724 Jaw joint, temporomandibular, temporomaxillary or 

mandible joint 

.727 Articulations of upper extremity 

1 Sternoclavicular joint and costoclavicular or rhom- 
boid ligament 

2 Articulations of shoulder 

21 Shoulder joint 

24 Acromioclavicular or scapuloclavicular joint Coracoclavicular and 

coracoacromial ligaments 

3 Elbow joint 

3 1 Humeroulnar joint 

33 Humeroradial joint 

34 Superior radioulnar or radioulnaris proximalis 

4 Wrist joint 

41 Inferior or distal radioulnar joint 

44 Radiocarpal 



medicin: anatomy 



611.7275 Intercarpal articulation 

54 Middle carpal joints 

6 Carpometacarpal articulations 

7 Intermetacarpal " 

8 Metacarpophalangeal " 

9 Phalangeal or finger joints 

.728 Articulations of lower extremity 

1 Articulations of pelvis 

Sacroiliac and pubic, or symphysis ossium pubis; sacrosciatic liga 
ment or symphysis sacrococcygea 

2 Hip joint, or articulo coxae 

Iliofemoral, Y or Bigelow's ligament; ligamentum teres 

3 Knee joint 

31 Crucial or femorotibial ligaments 

33 Semilunar fibrocartilages 

34 Anterior or ligamentum patellae 
38 Tibiofibular ligaments 

4 Ankle joint 

41 Inferior tibiofibular joint 

44 Tibiotarsal ligaments 

5 Intertarsal ligaments 

51 Astragalocalcaneal, calcaneoastragaloid or talocalcaneum; astraga- 
loscaphoid; calcaneoscaphoid or calcaneonavicular ligaments 

53 Calcaneocuboid ligaments 

54 Mediotarsal articulations 

55 Cuboidcuneiform " 

56 Scaphoidcuboid or cubonavicularis, scaphoidcuneiform or cuneonavic- 
ularis articulations 

58 Intercuneiform articulations 

6 Tarsometatarsal articulations 

7 Intermetatarsal " 

8 Metatarsophalangeal u 

9 Toe joints 
.729 Classes of joints 

2 Synarthrosis or fixt joint 

4 Amphiarthrosis or mixt joint 

6 Diarthrosis or movable joint 

61 Arthrodia or gliding joint 

62 Condylarthrosis or knuckle joint 

63 Enarthrosis or ball and socket joint 

64 Ginglymus or hinge joint 

65 Trochoid or pivot joint 

.73 Muscular system Myology 

.731 Dorsal muscles 

1 Spinohumeral or humerospinal muscles 

1 1 Trapezius 

12 Latissimus dorsi 

13 Rhomboid 

14 Levator scapulae 

2 Spinocostal or serrati posteriores 

3 Spinodorsal 

Sacrospinalis, lumbosacral, erector spinae, transversalis cervicis 

31 Iliocostal 

36 Longissimus dorsi 

4 Splenitis and complexus 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



6 1 1. 73 1 5 Spinalis dorsi 

6 Transversospinales 

6 1 Semispinalis 
6s Multifidus 
68 Rotatores 

7 Breves spinae 

71 Interspinals 

76 Intertransversarii 

8 Oblique muscles of hed 

9 Recti capitis posterior and lateralis 
.732 Muscles of hed 

See also 611. 7318-9 and 61 1.7337-8 

1 Platysma myoides 

2 Occipitofrontal or epicranial 

3 Muscles of nose 

Pyramidalis nasi, compressor nasi, compressor narium minor, 
depressor alae nasi or myrtiform, dilatores nasi 

4 Muscles Of ear Attrahens, attollens, retrahens 

5 Palpebral and orbital muscles of eye 

Orbicularis palpebrarum, or sphincter of eyelids; corrugator super- 
cilii; levator palpebrae; levator palpebrae superioris; tensor tarsi 
See also 61 1.846 1 

6 Buccal muscles 

Buccinator, orbicularis oris, levator anguli oris, levatores labii 
superioris, levator labii superioris alaeque nasi, zygomatic, levator 
labii inferioris, levator menti, depressor labii inferioris or quadratus 
menti; depressor angulae oris or triangularis menti; risorius, or 
Santorini's muscle 

7 Muscles aiding mastication and deglutition 

71 Masseter 
73 Temporal 
73 Pterygoid 

75 Muscles of palate and pharynx 

76 Palate 

Levator palati, tensor palati, azygos uvulae, palatoglossus, pala- 
topharyngeus, salpingopharyngeus 
78 Pharynx 

Inferior, superior and middle constrictors, stylopharyngeus 

.733 Muscles of neck 

1 Sterno-cleido-mastoid 

2 " hyoid 

3 Omohyoid 

4 Sternothyroid • 

5 Thyrohyoid 

6 Longus colli 

7 Rectus capitis anticus major, or longus capitis 

8 Rectus capitis anticus minor, or rectus capitis anterior 

For rectus capitis lateialis see 6 11.73 19 

9 Scaleni: anticus, medius and posticus 

.734 Hyoid muscles 

Depressors of lower jaw or elevators of hyoid. For tung see 6 n. 3 13 
1 Digastric 
4 Stylohyoid 
6 Mylohyoid 
8 Geniohyoid 



medicin: anatomy 



611.735 Thoracic muscles 

1 Pectoralis major 

2 " minor 

3 Subclavius 

4 Levatores costarum 

5 Serratus magnus or serratus anterior 

6 Intercostal 

7 Subcostal 

8 Transversus thoracis or triangularis sterni 

.736 Abdominal and coccygeal muscles 

1 Rectus abdominis 

2 Pyramidalis abdominis 

3 Oblique abdominal 

6 Cremaster 

7 Transversalis or transversus abdominis 

8 Quadratus lumborum 

9 Coccygeal 

.737 Muscles of upper extremity 

1 Shoulder or axillary 

11 Deltoid 

12 Supraspinatus 

13 Infraspinatus 

14 Teres minor 

15 Teres major 

16 Subscapular 

2 Arm 

21 Biceps brachii, or biceps flexor cubiti 

22 Coracobrachialis 

23 Brachialis (anticus) 

24 Triceps brachii, or triceps extensoi cubiti 

25 Anconeus 

3 Forearm 

4 Pronator muscles 

41 Pronator radii teres 

45 " quadratus 

5 Flexors of forearm 

51 Flexor carpi radialis 

52 Palmaris longus 

53 Flexor carpi ulnaris 

54 " digitorum sublimis 

55 u a profundus 

56 " pollicis longus 

6 Extensors and supinators 

61 Brachioradialis 

62 Extensor carpi radialis longus 

63 " " " brevis 

64 " " ulnaris 

65 Extensors of fingers, or extensores digitorum 

66 Supinator 

67 Abductor pollicis longus 

68 Short and long extensors of thum, or extensores pollicis brevis 
et longus 

69 Extensor of index finger, or extensor indicis proprius 

7 Muscles of hand 

71 Lumbricales 

72 Palmaris brevis 

73 Short abductor of thum, or opponens pollicis 

Short flexor of thum, or flexor brevis pollicis. Adductor pollicis 

76 Muscles of little finger 

Abductor digiti quinti (or minimi) brevis; opponens digiti quinti 
short flexor of 5th or little finger, or flexor brevis digiti minimi 

79 Interosseous muscles 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



611.738 Muscles of lower extremity 

i Hip and nates 

11 Iliopsoas 

12 Uiacus 

13 Psoas major and minor 

14 Gluteal 

15 Tensor fasciae latae, tensor fasciae femoris or tensor vaginae femoris 

16 Piriformis 

17 Obturator internus 

18 Gemelli or gemini 

19 Quadratus femoris 

.7382 Thigh muscles 

21 Sartorius 

22 Quadriceps femoris or quadriceps extensor femoris 

Rectus femoris, vastus externus, vastus internus and crureus or 
vastus intermedius 
225 Articularis genu, or subcrureus 

23 Pectineus 

24 Adductors: longus, brevis, magnus and minimus 

25 Gracilis 

26 Obturator externus 

27 Biceps femoris or biceps flexor cruris 

28 Semitendinosus 

29 Semimembranosus 

3 Leg 

4 Anterior muscles 

41 Anterior tibial or tibialis anticus 

42 Extensor digitorum longus 

43 " hallucis " or propr:us 
46 Peronaeus tertius 

5 Other muscles of leg 

51 Peronaeus longus 

52 " brevis 

53 Gastrocnemius 

54 Soleus, triceps surae 

55 Plantaris 

56 Popliteus 

57 Posterior tibial 

58 Flexor digitorum longus 

59 " hallucis " 

7 Muscles of foot 

8 Back of foot 

Extensor brevis digitorum 

Sole of foot or plantar region 

Adductor hallucis (obliquus and transversus), adductor digiti 
minimi, abductor hallucis; flexor hallucis brevis, flexor 
digitorum brevis, flexor accessorius, flexor digiti minimi 
brevis, lumbricales, interosseous muscles 
.739 Electric organs Better clast in comparativ anatomy 

.74 Tendons Fasciae 

May be divided like 611.73; e. g. Achilles tendon 611.74854 

.75 Bursae Sheaths of tendons 

.751 Hed 

.752 Neck 

•753 Back 

.754 Shoulder 

•757 Upper extremity 

.758 Lower " 

.76 Connectiv tissue 

See also 6H.0182 Histology of connectiv tissue 



medicin: anatomy 



611.77 Skin Glands of skin 

.771 Cuticle, scarf skin or epidermis 

Horny and Malpighian layers 
.772 Glands of skin 

.773 Sebaceous 
.774 Sudoriferous or swet 

.775 Ciliary glands 

.776 Circumanal " 

.777 Ceruminous" 

.778 Corium, cutis vera, true skin or dermis 

Reticular and papillary layers 
5 Pigmentation 
.779 Subcutaneous areolar tissue, tela subcutanea or paniculus adiposus 

.78 flair, nails, scales, f ethers, etc. 

For teeth see 611.314 Fur, .scales, fethers, horns, etc better clast in 

comparativ anatomy 
.781 Hair 
.785 Scales 
.786 Nails 
.787 Fethers 
.788 Horns 

.S Nervous system Sense organs 

.81 Encephalon Brain 

Mesurement Weight 

.811 General structure of brain and cerebrospinal axis 

.812 Localizations 

.813 Telencephalon, or endbrain Prosencephalon, or fore- 

brain Hemisferes 

Longitudinal and transverse fissure 

1 Pallium, brain mantle or cerebral cortex 
11 Frontal lobe 

Broca's convolutions 

i? Parietal lobe Central fissure, sulcus centralis, or 

Rolando's groove 

Opercula insulae 

13 Temporal or temporosphenoid lobe Fissure of Sylvius, 
or fissura cerebri lateralis 

14 Limbic lobe Gyrus fornicatus 

Hippocampal gyre, or gyrus hippocampi Callosal gyre 
Dentate gyre, or fascia dentata hippocampi Fasciola Fim- 
bria, taenia fornicis or taenia hippocampi Hippocampus 
major or cornu ammonis Dentate fissure, hippocampal 
sulcus, or subiculum cornu ammonis Callosomarginal fissure 
Amygdala, almond nucleus, or amygdaloid tubercle 

15 Occipital lobe 

Occipital or parieto-occipital fissure 

16 Paracentral gyre or lobule 

17 Cuneus Calcarin fissure 

18 Precuneus, or quadrate lobe 

19 Insula, iland of Reil, central lobe, or gyri operti 

2 Striatum, striate body, or corpus striatum 

Basal ganglion of hemisphere 

21 Caudatum, taild nucleus, or nucleus caudatus 

22 Lenticula, lenticular nucleus, or nucleus lentiformis 

Globus pallidus, or pallidum, and putamen 

23 Claustrum 

25 Tenia, taenia semicircularis, stria terminalis or corneae 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



611.8133 Rhinencephalon or rhinencefal 

Olfactory bulb tract, substantia perforata anterior, piecribrum, etc. 
Broca's area, or parolfactoria 

; Centrum ovale majus (of Vieussens) Centrum 

semiovale Internal capsule 

8 Paraceles or lateral ventricles 

9 Callosum or corpus callosum Fornix 

Septum pellucidum or lucidum, or septum Cavum septi pellucidi, 
5th ventricle or pseudocele 

.814 Diencephalon, diencefal, thalamencephalon or interbrain 

1 Hypothalamus or subthalamic tegmental region 

Nucleus of Luys or nucleus hypothalamicus 
Postcommissure or posterior commissure 

2 Corpora albicantia, albicans, or corpus mammillare 

Bundle of Vicq-d'Azyr, or fasciculus thalamomammillaris 

3 Hypophysis 

Hypophysis cerebri, pituitary body or somatic brain 

Tuber or tuber cinereum Infundibulum 

4 Optic tract Optic chiasm or commissure 

5 Epithalamus Pinea, pineal body, conarium or epi- 
physis Habenula, habena, or pedun cuius conarii 

6 Geniculate bodies, or geniculum Metathalamus 

7 Thalamus or optic thalamus 

Thalamic radiation: ansa peduncularis, ansa lenticularis 
For Nissl's bodies see 611. 01882 

8 Third ventricle, or diacele 

Porta or foramen of Monro, or foramen interventriculare 

.815 Mesencephalon, midbrain or mesencefal 

3 Quadrigeminum 

Corpora or tubercula quadrigemina Quadrigeminal arms 

4 Pedunculi or crura cerebri, crura or crus 

41 Substantia nigra (Sommering) or intercalatum 

See also nucleus of Luys 611.8141 

42 Foot of peduncle, basis or pes pedunculi, or crusta 

43 Tegmentum 

44. Red nucleus, nucleus ruber, or rubrum 

5 Nuclei of oculomoto and trochlear nervs 

6 Aqueduct of Sylvius, aqueductus cerebri, or mesoccle 
.816 Isthmus rhombencephali 

3 Valv of Vieussens, or superior medullary velum 

4 Superior cerebellar peduncles 

Prepeduncles, brachium conjunctivum cerebelli, or crura ad cerebrum 

Lemniscus: mesial and lateral fillets 



medicin: anatomy 



611.817 Metencephalon or epencephalon, epencefal or hindbrain 

Pons (Varolii) 

I Cerebellum 

II Lobes, fissures, valv of Tarinus, velum medullare posterius, or kilos 

13 Cerebellar centers of gray matter Nuclei olivaris superiores: roof 

nuclei, dentate nuclei, dentatum, etc. 
15 White substance of cerebellum Arbor vitae 

3 Pons Varolii Tegument For reticula see 611.8226 

4 Nuclei of trigeminus system 

41 Nucleus motorius or motor nucleus of 5th nerv 

42 Nucleus of spinal tract or sensory nucleus of 5th nerv 

5 Nucleus or nidus of abducent nerv 

6 " " " " facial nerv 

68 Salivary nucleus 

7 Cochlear nidi or nucleus of cochlear nerv 

Ventral root of 8th nerv 

76 Trapezium or trapezoid body 

77 Nucleus of superior olivary body 

78 Acoustic striae, striae acusticae or medullares 

8 Vestibular nidi or nucleus of vestibular nerv 

Dorsal root of 8th nerv 

.818 Myelencephalon, metencefal, medulla, bulb or afterbrain, 

postoblongata or medulla oblongata 

1 Pyramids Pyramidal decussation 

2 Dorsal colum, posterior fibers, or funiculi dorsales 
Arcuate fibers Restis or restiform body 

Fasciculus of Rolando, cuneatus and gracilis 

3 Lateral fibers Oliva or olivary bodies 

Anterolateral ground bundle or fasciculus proprius anterolateral is; 
anterolateral cerebellar tract or fasciculus anterolateralis super- 
ficialis 

4 Interolivary stratum, fillet or lemniscus 

5 Fourth ventricle or metepicele 

Metapore or foramen of Magendie Foramina of Luschka, Key 
and Retzius Obex Lingula Calamus scriptorius 

6 Nucleus of glossopharyngeal system Solitary tract 

7 Nuclei of vagus and accessory nervs 

75 Ambiguous nucleus 

78 Dorsal nucleus of vagus 

9 Nucleus of hypoglossal system or hypoglossal nidus 
.8iq Meninges and cerebral meninges 

1 Pia mater or pia 

2 Telae choroideae, velum interpositum, choroid plexus 

3 Arachnoid villi 

Glandulae Pacchioni, Luschka's villi or granulations 

4 Cisterns, or subarachnoid cisterns 

5 Dura mater, or dura Tentorium and falx cerebelli 
Falx cerebri 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



611.82 
.821 

2 
3 
4 

5 

6 
8 

.822 

1 

2 
3 
4 

6 

.823 
.824 

.825 



3 
4 



5 

6 



7 
8 

.826 



5 
8 
9 

.827 

1 

2 

.828 
.829 

I 

3 
5 



Spinal cord, or myel 

Enlargements or intumescentia ; general structure 

Cervical cord or myel, pars cervicalis 
Thoracic or dorsal cord or myel, pars thoracalis 
Lumbar cord or myel, pars lumbaris 
Sacral cord 

Terminal cone, or conus (medullaris) Filum Cauda (equina) 
Grooves and fissures, sulci and fissurae 

Gray substance or matter, entocinerea or cinerea Gray 
cornua or colum 

Anterior or ventral colum or cornu or funiculus anterior 
Posterior or dorsal " " " 

Clarke's colum, nucleus dorsalis or Stilling's nuclei 
Gelatinosa or gelatinous matter, substantia cinerea gelatinosa Sub- 
stantia spongiosa 
Reticula or formatio reticularis 



White substance, or alba 

Anterolateral colum 

Anterior plus lateral colums 

Pyramidal tract or bundle or fasciculus cerebrospinalis 

Direct or uncrost tract, fasciculus cerebrospinalis anterior, or 
fasciculus 

Crost pyramidal tract, or cerebrospinalis lateralis 
Direct cerebellar tract, or dorsolateral cerebellar tract 
Gower's tract, cerebellar path of anterior funiculus, or fasciculus 
anterolateralis superficialis ascendens or anterolateral ascending 
cerebellar tract 

Fasciculus sulcomarginalis, or marginal tract of Spitzka and Lissauer 
Lateral colum or anterolateral descending cerebellar tract or colum 
of Marchi and Lowenthal 

Anterolateral ground bundle or fasciculus proprius anterolateralis 
Anterior or ventral commissure 

Posterior or dorsal colums 

Ascending fibers 

Tracts of Burdach (posterolateral or cuneatus) and of Goll 
(posteromedian or gracilis) and fasciculus of Rolando 

Descending fibers Comma tract in Burdach's colum 

Radicular fibers 

Posterior or dorsal commissure 

Roots of nervs 

Works tracing nerv roots into spinal cord; for microscopic studies on 

nerv roots see 611.832 
Anterior or ventral roots 
Posterior " dorsal " 

Spinal canal Ependyma or endyma 

Rhomboidal sinus Reissner's fibers 

Spinal membranes, or meninges spinales 

Spinal pia mater 
" arachnoid 
" dura mater 



MEDICIN I ANATOMY 



611.83 Periferal nervous system Nervs 

.831 Cranial nervs and ganglia 

1 Olfactory, or 1st cranial 

2 Optic, or 2d cranial 

3 Motoroculi, 3d cranial or oculomoto 

4 Trochlear, pathetic, or 4th cranial 

5 Trifacial, trigeminus, or 5th cranial 

Large or great superficial petrosal branch 

52 Ofthalmic nerv of Willis 

54 Superior maxillary nerv or maxillary nerv 

542 Infraorbital branch 

56 Mandibular or inferior maxillary 

6 Abducent, external motoroculi, oculomoto, or 6th cranial 

7 Facial, 7th cranial nerv, or portio dura 

73 Other collateral branches 

74 Terminal branches 

75 Pars intermedia of Wrisberg (nervus intermedius) Chorda tympani 

8 Auditory, acoustic or 8th nerv 

81 Cochlear nerv or path, or central auditory path 

85 Vestibular path or nerv 

9 Glossopharyngeal or 9th nerv 

91 Pneumogastric, vagus or 10th nerv 

911 Parietal branches: auricular and lateral nervs 

914 Pharyngeal branches 

915 Superior cardiac nervs 

916 Superior laryngeal nerv 

917 Inferior or recurrent laryngeal nerv 

918 Pulmonary branches 

919 Esofageal and gastric branches 

92 Spinal accessory or nth nerv 

93 Hypoglossal or 12th nerv 

.832 Spinal nervs 

Including in 5-6 microscopic studies on nerv roots. See also 611.827 

1 Dorsal or posterior blanches 

2 Ventral or anterior " 

5 Dorsal or posterior roots See also 611.8272 

6 Ventral or anterior " See also 61 1.82 71 

.833 Cervical nervs 

1 Dorsal or posterior branches of cervical nervs Small and large sub- 
occipital nervs 

2 Ventral anterior branches of cervical nervs 

3 Cervical plexus 

32 Large auricular nerv 

33 Cutaneous nerv of neck 

34 Supraclavicular nervs 

36 Frenic or internal respiratory nerv of Bell 

4 Brachial plexus 

41 Supraclavicular part 

47 Infraclavicular part 

5 Median nerv 

6 Ulnar or cubital nerv 

7 Radial nerv 

Musculo-spiral 

8 Musculocutaneous nerv 

9 Antibrachii ulnaris 

Cutaneus brachii medialis, or nerv of Wrisberg 

.834 Thoracic nervs 

1 Posterior branches 

2 Anterior " Intercostal nervs 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



611.835 Lumbar and sacral nervs 

1 Posterior branches 

2 Anterior " 

3 Lumbosacral plexuses 

4 Lumbar plexus 

41 Great iliohypogastric nerv 

42 Ilioinguinal 

43 Genitofemoral or genitocrural 

44 Lateral or cutaneous nerv of thigh 

5 Femoral nerv or anterior crural nerv (femoralis) 

51 Middle cutaneous nerv 

52 Internal " " 

53 Muscular branches of posterior division of anterior crural nerv 

54 Long or internal saphenous nerv 

6 Obturator nerv 

61 Accessory obturator, or accessory anterior crural nerv of Winslow 

68 Lumbosacral cord 

7 Sacral or sciatic pl°xus 
71 Superior gluteal 

73 Inferior " 

73 Small sciatic nerv (cutaneus femoris posterior) 

8 Great sciatic nerv or ischiadicus 

81 External popliteal, or peronaeus communis or peroneal 

82 Sural or lateral cutaneous branch, or cutaneus surae lateralis 
84 Musculocutaneous or superficial peroneal 

86 Anterior tibial nerv or deep peroneal 

87 Internal popliteal or tibial 

88 Sural or plantar nervs 

9 Genital, pudic or pudendal plexus 
93 Collateral branches 

95 Pudic nerv 

.836 Coccygeal plexus Coccygeal nervs 

.839 Sympathetic system 

1 Cervical and cephalic part 

11 Superior cervical ganglion 

12 Internal carotid nerv and plexus 

Cavernous plexus 

13 External carotid nerv and plexus 

14 Common " plexus Superior cardiac nerv 

15 Middle " ganglion Middle " " 

16 Inferior cervical " 

17 " cardiac nerv Cardiac plexus 

2 Thoracic part of gangliated cord 

3 Abdominal and pelvic part of sympathetic system 

31 Solar or epigastric plexus or plexus coeliacus 

,84 Eye Organ of vision 

See also 611. 7146 Orbit, including capsule of T£non 

.841 Fibrous coats or tunics of eye 

1 Conjunctiva 

3 Cornea 

5 Sclerotic coat or sclera 

Canal of Schlemm Spaces of Fontana 

.842 Vascular coats of eye Uveal tract 

1 Iris Pupil 

3 Choroid 

Tapetum 

5 Ciliary body, muscle and processes 

.843 Retina 

Optic disc; macula lutea For optic nerv see 6 1 1.83 1 2 



medicin: anatomy 



611.844 Refracting media 

1 Crystallin lens 

2 Zonule of Zinn or zonula ciliaris 

7 Vitreous humor Posterior chamber 

Hyaloid membrane Hyaloid or Stilling's or Cloquet's canal 

Canal of Petit 
9 Aqueous humor Anterior chamber 

.846 Accessory organs of eye 

1 External muscles, musculi oculi 

4 Tear apparatus 

7 Lacrimal gland 

8 " canals and puncta 

9 " sac and nasal duct 

.847 Eyelids or palpebrae 

Canthi 

5 Eyelashes or cilia 

6 Eyebrows or supercilia 

.85 Ear Organ of hearing 

See also 6 n. 83 18 Auditory nerv 

.851 Internal ear 

.852 Membranous labyrinth 

1 Cochlea, scala media, or ductus cochlearis 

2 Organ of Corti, or Corti's fibers 

4 Saccule 

5 Utricle 

6 Semicircular canals 

.853 Osseous labyrinth 

Vestibule, semicircular canals, cochlea, modiolus or columella 

.854 Middle ear or tympanum 

Atrium, or tympanic cavity proper 
5 Attic 

7 Mastoid cells 

.855 Membrana tympani, or drumhed 

.856 Eustachian tube or tuba auditiva 

.857 Bones of ear 

Malleus or hammer; incus or anvil; stapes or stirrup; muscles of 
tympanum, stapedius and tensor tympani , 

.858 External ear 

Meatus, pinna 

.86 Organs of smell; olfactory organs 
.87 " " taste 

.88 " touch and senses in general 

.889 Organa lateralia 

.89 Ganglions 

Class ganglions here if separately treated 

.891 Cranial ganglions 

5 Semilunar ganglion or Gasserian 
52 Ciliary " 

54 Sphenopalatin or Meckel's ganglion 

56 Otic or Arnold's submaxillary ganglion 

7 Geniculate ganglion 

81 Spiral or Corti's ganglion 

85 Vestibular ganglion 

9 Petrosal and superior glossopharyngeal ganglion 

91 Jugular and nodose ganglions 

.892 Ganglions of spinal nervs 

See also 611.832 Spinal nervs 

.899 Sympathetic ganglions 

For chromaffin tissue see 61 1.4 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



1.9 Regional anatomy 

.91 Hed 

.92 Face 

.93 Neck 

.94 Thorax 

.942 Front or pectoral 

.946 Back or dorsal 

.95 Abdomen 

.951 Epigastric region 

.955 Mesogastric " 

.957 Hypogastric " 

.959 Lumbar " 

.96 Pelvic and perineal region 

.962 True pelvis 

.964 False " 

1 Inlet 2 Cavity 3 Outlet 

.966 Position and size 

.968 Difference between male and female pelvis 

.97 Upper extremities 

.971 Shoulder or axilla 

.972 Arm 

.973 Elbow 

.974 Forearm 

.975 Wrist 

.976 Hand 

.977 Fingers 

.98 Lower extremities 

.981 Hip Nates Sulcus inguinalis 

1 Hip 

2 Nates 

3 Sulcus inguinalis 

4 Inguinal canal 

5 Crural or femoral canal 

.982 Thigh 

.983 Knee Popliteal space 

.984 Leg 

.985 Ankle 

.986 Foot 

.987 Toes 

• 99 Tail 



medicin: physiology 



12 Physiology 



SUMMARY 
612.013 Vitalism 

.014 Cells and organisms 
015 Physiologic chemistry 
.1 Blood and circulatory system 
.2 Respiration 
.3 Digestion 
4 Glandular system 
.5 Animal heat 

.6 Reproduction Development 
.7 Motor and vocal apparatus 
.8 Nervous system 

.or General theory of physiology 

.0111 Notion, definition, nature 

.0112 Classification, division 

.0114 Terminology, notation, symbols 

.0118 Methods 

.012 Physiologic theories and generalities 

.013 On the nature of life and deth Vitalism 

This place is provided for the physiologist who prefers to keep related 
topics with his subjects. Usually the heds under this number are 
better clast in their broader relations; i. e. see 577.2 for the nature 
of life; 577-7 for the nature of deth; 612.67 for deth as a stage in 
vital history 

1 Signs of real deth See 57 7-7 

2 Experiments on executed persons 

4 Theories of life and the soul Vitalism 

See metaphysics, 128 

5 Comparisons of animals and plants See 577.5 

6 Organism and inanimate matter See 577.1 

7 Vital energy See 577 6 

8 Experiments on surviving organs See 577-6 

.014 General physiology of cells and organisms 

See 576 and note under 612.013 

1 Chemistry of cells 

11 Aerobic and anaerobic cells 

2 Physiologic morfology of cells 

21 Functions of protoplasm 

22 " " nucleus 

24 " " chromosome bodies Chromatolysis 

26 " " centrosome 

3 Physiologic characteristics of cells 

3 1 Irritability in general 

3 2 Fatigue 

4 Influence of environment on cells and organisms 
Mesology 

41 Effects of barometric pressure 

See also 612.27 Influence of barometric pressure on living beings 

42 Action of electricity Electrophysiology 

421 Electrophysiologic technic 

See also 615.84 Electrotherapy 
2 Static electricity 

4 Dynamic electricity 

5 Alternating currents 

7 Electric mesurements 

8 Special instruments 

1 Electrodes 2 Telefone, microfone 6 Galvanometers 

422 Electric resistance Conductibility 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



Electi ic fenomena of organisms 

For electric fenomena of muscles see 612.743, of nervs and musclse 
see 612.813 
Theory of electric fenomena 
Negativ variation 
Electrotonus 

Electric fenomena of tissues in repose and in action 

Action of electricity on organisms 

Everything concerning effect of electricity on function may be clast 
here by adding o and dividing like 612; e.g. action of electricity on 
red corpuscles 6 12. 01 442401 1 1, as .111 is the subdivision of 612 
meaning red corpuscles. Action of electricity on bile 612.0144240357, 
as .357 means bile 
Action of static electricity 
" " atmosferic " 
" " dynamic " 
" " alternating currents 

Deth by electric shock; by lightning 

Magnetic action 

Galvanotropism 

Electrotherapy from physiologic point of view 
Action of heat and cold See also 612.59 
Action of Ugh* See also 612.843 

Fosforescence 

Heliotropism Fototropism 

See also 615.831 Fototherapy 
Action of sound and its vibrations 

See also 612.85876 
Poisons and chemic substances 

Poisons and definit chemic substances ar preferably clast in 615.7, 
general toxicology in 615.9. This number is for topics of special physi- 
ologic interest 
Effects of water 

Reviviscent animals 
Hydrations 

Quantity of water in organisms and tissues 
Physicochemic forces 
Osmosis 

Molecular concentration in organic fluids Cryoscopy 

Subdivisible with o like 612; e. g. Crycscopy of gastric juice 
612.01446222032 

Relation between secretion and osmotic pressure 

Relation between osmosis and electric action : ions 

Colloid substances: coagulation, agglutination, etc. 

See also 612.398133 Theory of histologic conservation 

Reaction, acid or alkalin 

Viscosity 

Superficial tension 
Other physicochemic forces 
Action of mineral salts on organisms 

" " air, normal and abnormal; of oxygen and ozone 
" * anesthetics 
" " antiseptics 
Chemotaxis Chemotropism 
Action of other chemic forces 
Action of mechanical forces 
Geotropism 
Thigmotaxis 
Other physical forces 
Various rays 

Physiologic effect of X rays 

To express effect of X rays on a specific organ or tissue, ad o and 
subdivide like 612; e. g. effect of X rays on sight 612.0144811084 
Effect on lower organisms 
Effect of radioactiv substances; Becquerel rays 
Production and action of N rays 



medicin: physiology 



612.015 Physiologic chemistry in general 

1 Ferments 

1 1 Oxydants Reducing ferments 

12 Hydro lytic 

13 Proteolytic 

14 Lipolytic 

15 Amylolytic and sucroclastic 

16 Glycolytic 
161 Alcoholic 

2 Normal composition of the body and its products 

See also 612.3926, 612. 396-. 398 

21 Extracts of organs 

3 Metabolism 

31 Of mineral substances 

See also 612.3926 

32 Of carbon 

See also 612.22 

33 Of nitrogen 

See also 612.46123 

31 Of substances foren to the normal organism 

Elimination of poisons 

Most material will be clast under 615.7 and its subdivisions 
See also special organs 

3 -1 6 Metabolism of nonnitrogenous substances 

34 7 " " crystallizable nitrogenous substances 

348 " " albuminoids 

349 " after deth Autolysis 

Subdivisable with o like 612; e. g. autolysis of the liver 
612.015349035 

35 Influence of temperature on metabolism 

See also 612.59 

36 Reductions, hydrations and syntheses in organisms 

37 Influence of other agents on metabolism 

38 Influence of nervous system on metabolism 

39 Metabolism in disease 

4 Staining substances and pigments 

.016 Means of attack and defense 

Comparativ physiology; usually better clast in 591.57 

1 Artotomy 

2 Mimicry 

3 Physiology of parasites 
.019 Comparativ physiology 

May be subdivided like 590 to signify kind of animal; e. g. Reptils 
being 598.1, comparison of reptil and human physiology is 6 12.01 981 
Class here only books written distinctly from physiologist's point 
of view. Other works on comparativ zoology are better in 59i-i 

Form divisions 
.02 Compends 
.03 Dictionaries Cyclopedias 

.04 Essays Addresses 

.05 Periodicals 
.06 Societies Clubs 

.07 Study and teaching 

.077 Vivisection 

See also ethics, 179.4, and laws, 614.22 
.08 Polygrafy 
.09 History 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



612.1 Blood and circulatory system 

.109 History of circulation of blood 

. 1 1 General properties of blood 
.111 Red corpuscles 

1 Chemic composition 

11 Hemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin 

14 Carboxy hemoglobin 

Action of CO on blood, carbon monoxid hemoglobin 

1 5 Spectroscopy of blood 

16 Methemoglobin and derivates 

Hematin or hematoxylin, hematoidin, globin, hemin or Teich- 
mann's crystals, hematochromogen, hematoporphyrin 

17 Isotony of corpuscles Osmotic permeability 
19 Chemic substances in corpuscles 

Lecithin, urea, cholesterin, etc. 

2 Number of corpuscles 

Technic of counting 
22 Volume of corpuscles 

3 Formation of corpuscles 

See also 6 12. 119 Sanguification 

4 Action of poisons on corpuscles 

See also 61 2.1 11 14 Action of CO on blood 

44 Agglutinating substances 

45 Hemolytic substances 

6 Corpuscles in disease 

7 Other red corpuscles than erythrocytes 

8 Coloring matters of invertebrate blood 

e. g. hemocyanin 

9 Other similar coloring matters 

e. g. chlorophyl and derivates: phylloerytrin 

.112 Leucocytes and ameboid cells 

1 Chemistry of leucocytes 

11 Ferments of leucocytes 

Influence of leucocytes (lymphocytes) on digestion 

2 Movements and irritability of leucocytes 

3 Phagocytosis 

4 Diapedesis 

5 Effect on coagulation of blood 

6 In disease and intoxications Leucocytosis 

For digestiv leucocytosis see 612.11211 

7 Counting and its technic 

8 Numeric relations of white and red corpuscles 

9 Varieties Physiologic morfology 
.113 Arterial blood 

.114 Venous " 

.115 Coagulation of blood 

I Fibrin Fibrinoplastin 

II Composition and chemic properties 

12 Fibrogenous and fibrinoplastic ferments Fibrinogen Thrombin 

13 Estimating quantity of fibrin 

3 Substances modifying coagulation 

31 Retarding agents 

35 Accelerating agents 



medicin: physiology 



612. 1 16 Total quantity of blood 

2 Hemorrhage Anemia 

Subdivisable with o like 612; e. g. physiologic influence of anemia 
on kidneys 612.1162046 For pathologic effect see 616.243. 
618.54 

21 Hemostasia 

3 Transfusion 

Effect on system receiving transfused blood 

.118 Physical and biologic properties of blood 

1 Physical 

1 1 Osmotic pressure 

See also 612.11117 Osmotic permeability 

12 Effect of various injections 
14 Viscosity 

17 Cryoscopy of blood 

Method of studying isotony and similar phenomena by relativ 
freezing points of solutions 

2 Biologic properties 

21 Toxins and antitoxins 

Physiologic effect For chemic action see 612.3968 May 
be used for those not produced by the blood, e. g. cytotoxins 
21 1 Theory of toxic and antitoxic action 

22 Toxic and antitoxic action of blood 

Limited to blood toxins and antitoxins. See also 612.3988 

221 Specific reaction of blood and albuminoids 

Blood in legal medicin 

222 Natural immunity 

223 Effect of blood on bacteria 

Class here physiologic aspect of opsonic theory, opsonins and 
opsonic index See also 615.37 Serotherapy 

24 Various toxic and antitoxic substances of blood 

7 Varieties of blood in different parts of body 

.119 Hematopoiesis or sanguification 

See also 6 12. 11 13 Formation of red corpuscles 

. 1 2 Chemic properties of blood 
.121 Reaction and density 

Color reaction Specific gravity 

.122 Carbohydrates in blood 

1 Glucose 2 Glycogen 3 Glycolytic ferments 

.123 Fats, lipoids, cholesterin, saponin, glycerin 

.124 Albumins and albuminoids Uncrystallizable nitrogen 

compounds 

See also 612.39812 Blood serum 

.125 Crystallizable nitrogen compounds 

1 Staining substances of serum 

.126 Mineral salts 

.127 Blood gases 

1 Technic for determining quantity 2 Oxygen 3 Carbonic acid 

.128 Ferments 

.129 Other chemic substances 

Abnormal substances 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



612.13 Hydraulic principles of circulation 
.133 Arterial circulation 

Sounds and murmurs 
See also 612.143 

.134 Venous circulation 

See also 612.144 

1 Air in the veins 

2 Venous pulse Flebogram 
.135 Capillary circulation 

.14 Blood pressure 

.141 Technic of mesuring pressure 

Sphygmograf Sphygmomanometry 

.143 Pressure in arteries 

See also 612.133 

.144 Pressure in veins 

See also 612.134 

.145 Pressure in capillaries 

See also 612.135 

.146 Influence of various agents on pressure 

1 Influence of respiration Asphyxia 

See also 612.213 

2 Effect of drugs and organic extracts 

3 Pressure in disease 

.148 Pressure in lesser or pulmonary circulation 

.15 Rapidity of circulation 

In arteries, veins or capillaries Technic of mesuring 

.16 Pulse 

For dicrotic pulse see 616.071 Pulse in diagnosis 
See also 612.1342 Venous pulse 

.166 Pulse in disease 

. 1 7 Hart 

.171 Mechanism of cardiac contraction 

Impulse or apex beat Change of volume and position of beating 
hart Systole Diastole 

i Technic of cardiac contraction Cardiografy 

3 Valvs System of valv closure 

5 Hart sounds 

56 " " in disease 

7 Action of abnormal hart : misplaced or malformd 

.172 Hart as a muscle 

Cardiac irritability, contractibility and physiologic morfology 

1 Action of blood and coronary arteries Cardiac 
anemia 

2 Rhythm Excitation wave Frequency of beats 

3 Electric stimulation of hart and refractory period 

4 Electromotiv force 

5 Surviving hart Artificial respiration 

Solutions maintaining beat of hart 

6 Physiologic morfology 

61 Conduction f stimulation 



medicin: physiology 



612.173 Work of the hart 

Ch.mic, dynamic and thermic fenomena 

1 Chcmic composition of hart 

2 Intracardiac pressure 

.174 Effect of toxins on the hart 

1 Atropin 

2 Anesthetics 

.176 Hart in disease 

.178 Innervation of hart 

1 Pneumogastric or vagus 

See also 612.819911 

2 Sympathetic 

See also 612.897 

3 Ganglions of hart 

4 Action of cerebrum 

See also 612.8228 

5 Action of medulla oblongata 

See also 612.828 

6 Cardiac syncopes and reflexes 

7 Depressor nerv 
.179 Prenatal circulation 
.18 Vasomotors 

.181 Action of nervs and nerv centers on bloodvessels 

1 Action of cerebrum 

2 " " medulla oblongata 

3 " " spinal cord 

4 " " great sympathetic 

.182 Influence of vasomotors on arterial pressure 

.183 Vasoconstrictors 

.184 Vasodilators 

.185 Effect of poisons on vasomotors 

.186 Vasomotors in disease 

.187 Vasomotors in organs 

Divide like 612 Physiology; e. g. 

612.18724 Effect of vasomotors on lung capacity 
61 2. 187842 1 Effect of vasomotors on iris 
612.1875 Influence of vasomotors on temperature 
612.187556 Vasomotors in fever 

.188 Erectil tissues 

See also 612.612 

.189 Change of volume of organs 

Plet.hysmografy Quantity of blood in various organs 

.19 Action of special organs on circulation 
.2 Respiration 

See also 612.793 Cutaneous respiration 

.21 Respiratory movements Mechanics of respira 
tion 

.211 Pneumografy Respiratory types 

Respiratory excursion 

.212 Pulmonary elasticity and intrapleural pressure 

Intrapulmonary and intrathoracic iespiiations 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



Influence of respiration on circulation 

See also 6 12. 146 1 

Special physiology of respiratory apparatus 

Bronchi 
Trachea 

Smooth pulmonary muscles 

Primary paths of respiration: nose and pharynx 
Pleura 

Pulmonary circulation 

See also 612.148 

Pulmonary absorption of liquids 

See also 612.385 

Respiratory frequence and rhythm 

Respiratory sounds 
Pulmonary ventilation 

Artificial respiration, artificial changes of respiration 
Action of muscles Mechanical fenomena 

Dimensions and expansibility of thorax 

Action of diafram 
Other mechanical fenomena 

Modified respiratory acts: snoring, laughing, crying, sighing, yawning, 
coughing, hawking, sneezing, blowing nose, gargling 

Respiratory exchange of gases Respiratory 
chemistry 

02 Action of oxygen and ozone on organisms 

08 Composition of normal air (only in its physiologic bearing) 

Technic of gaseous exchange 

Effect of various agents on gaseous exchange 

Effect of quality of air 

Hyperpnea, polypnea, thermopnea 

Composition of abnormal air 

Carbonic acid 

Activ oxygen or ozone 

Influence of barometric pressure 

See 612.27 

Influence of climate 
Influence of food 

" " temperature 
Effect of disease and intoxications 
Influence of organs 

Influence of muscular movements 

Motion, rest, work 

Influence of nervous system 
" " circulation 
Influence of animal kind 

Variability of gaseous exchange in animal kinds 

Influence of stature 
Aquatic animals 



medicin: physiology 



612.23 Gaseous exchange in the blood 
.231 Expired air Respiratory quotient 

.232 Asphyxiation 

In legal medicin 

1 Artificial respiration in asphyxiation 

2 Asphyxiation by submersion 

3 Hart in asphyxiation 

4 Toxic action of carbonic acid (CO 2) 
.233 Respiration in confined air 

.234 Toxic action of carbonous oxid (CO) 

See also 612.11114 and 615.96 

.235 Exchange of gases between air and blood 

1 Theory 

.24 Lung capacity Vital capacity 

Residual, reserv, respiratory or tidal and complemental air 

.25 Exhalation of water from lungs 

.26 Internal or tissue respiration 

.261 Exchange of gases between tissues and blood 

.262 Accumulation of oxygen in tissues (cells) 

.27 Influence of barometric pressure on living beings 

See also 612.01441. For effect on absorption of oxygen and exhalation 
of carbonic acid see 612.2232 

.273 Toxic effects of oxygen and ozone 

.274 Effect of more than normal pressure 

Physiologic aspect of caisson disease 

.275 Effect of less than normal pressure 

I Physiologic and therapeutic effects of high altitudes 

II Mountain and aeronautic sickness 

.276 Effect of pressure on fermentations 

Effect of removing pressure 

.279 Maximum pressures 

Effect on aquatic animals 

.28 Respiratory centers 

Influence of nervous system on respiration 

.281 Action of cerebrum and of will 

.282 " " medulla oblongata and vagus nucleus 

.283 " " spinal cord 

.284 " " chemic substances and abnormal blood gases 

1 Toxicology of center 

2 Apnea, acapnea, dyspnea 

See also 6 12.232 

.287 Action of pneumogastric or vagus nervs 

See also 61 2. 8 199 12 

.288 Respiratory reflexes 

See also 612.833 2 

.29 Influence of other organs on respiration 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



612.3 Digestion 

May be subiivided by 01-09 for form, if needed 

.31 Mouth Teeth Salivary glands 

.311 Mastication and prehension 

1 Physiology of teeth 

.312 Deglutition or swallowing 

2 Tonsils 3 Tung 

.313 Salivary glands Saliva 

1 Composition of normal saliva 

2 Action of saliva on food Ptyalin 

3 Salivary secretion 

3 1 Toxic effect of saliva 

4 Action of chemic substances 

See also Therapeutics, 615.741 Sialagogs 

41 Elimination 

42 Action of atropin and of pilocarpin 

5 Physiologic morfology 

6 Pathologic changes of saliva 

61 Salivary fistulas 

63 Bacteriology 

64 Salivary calculi 

69 Abnormal substances 

8 Action of nervous system on salivary secretion 

82 Action of sympathetic nervs 

See also 6 1 2.898 
87 Action of chorda tympani 

See also 6 1 2.81977 

.314 Salivary venoms and venoms in general 

1 Chemic composition 

2 Toxic action 

3 Natural immunity and resistance to venoms 

4 Attenuation and neutralization of venoms 

5 Treatment of venom poisoning Serotherapy 

See 615.94 Duplicated here for physiologist only 
51 Antitoxins 

See also 612.11822 Antitoxins of serum 

.315 Esofagus 

.32 Stomach Gastric juice Vomiting 

.321 Normal composition of gastric juice 

1 Gastric fistulas, experimental and pathologic 

2 Determination of acid in gastric juice 

5 Proteolytic ferments: pepsin 

6 Milk curdling ferments, inorganic and organic 
.322 Digestiv power of gastric juice 

1 Starch and analogs 

2 Sugars " " 

3 Fats 

4 Albuminoids 

45 Nature and properties ot peptones 
See also 612.39817 

5 Antiputrefactiv properties of gastric juice 

6 Mixture of bile or other secretions of digestiv tract 
and gastric juice 



medicin: physiology 



612.3227 Absorption in stomach and transformation (into 

mucus) of products of digestion 

See also 612.386 

72 Absorption and transformation of sugars 

73 " " " " fats 

74 " " " nitrogenous substances (peptones) 

75 " " " " salts Effect on stomach 

.323 Stomach secretion 

2 Formation and destruction of pepsin 

21 Pepsin in urin 

3 Formation of hydrochloric acid (HC1) 

4 Autodigestion of stomach 

5 Effects of removing stomach 

.324 Action of chemic substances (poisons) on gastric secre- 
tion and their elimination 

.325 Physiologic morfology of stomach 

Relation between morfologic changes and stimulation 

.326 Pathologic changes of stomach secretion 

3 Bacteriology 

5 Gastric juice in disease 

9 Abnormal substances in gastric iuice 

.327 Movements of stomach 

1 Muscular irritability of stomach 

2 Motor action of pneumogastric See also 612.819913 

3 Evacuation of stomach 

5 Merycism and rumination 

7 Vomiting 

8 Action of emetics or vomitories 

See also under therapeutics, 615.731 Emetics 

.328 Action of nervous system on stomach 

1 Psychic influence on stomach secretions 

8 Sensibility of stomach 

.33 Intestin 

Middle intestin and glands of middle intestin in invertebrates 

.331 Normal composition of intestinal juice 

1 Intestinal fistulas, experimental and pathologic 

7 Intestinal gases Fermentiv process due to bacteria 

.332 Intestinal digestion 

2 Carbohydrates 

3 Fats 

4 Albuminoids and derivates Erepsin 

7 Absorption and changes of food in intestin 

See also 612.386 

72 Carbohydrates 

73 Fats Chyliferous vessels See also 61 2.426 

74 Albuminoid derivates 

75 Other substances 

751 Inorganic substances Water and salts 

8 Action of intestinal juice on other secretions and 
ferments 

See also 612.3226 
84 Enterokinasis and secretin 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



612.333 Intestinal secretion 

.334 Action of chemic substances on the intestin and their 

elimination 

4 Purgativs 

See also therapeutics, 615.732 Cathartics 

.335 Physiologic morfology of intestin 

5 Intestinal circulation 

.336 Pathologic changes of intestinal secretion 

3 Parasites and microbes 

31 Bacterial fermentation Physiologic effect of microbes 

.337 Movements of intestin 

1 Movement of chyme in intestin 

.338 Action of nervous system on intestin 

1 Action of nervs and nerv centers on secretioa 

.339 Peritoneum Omentum 

1 Absorption in peritoneum 

See also 612.387 

.34 Pancreas Pancreatic juice 

.341 Normal composition of pancreatic juice 

1 Pancreatic fistulas 

.342 Action of pancreatic juice on food Tryptic digestion 

1 Starches and analogs 

2 Sugars 

3 Fats Steapsin or ptyalin 

4 Albuminoids Trypsinogen Trypsin 

5 Effect on other digestiv fenomena 

51 On bile and gastric juice 

See also 612.3226 

•343 Pancreatic secretion 

.344 Action of special substances on pancreatic secretion and 

juice 

.345 Physiologic morfology 

Relation between morfologic changes and stimulation 

.346 Pathologic changes of pancreatic juice 

.348 Action of nervous system on pancreas 

.349 Pancreas as an internal gland Hands of Langerhans 

1 Pancreatic glycosuria 

Physiologic fenomena only. See also 612.35216, 612.46621, and 
diseases 616.61, where most material belongs 

•35 Liver 

.351 Hepatic circulation and chemic composition 

I Chemic composition 

I I Ferments 

5 Hepatic circulation 

51 Ligature of portal vein 

6 Effect of extracts from hepatic tissue 

61 Hepatic opotherapy 



medicin: physiology 



612.352 Effect of liver on absorbd foods 

1 Glycogenesis Glycogen of liver and its tissues 

See also 612.3961 12 Chemistry of glycogen 

11 Determination of amount of sugar and glycogen: technic 

12 Sugar of the blood See also 612.122 

13 Action of nervs on glycogenic function Experimental diabetes 

14 Fermentation of glycogen Glycogenolysis 

16 Glycosuria (diabetes) in general 

See also 612.3491, 612.46621 and pathology 616.63 

17 Glycogen of other organs 

18 Glycogen of muscles See also 612. 74411 

19 Relations between glycogenesis and alimentation 

2 Fat Adipogenic function 
.353 Hepatic chemic fenomena 

1 Formation of urea See also 612.4612 

.354 Action of poisons on liver 

1 Toxic steatoses 

2 Antitoxic action of liver 

•355 Temperature of liver See also 612.563 

.356 Hematopoietic function of liver and effect on blood 

See also 6 12. 119 

.357 Bile 

1 Normal composition of bile 

1 1 Biliary fistulas 

13 Coloring matter Bile pigments 

|j Bilirubin, biliverdin For origin see 33 below 

14 Mineral salts 

15 Biliary acids and their salts 

Glycocholic and taurocholic acids 

2 Action of bile in the intestin 

Final fate of bile 

3 Bile secretion 

3 1 Quantity 

32 Origin of bile acids 

33 " " Pigments 

4 Action of chemic substances on bile secretion 

See also therapeutics, 615.742 Cholagogs 

5 Elimination of poisons by bile 

6 Pathologic physiology of bile 

For general works and medical aspect see 616.36 

64 Biliary calculi 

65 Obliteration of bile ducts Icterus Jaundis Cholemia 

See also pathology, 616.36 Liver and bile ducts 

66 Bile in disease 

67 Toxic effects of bile 

69 Abnormal biliary substances 

7 Biliary excretion Physiology of ducts 

71 Gall bladder 

72 Absorption in biliary ducts 

73 Contractility of ducts 

8 Innervation of bile ducts 
.358 Action of nervous system on liver 

.359 Ablation, regeneration, cicatrization and other mor- 

fologic fenomena 

1 Volume of liver 

2 Fatty or starchy degeneration 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



612.36 Defecation Large intestin 

Proctodeum and its appendages in invertebrates 

.361 Chemic composition of excrements 

.363 Cecal digestion Vermiform appendix 

.364 Absorption in large intestin 

.365 Defecation 

.366 Rectum 

.367 Movements of large intestin 

.368 Innervation " 

.38 Absorption 

.381 Imbibition Transudations and exudations Edema 

.382 OsmOSiS See also 612. 0144621 

1 Dialysis of mineral salts 

2 " " sugars 

4 " " albuminoids 

.383 Diffusion 
.384 Absorption by skin 

See also 612.79 

.385 Absorption by lungs 

See also 612.2159 

.386 Absorption in digestiv tract 

General; see also specific part of tract 

.387 Absorption by mucous and serous membranes 

See also 612.3391 

.388 Parenchymatous absorption 

Absorption by cellular tissue (after injection) 

.39 Nutrition Metabolism 

.391 Hunger Thirst Inanition 

3 Hunger, thirst and nervous centers Mechanical 
, action of hunger 

4 Inanition in man 

6 " " disease 

9 " " animals 

92 Inanition in poikilothermic animals 

96 " " homoiothermic " 

.392 Foods 

1 Assimilation of carbon 

2 " " nitrogen 

See also 612.46123 

3 Assimilation of water 

4 " of sulfur, fosforus and iron 

3 Sulfur 4 Fosforus 5 Iron 

5 Thermodynamic value of food 

6 Mineral foods 

1 Sodium salts 2 Potassium salts 3 Calcium salts 

7 Vegetable foods 

71 Vegetarianism See also hygiene, 613.26 Vegetable diet 

72 Fruits and fresh vegetables 

73 Cereals 

74 Bred 



medicin: physiology 



612.3928 Animal food 

See also hygiene, 613 28 Meats in diet 

81 Meats 

82 Soup Meat extracts 

83 Egs 

84 Milk 

See also 612.664 

841 Sterilization and artificial changes in milk 

85 Cheese 

86 Butter 

9 Special artificial foods 

•393 Condiments and stimulants 

1 Alcohol as food Fermented drinks 

See also hygiene of nervous system, 613.81 Alcohcl 

2 Coffee Tea 

See also hygiene of beverages, 613.37 

9 Condiments 

.394 Ration or food requirement during growth 

2 Of man Nourishment of newborn 

3 " animals 

.395 Ration or food requirement of adults 

1 Working ration Normal ration 

12 Working ration for man 

13 " " " animals 

2 Subsistence ration 

22 Subsistence ration for man 

23 " " " animals 

5 Relations of ration to external conditions, 
e. g. climate 

6 Food requirements in disease 
.396 Carbohydrates 

1 Chemic composition 

n Polysaccharids 

in Starch Inulin 

112 Glycogen 

113 Cellulose 

12 Gums and analogs: dextrin 

13 Monosaccharids: glucose, mannose, gallactosc, fructose, etc. 

14 Disaccharids: sugar, lactose, maltose, etc. 
17 Combined carbohydrates 

See 612.3981453 Glycoproteids 

172 Chitin 

17S Glycosids: amygdalin, salicin, phlorizin, saponin, etc. 

19 Other carbohydrates: pentose, inusitum 

2 Changes of sugars in organism Glycolysis 

21 Products of carbohydrates; e. g. glycuronic acid 

22 Alcohol in tissues 

3 Hydrolytic ferments of carbohydrates and analogs 

31 Amylasis, inulasis, cytasis, etc. 

3a Saccharoclastic ferments Inversion 

4 Formation of carbohydrates in organism 

5 Thermodynamic value of carbohydrates 

7 Quantity of carbohydrates in foods and tissues 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



612.397 Fats 

1 Chemic composition 

2 Changes of fats in organism 

21 Fatty degeneration and infiltration See also 612.3952 

22 Products of fats 

23 Acids 

24 Glycerins 

3 Lipolytic ferments 

4 Formation of fats 

5 Thermodynamic value 

7 Quantity of fat in food and tissues Adiposity 

8 Lipoids 

81 Cholesterin 

82 Lecithin 

.398 Albuminoids and nitrogenous substances 

1 Chemic composition 

11 Composit albuminoids « 

For eg albumin see also 612.39283 

12 Blood serum and other serous fluids of body 

See also chemical properties of blood, 612.124 Albuminoids 

13 Simple albuminoids 

131 Albumin 

132 Globulins: fibrinogenic and fibrinoplastic substances, myosin, etc. 

133 Coagulated albuminoids Fibrin Coagulation of albuminoids 

135 Albuminoids as acids or bases 

136 Nucleoalbumins, simple phosphorated albuminoids 

138 Protamins 

139 Other albumins 

14 Other albuminoids 

145 Proteids 

Albumin + a complex organic compound 

1 Nucleoproteids 

Albumin + nucleic acid, products of nucleic acid and specific 
ferments 

2 Hemoglobin and analogs 

Albumin + an iron compound. See also 612.11111 

3 Glycoproteids 

Albumin + a carbohydrate. See also 612.3967 

146 Albuminoids: glutin, elastin, amyloid, etc. 

15 Vegetable albuminoids 

16 Albuminoid products and nitrogen compounds 

17 Albuminoses and peptones 
172 Thermodynamic value 

175 Changes of substances derived from albuminoids by digestion 

19 Products of complete change of albuminoids Nitrogen compounds 

191 Protaminic nucleus See also 612.398138 

192 Amidic acids 

193 Urea Uric acid See also 61 2.461 2, 61 2.461 25, 61 2.398 195 

194 Ammonia and ammonia compounds 

195 Bases (alkaloids), purin compounds 

196 Aromatic compounds 

197 Nonnitrogenous products of albuminoids 
199 Other products 

2 Changes of albuminoids in organism 

3 Proteolytic ferments 

Only general works See specific nitrogen compounds for their 
derivates, ferments and properties For milk curdling ferments 
see 612.3216 and 612.664171 

5 Thermodynamic value of albumins and derivates 

Albumin as food 



medicin: physiology 



612.3986 Formation of albuminoids in general 

7 Quantity of albuminoids in food and tissues 

8 Toxins, antitoxins Chemistry of poisons 

For action, see 612 11821; for animal poisons, sec 612.314; for 
ptomains, leucomains, etc. se* 612.398195 above 

.4 Glandular system Secretion Excretion 

.401 Effect of circulation on glands 

.402 " " glands " circulation and blood 

.403 " " " " nutrition 

.404 " " nutrition " glands 

.405 Physics and chemistry of secretion 

.407 Effect of glands on nervous system 

.408 " " nervous system on glands 
See also 612.817 

.409 Physiologic morfology of secretions and glandular epitheliums 

.41 Spleen 

.411 Hematopoietic action Effect of spleen on blood 

.412 Splenotomy Circulation in spleen 

.413 Contractility of spleen 

.414 Spleen in relation to other organs 

1 Effect on digestion 

.416 Function of spleen in disease, in experimental infections 

and in wounds 

.418 Chemic fenomena 

.42 Lymfatic system and lymf 

For lymfocytes see 612. 112 

•4 21 Lymf Chemic composition 

.422 Quantity and origin of lymf 

.423 Lymfatic circulation 

1 Thoracic duct 

.424 Lymfatic harts 

.425 Innervation of lymfatic system 

.426 Lymfatic absorption 

See also 612.33273 

•4 2 7 Lymfatic fistulas 

.428 Lymf glands 

. 43 Thymus 

.44 Thyroid gland 

.441 Chemic composition 

.442 Parathyroid glands or accessory thyroids 

.445 Thyroidectomy Destruction of thyroid 

Including pathologic destruction 

.448 Effects of thyroid extracts 

.45 Suprarenal capsules 

.451 Chemic composition 

•455 Excision and destruction 

.458 Effect of capsular extract 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



612.46 Kidneys Urin 

.461 Chemic composition of urin 

1 Reaction and physical properties 

1 1 Reaction 

12 Density 

13 Temperature 

17 Urinary technology 

174 Staining reactions 

175 Spectroscopic examinations 

176 Polarimetric " 

177 Histochemic " 

178 Pathologic urinary technology 

179 Densimetry and cryoscopy of urin 

2 Urea and nitrogen compounds 

21 Determination of quantity of urea Ureameters 

22 Determination of total nitrogen 

23 Excretion and metabolism of nitrogen 

231 In relation to alimentation 

232 " " " work 

234 Effect of chemic substances (poisons) * 

235 Influence of temperature 

236 " " disease 

238 " " nervous system 

239 mm an j ma i kind 

Variability of process in animal kingdom 

25 Uric acid See also 61 2.398193 
25 1 Determination of quantity 

254 In animals 

255 " normal man 

256 " man in disease: uric diathesis 
259 " other tissues and fluids than urin 

26 Other nitrogen products of urin 

261 Bases Xanthin bases See also 612.398195 

262 Ptomains 

263 Allantoin 

264 Peptones See also 612.46668, 612.39817 

266 Hippuric acid 

267 Ammonium and other urates See also 612.398194 

268 Ferments See also 612.32321 

269 Physiologic albuminuria 

27 Coloring matter Pigments: urobilin, urochrome 

6 Salin substances in urin 

61 Chlorin salts 

62 Fosforus and its compounds 

63 Sulfur and its compounds 

64 Gases of urin 

8 Nonnitrogenous organic constituents of normal urin 

82 Sugars Physiologic glycosuria 

.462 Urinary toxicity 

1 Internal secretion of kidneys 

.463 Urinary secretion 

1 Quantity of urin 

2 Elimination of urin 

4 Renal circulation 

5 Influence of blood and circulation 

6 Comparativ secretion of the two kidneys 
8 Effect of nervous system 

81 Glycosuria, polyuria after lesion of medulla oblongata 



medicin: physiology 



612.464 Action of poisons on urinary secretion and their elimina* 

tion 

1 Diuretics Polyuria 

See also 615.761 Diuretics in therapeutics 

2 Toxic albuminurias 

See also 61 2.46622 

3 Elimination of poisons by urin 

4 Toxic glycosuria Phlorizin 

See also 612.46621 

.465 Physiologic morfology of kidneys 

.466 Pathologic physiology of kidneys and urin 

1 Urinary calculi 

2 Urin in disease 

21 Urin in diabetes Chemistry of glycosuria For physiology of 

diabetes see 612.35216 

22 Urin in albuminuria Albuminuria in general 

See also 612.461269, 612.4642 and 616.634 

23 Resection and lesion of kidneys, experimental and pathologic 

Ligature of ureter, etc. 
231 Uremia See also 616.638 

26 Urin in fever 

6 Abnormal substances in urin 

61 Acetonuria" Acidosis 

62 Chyluria 

63 Other abnormal products of metabolism 
631 Glycuronic acid See also 612.39621 

64 Products of intestinal putrefaction Indican 

67 Biliary pigments Choluria 

68 Albuminoses and peptones 

69 Hematuria and hemoglobinuria 

7 Urinary fermentation Putrefaction of urin 
.467 Urinary discharge 

1 Physiology of bladder, ureters and urethra 

1 1 Micturition 

2 Absorption in urinary passages 

3 Innervation of vesical apparatus 

For prostate see 612.617 For action of nervous system on func- 
tion of kidneys see 612.4638 

.49 Other glands and secretions 
.491 Bone marrow 

.492 Hypophysis or pituitary gland Somatic brain 

.493 Scent glands of animals 

.494 Bartholini's glands 

495 Carotid gland 

499 Other glands 

See also 612.664, 612.702 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



612.5 Animal heat 

.51 Sources Thermogenesis Calorimetry 

.511 Direct calorimetry 

6 Calorimetry in disease 

.512 Indirect calorimetry 

1 Influence of alimentation 

3 Effect of respiration 

.52 Loss of heat Radiation Thermolysis 

Conduction of animal tissues 

.521 Cutaneous radiation 

1 Physiology of clothing 

.523 Loss by pulmonary evaporation 

.524 " " cutaneous evaporation 

•53 Regulation of temperature Heat balance 

Thermotaxis 

.531 Influence of vasomotors 

.532 " " muscular movement 

See also 612.7453 

.533 Effect of perspiration 

.534 " " respiration Thermic polypnea 

.535 Thermic centers 

.54 Other conditions affecting temperature and ther- 
mogenesis 

.541 Effect of baths 

.543 u " inanition 

See also 612.391 

.544 Effect of poisons 

.55 Variations in production and regulation of heat 

.556 In disease : fevers 

.56 Temperature of body 

.563 Thermic topografy 

.58 Hibernating animals 

.59 Heat and cold; effect on organism 

Subdivisable with o like 612; e. g. 612.59074 Effect on muscles 

612.5908 " nervous system 

See also 613.01443 

.591 Effect of heat Deth from heat Thermic rigidity 

.592 Effect of cold Deth from cold Rigidity from cold 



medicin: physiology 



Reproduction and generation Development 

Spontaneous generation 

See origin and beginnings of life, 576.1 
Transplantation Animal grafting 

May be divided by organs like 612 
Cicatrization Regeneration 

May be divided by organs; e. g. 612.60344 Regeneration of thyroid 

612.60384 " " eye 

Reproduction of lower organisms 

Protozoa, etc. 

Asexual: fission, division, gemmation or budding or sprouting 
Sexual: conjugation or concrescence 

Variations: alteration of generations or metagenesis, pedogenesis, partheno- 
genesis 

Morfogenesis in general Heredity 

See 575 Evolution 
Heredity 

Variation, including artificial 

Hybridization 

Tumors 

Only for physiologic aspect, for pathology see 616.992 
Proportion and determination of sexes 

See also Biology, 577.8 Sexes in nature, sexuality 
Consanguinity Incest 
Hermafroditism 

Theory of evolution Natural selection, darwinism 

See 575 Evolution 

Male functions of generation 

For semen see 612.616 

Erection 

Including also the function in general, in either or both sexes See 
also 612.188 

Copulation and fecundation 

Artificial " 
Parthenogenesis 

Artificial parthenogenesis 

Testicles Orchitic fluid Sperm 

Effects of castration Resection or injury, experi- 
mental or pathologic, of testicles or of sexual glands 
in general 

Physiology of spermatozoa 

Testicles as internal glands Interstitial cells 
Appendages of male organs : semenif erous ducts, seminal 
vesicles 

Female functions of generation Ovulation 

See also 612.612 and 612.6161 

Physiology of ovaries 

See also 612.6303 

Ablation or injury of ovary, experimental or patho- 
logic 

See also 612.6161 

Physiology of ovum 
Physiology of uterus 

Uterin circulation 
Innervation of uterus 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



612.63 Impregnation Pregnancy Parturition 

See also 612.612 
01 Period of pregnancy 
03 Ovary in pregnancy Corpus luteum 

.64 Development of embryo 

For embryology see 611. 013; for abnormal development see 611.012 Tera. 
tology, 617.3 Deformities 

.646 Physiology of embryo 

.647 " " fetus 

.648 " " newborn 

.649 Appendages of embryo Amniotic fluid 

See also 611. 0138 Fetal appendages (in embryology) 

.65 Growth after birth 

See also 612.64 

.651 Metamorfosis of lower animals Larvae 

.66 Period of full development 

.661 Puberty 

.662 Menstruation 

.663 Fecundity 

.664 Lactation and milk 

Physiology of mammary glands 

i Physics and chemistry of milk 

1 2 Sugars 

13 Fats Butter 

14 Albuminoids 

16 Mineral substances 

17 Lactic fermentation Milk ferments 

171 Milk curdling ferments Coagulation of milk 

18 Other constituents 

181 Abnormal substances 

19 Comparison of milk of various animals 
191 Human milk 

3 Lactic secretion 

3 1 Quantity 

32 Formation of sugars 

33 " fats 

34 u u albuminoids 

3 5 Colostrum 

36 Effect of various agents on secretion 

4 Action of poisons on milk secretion and their elim- 
ination 

5 Physiologic morfology of milk 

6 Pathologic changes in lactic secretion 

7 Digestion of milk 

8 Innervation of mammary glands 
.67 Period of decline Deth 

See also 577.7 

.68 Longevity 

See also 368.3 Life insurance; 519.5 Probabilities; 614.12 Deth rates 



medicin: physiology 



612.7 Motor and vocal apparatus Skin 

. 7 1 Protoplasm 

See also 612.014 General physiology of cells and organisms 

.72 Vibratil cilia 
.73 Smooth muscle 

Divided like 612.74 

.'74 Striped muscle 

Muscle in general, including smooth muscle 

,741 Muscular contraction 

1 Myografy 

12 Single contraction of muscle fiber Jerk contraction 

13 Tetanic contraction 

14 Tonic contraction 

15 Influence of chemic substances on muscles 

16 Myografy in disease 

2 Change of volume of muscle 

3 Muscle wave 

4 Elasticity of muscle 

Myotonometry Effect of weight Tension 

6 Muscular irritability Influence of blood 

61 Circulation in muscles 

62 Effect of stimulation 

63 " " electricity 

7 Latent period 

Time e 1 apsing between moment of stimulation and response by an 
activ tissue 

8 Muscle murmur 

9 Physiologic morfology of muscles 

Histologic phenomena of contraction 

742 Muscles after deth Rigor mortis 

1 Chemic phenomena after deth: autolysis 

.743 Electric phenomena of muscles 

.744 Chemistry of muscle 

1 Normal composition 

11 Carbohydrates 

See also 612.35218 Glycogen of muscles 

14 Albuminoids 

15 Other organic substances 

16 Mineral substances 

Including water Muscle salts 

1 7 Gases 

2 Chemic effects of muscular contraction 

21 Fatigue 

211 Ergografy Dynamometry Work in general 

22 Consumption of oxygen and production of CO2 in work 

23 Function of carbohydrates 

24 Relation of chemic changes to work Metabolism in relation to 
work 

.745 General effect on organism of muscular contraction or 

work 

See also 612.532 

i Dynamic effects 

3 Thermic " 

5 Relations between work and heat 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



612.746 Pathologic physiology of muscles 

1 Contractures 

4 Tremors Shuddering 

5 Nutrition of muscles Atrofy Degeneration 
Regeneration 

Including nerv influence See also 612.818 

.75 Bones, joints and connectiv tissues 

.751 Chemic composition of bone and connectiv tissue 

See also 613.398146 

1 Bone 

2 Cartilage 

3 Connectiv tissue 
.752 Nutrition of bones 

•753 Growth, cicatrization and regeneration of bone 

.754 Periosteum Perichondrium 

.755 Tendons 

.76 Locomotion 

Principles of animal mechanism; comparativ study of locomotion prefer- 
ably clast in 591.47 

.761 Chronofotografy: technic 

.763 Special movements Combined movements 

Physiology of violin playing, etc. 

.766 Human locomotion 

1 Physiology of exercise and work 

2 Rest 

.767 Animal locomotion Special organs of locomotion 

Swimming bladder of fishes 

.768 Flight 

.769 Biologic adaptation of movement 

.77 Electric and phosphorescent animals 

Preferably clast 591.59 
.771 Electric animals 

.772 Phosphorescent animals 

.78 Voice and speech 

See also 784.9 Vocal hygiene; 808.5 Elocution; 534. 7 Sound 

.781 Sensibility of larynx 

.782 Movements and innervation of larynx 

1 Influence of spinal accessory nerv 

See also 612.819923 

2 Influence of pneumogastric 

See also 612. 81 99 17 

3 Laryngoscopy 

4 Movements of glottis 

5 Epiglottis 
.783 Artificial larynx 

.784 Singing Timbre, quality Voice register 

.785 Larynx in deglutition and other laryngeal functions 

See also 61-2.3 12 
.786 Organs of sound in lower animals 

.788 Larynx of birds 



medicin: physiology 



ui 2.789 Speech Language 

1 Function of mouth and nose 

2 " " lips and soft palate 

3 Innervation of organs of speech Aphasia 

vSee also 616.855 

4 Vowels and consonants 

5 Ventriloquism 

See also 791 Ventriloquism as an amusement 

.79 Skin 

.790:5 Chemic composition 

.791 Absorption 

See also 612.384 

1 Penetration by solids 

2 Absorption of fats 

3 " " solutions 

4 " " liquids 

5 " " gases 

.792 Cutaneous glands and secretion 

1 Swet Chemic composition 

1 a Toxic action of swet 

4 Action of chemic substances on swet secretion 

42 Elimination of poisons by swet 

5 Physiologic morfology of swet 

6 Pathologic changes of swet 

8 Action of nervous system on cutaneous exhalation 

9 Other cutaneous secretions 
•793 Cutaneous respiration 

4 Effect of suspended transpiration; closing pores by 
liniments, etc. 

5 Effect of chemic substances on skin 

See also 612.7924 

.794 Cutaneous sensibility 

.795 Electric conductibility and resistance of skin 

See also 612.014422 

.796 Chromatophores and skin pigments 

.798 Trofic nerves of skin 

.799 Growth and physiology of nails and hair 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



612.8 Nervous system 

.80 1 Theory of nervous system and innervation 

1 Dynamogenesis and inhibition 

a Action of nervous system on chemic phenomena 

3 Effect on morfogeny and evolution 

See also 612.605 

.81 Peripheral nervous system Nerv fibers 
.811 Distinction between sensory and motor nervs 

3 Ganglions of sensory nervs 

4 Influence of sensibility on movement and of move- 
ment on sensibility 

.812 Recurrent sensibility 

.813 Electric phenomena of nervs and muscles 

Muscle-nerv experiments as indicativ of nervous process 
For muscle phenomena see 612.743 

2 Negativ variations 

3 Electrotonus 

.814 Chemic and thermic phenomena of nervous stimu- 

lation 

For stimulation of nerv centers see 612.8222 

.815 Physiologic morfology of nervous stimulation 

1 Sensory terminations 

2 Motor " 

.816 Irritability of nervs and muscles 

Nerv-muscle or nerv-gland physiology 

1 Action of electricity 

2 Theories of nerv waves 

3 Nervous conductibility 

4 Effect of blood On nervs Anemia 

5 Rapidity of nerv waves 

6 Nerv fatigue 

7 Action of chemic substances on nervous irritability 
.817 Effect of nervs on muscles and glands 

1 Chemic substances Curare poisons 

2 Voluntary contraction 

3 Tonicity Atrofy of muscles after cutting nervs, 
etc. 

See also 612.7465 

.818 Trofic nervs 

5 Degeneration, regeneration and cicatrization 

1 Degeneration 2 Regeneration 3 Cicatrisation 



medicin: physiology 



612.819 Special nervs 

Whenever possible class according to function rather than according 
to a particular nerv, classing here only special nerv physiology 

1 1st pair: olfactory 

2 2d pair: optic 

See also 612.843 

3 3d pair: motoroculi or oculomoto 

31 Innervation of iris 

See also 612.8422 

32 Innervation of eyelids 

See also 612.847 

33 Innervation of eye muscles 

4 4th pair: trochlear or pathetic 

5 5th " : trigeminal 

52 Sensory action 

53 Trofic action 

6 6th pair: external oculomoto or abducent 

7 7th " : facial 

71 Effect on facial muscles 

73 " " respiration 

74 " " hearing 

75 " " deglutition and taste 

77 " " salivation Chorda tympani 

See also 612.3 1387 

78 Pathology Facial paralysis 

8 8th pair: auditory 

See also 612.8585 

9 9th pair: glossopharyngeal 

91 ioth " : pneumogastric or vagus 

911 Effect on hart and circulation 

See also 61 2.1 781 

912 Effect on respiration 

See also 612.287 ' 

913 Effect on digestiv organs 

See also 612.328, 612.338, 612.348, 612.358, 612,368 

915 Effect on kidneys and other glands 

See also 612.4 

917 Effect on voice production 

See also 612.7822 

918 Section of vagus and pneumogastric 

92 nth pair: spinal accessory 

921 Anastomosis with vagus 

922 Innervation of respiratory organs 

See also 612.28 

923 Innervation of vocal organs 

See also 612.7893 

93 12th pair: hypoglossal 

94 Spinal nervs in particular 
941 Phrenic nerv 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



612.82 Nervous centers Brain 
.821 Physiologic psychology 

Usually better clast in 130 Mind and body 

1 Time of reaction to stimulation Psychometry 

2 Attention Memory Association Imagination 

3 Instinct Intelligence Emotions Sensibility 

3 1 Comparativ psychology 

311 Nonautomatic actions of animals Anticlisis 

312 Automatic " " " 

For physiologic aspect see 612.829 

313 Instincts of animals Behavior See also 591.51 

33 Emotions Sensibility 

34 Inhibition of movement Will Habit Impulse 

35 Associated movements 

4 Action of poisons on intelligence 

See also 613.8 Hygiene of nervous system 
" " 615.9 Toxicology 

41 Alkaloids 

42 Nonalkaloid anesthetics 

See also Therapeutics, 615.96 Cerebral poisons 
44 Alcohol 

See also Therapeutics, 615.964 Alcohol as cerebral poison 
Pathology 616.861 Alcoholism 

5 Effect of disease on intelligence 

6 Psychic reflexes 

7 Sleep Hypnotism 

See also 135 Sleep, Dreams 
71 Hypnotism See also 134 Mesmerism, Hypnotism 

73 Theories of sleep 

74 Cerebral circulation in sleep 

75 Chemic phenomena of organism in sleep 

76 Dreams 

8 Sense in general and theories of perception 

88 Psychophysical laws 

89 Sensory delusions 

For optic illusions see also 612.84374 

.822 Nerv cells and nerv centers 

1 Chemistry of nervous tissue 

Metabolism in nervs 

2 Chemic fenomena of nervous excitation 

For stimulation of nerv fibers see 612.814 

3 Electromotiv fenomena of nervous excitation 

4 Thermic 

5 Physiologic morfology " " " 

53 Effects of fatigue 

54 « « poisons 

56 Degeneration and regeneration of centers 

6 Effects of removal and experimental, pathologic or 
teratologic lesion of nerv centers 

61 Movement in a circle (motus circularis, manage) 

7 Decapitation 

8 Action of central nervous system on chemic 
phenomena of organism 

See also 612.01538, 612.8012 
81 Effect of chemic changes on centers 



medicin: physiology 



612.823 Weight and general morfology of brain 

5 Conduction in centers 

.824 Cerebral circulation 

1 Neurolymf, neurolympha or cerebrospinal fluid 
Meninges Choroid plexus 

2 Brain movements 

3 Cerebral vasomotors 

4 " anemia 

5 Pressure on nerv centers 

55 Compression and concussion of brain Abnormal pressure 

6 Temperature of blood in nerv centers 

Effect of abnormal pressure 

.825 Cerebral convolutions (cortex) 

1 Cortical excitability 

2 Psychomotiv centers Localizations 

23 Inhibitory actions 

See also 61 2.8338 

24 Localization in man 

249 Speech Aphasia 

See also 61 2.7893 

25 Localization in animals 

26 Topografy of localizations 

261 Frontal lobe 

262 Occipital " 

263 Parietal 

264 Temporal " 

265 Central 

266 Olfactory " 

3 Cortical epilepsy 

See also 616.853 

5 Sensory functions of convolutions 

Convolutions a<= seat of senses 

54 Sight 

55 Hearing 

56 Smell 

57 Taste 

58 Muscular sense 

See also 612.885 

59 Touch 

See also 612.88 

8 Intellectual functions 

Only for physiology of these functions 

.826 Cerebral ganglions, commissures, etc. 

1 Optostriate body and callosum 

Or optic thalami, striatum and callosum 

2 Conduction in the brain 

See also 612.8235 

3 Crura or cerebral peduncles Epiphysis Infundi- 
bulum 

5 Quadrigeminum Optic lobes 

7 Cerebellar peduncles or prepeduncles 

8 Pons 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



612.827 Cerebellum 

.828 Medulla oblongata or postoblongata 

.829 Special physiology of central nervous system of invertebrates 

See also 612.8226 

1 Regulating effect of ganglia Circular movements (manage) 

2 Chain of ganglions Network of nervs, or rcte nervosum 

3 Reflex movement 

Locomotion in respect to physiology of nervous system 

31 Reflexes proper 

32 Rhythm Refractory period 

33 Tonicity Tonic reflex 

34 Coordination 

.83 Spinal cord or myel 
.831 Conduction in the cord 

See also 612.823s 

.832 Excitability of cord 

.833 Reflex action 

Subdivide like 612; e. g. 612.83317 Cardiac reflexes 
612.83362 Uterin " 
612.8337 Limb reflexes; knee jerk 

8 Action of superior nerv centers on reflexes 

9 Other phenomena of reflex action 

91 Rapidity of reflexes 

92 Pathology 

93 Effect of anemia 

94 Action of poisons on reflexes 

95 Rhythm in general 
951 Refractory period 

96 Coordination 

97 Other fenomena 

e. g. reflexes according to nature of impulse: fatigue, etc. 

.834 Cord as center of innervation 

.835 Degeneration and regeneration of cord Atrofies 

.84 Physiologic optics Sight 

.841 Fibrous tunics of eye 

1 Cornea Conjunctiva Anterior chamber 

5 Sclera 

.842 Vascular tunics Iris Choroid Ciliary body 

1 Iris accommodation 

See also 612.844 for general papers on accommodation 

1 1 Pupillometers 

2 Action of nervs and nerv centers on pupil 

3 Effects of light 

4 Action of chemic substances on iris Atropin See 615.784 

5 Choroid Eye pigments 

6 Ocular circulation Intraocular pressure 
61 Ofthalmometers 



MEDICIN: PHYSIOLOGY 



612.843 Optic nerv Retina 

See also 612.8192 2d pair of cranial nervs; optic 

1 Physiologic morfology Retinal purple 

12 Ofthalmoscope 

13 Retinal circulation 

14 " purple 

15 Physiologic morfology of retina 

2 Irradiation 

3 Color sense Chromatic sensibility 

31 Color sight 

Power to distinguish colors 

For color blindness see 612.8455; 617.75 

32 Sensitivness to color 

Tor pathology of chromatic sensibility see 612.8455 

34 Mixture of colors 

35 Contrast of colors 

4 Rntoptic fenomena 

5 Persistence of retinal impressions 

6 Field of vision Visual acuteness and sensibility 

61 Photometry 

Photometric technic 

62 Field of vision 

63 Visual acuteness and sensibility 

7 Conduction in the brain Perception 

71 Histology of fibrillae Center of sight 

72 Optic perceptions Localization of image in space 

721 Binocular perception Stereoscopy Perception of 

distance, size and form 

Perception of differences in hight of surface For movement 
see 612.8462 

73 Impression of color suggested by sound, auditus coloratus 

74 Optic illusions 

75 Observations on those born blind 

78 Degenerations of optic nerv and fibrillae 

.844 Refractory apparatus Ocular refraction 

See also 6 1 2.842 1 

i Crystallin lens 

4 Aqueous humor 

7 Vitreous humor 

.845 Functional disorders or pathology of sight 

See also 617.75 

1 Myopia 

2 Hypermetropia 

3 Astigmatism 

4 Presbyopia 

5 Daltonism Color blindness 

See also 612.84331 Color sight; 6i7-75 Disorders of vis ; on 

6 Hemeralopia 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



612.846 Movements of eye 

2 Binocular vision 

For perception see 612.843721 

3 Action of 3d cranial or oculomoto ncrv 

4 " " 4th " or trochlear nerv 
6 " " 6th " or abducent nerv 
8 Strabismus Diplopia 

.847 Palpebral and lacrimal apparatus 

.85 Hearing 

.851 External ear: functions 

.854 Middle ear 

.855 Tympanic membrane or drumhed Tympanum 

.856 Eustachian tube 

.857 Bones 

.858 Internal ear 

1 Conduction of sound in internal ear 

2 Utricle Saccule 

3 Semicircular canals 

See also 612 8863 and 616. 841 Vertigo 

4 Cochlea Corti's organ or fibers Spiral organ 

5 Acoustic nerv 

6 Endolymph 

7 Acoustic perception Conduction of acoustic exci- 
tation in the brain 

71 Auditory acuteness 

72 Auditory center in brain 

See also 612.82555 

73 Subjectiv sensations 

74 Musical physiology and psychology 

Distinction of tones and quality or tone color (timbre) 

75 Binaural hearing 

751 Localization of sound in space Estimation and effect 

of distance 

76 Sensibility of living beings to sound and vibrations 
Otocysts 

8 Auditory reflexes 
86 Smell 

See also 612.82556 Seat of smell 

.867 Perceptions Conduction in the brain 

.87 Taste 

.875 Function of lingual nerv 

See also 612.8195 

.877 Function of chorda tympani 

See also 612.81977 

.879 Function of glossopharyngeal nerv 

See aho 61 2.8199 



medicin: physiology 



6i 2.88 Touch Tactil sense Equilibrium 

.88 1 Notion of space 

.882 Sense of temperature 

.883 Sense of pressure 

Including all related phenomena; e. g. tickling 

i Esthesiometers 

.884 Sensibility to pain 

.885 Muscular sense Power sense 

.886 Sense of equilibrium 

1 Sense of direction and orientation 

2 Seasickness 

3 Vertigo 

See also 6 1 2.8583 

9 Function of special organs 

Function of lateral line of fishes and other special organs of lower 
animals 

.887 Anesthesia, hyperesthesia, synesthesia 

.89 Sympathetic nervous system 

.8903 Trofic action 

.8905 Reflex phenomena 

.891 Cervical ganglions and plexus 

.892 Thoracic 

.893 Abdominal " 

.896 Action on eyes; iris 

See also 61 2.8422 

.897 Action on hart 

See also 612.1782 

.898 Action on digestiv tract ; alimentary canal 

See also 612.3 ar >d special subdivisions 

.899 Effect on blood vessels 

See also 612.18 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



Personal Hygiene 



Care of Health; Prophylaxis; Individual Health; Laws of Health. 

.02, Compends; .03, Dictionaries, Cyclopedias; .04, Essays; .05, Periodicals; 
.06, Societies; .07, Study and Teaching; .08, Sanitary Appliances; .09, His- 
tory, Description, Reports, etc., divided like 930-999- 

i Air and Light. 

For Air Analysis, see 543.7; Air Pollution, 614.7; Ventilation, 628.8. 
II Climate. Acclimation. See 551-5. Meteorology; 615.834, Therapeutics; 

614.42, Geographical distribution of disease. 

1 a Health Resorts. Mountain. Sea-shore. 

Regions exempt from special diseases. 

13 Seasons. Time of Day. 

14 Malaria. Moisture. Ground Air. See Public Health, 614.775, 614.773. 

and 614.772. 

15 Purification of Air. 

16 Special Influences. Ozone, Electricity, etc. 

17 Quantity of Air Necessary. 

18 Temperature. See also 536.5, Heat; 551-52, Meteorology. 

19 Sunlight. 

2 Food. Dietetics. 

For Food Analysis, see 543.1; Adulterations, 614.31; Digestion and Nutrition, 
612.3. 

21 Dietaries. 

Including food for special classes of people; literary men, soldiers, etc. 

22 Food for Infants. 

23 Food for the Sick. 

Including means for giving nutrition, baths, enemeta, forced alimentation, 
etc. 

24 Fasting. Famine. Starvation. 

25 Excess of Food. 

26 Vegetable Food. 

2 7 Fruits. 

28 Animal Food. Meats. 

29 Fish, Oysters, etc. 

3 Beverages. 

For alcoholic beverages, see 613.81 and 178, Temperance Ethics; Inspection of 
beverages, 6 14.3 4- 

31 Water as a Beverage. 

32 Impurities in Water and Ice. See also 628.16, Water supply of towns. 

33 Microscopical Analysis. For Chemical Analysis, see 543-3- 

34 Biological Analysis. 

35 Purification. Filtration, Boiling, Chemical, etc. See also 628.16, 

Water Supply. 

36 Cold Drinks. 

37 Hot Drinks. Tea, Coffee, etc. See also 614-347, Adulterations. 

38 Mineral Waters, Carbonated Waters, etc. See also 614.348, Adultera- 

tions; 615.79, Therapeutics 

39 Other Beverages. 



medicin: hygiene 



613.4 Cleanliness of Body. Clothing. 

See also 646, Clothing, Toilet, etc.; 391, Customs, Care of Person, Bathing, 
Toilet. For Therapeutic baths, electric, sulphur, etc., see 615.67. 

.41 Baths. 
.42 Warm. 

.43 Cold. For Swimming, see 796. 

.44 Douche or Shower. 

.45 Sea. Salt. 

.46 Hot Air. Turkish. Russian. Roman, etc. 

.4 7 Public. 
.48 Clothing. 

1, Material, wool, cotton, etc. 

2, Quantity. 

3, Cleanliness. 

4, Pressure. Corsets, garters, tight boots, support from hips, etc. 
.49 Care of special parts of body. 

.5 Human Habitation and Resort. 

For Heating, see 697; Ventilation, 628.8; House drainage, 628.6; Sanitation of 

towns, 628.4; Industrial sanitation, 628.5. 
These subjects, partly Public and partly Private Hygiene, are for convenience 

grouped together here. 

.51 Homes. 

.52 Hotels. 

.53 Tenements. 

.54 Schools. Colleges. See School hygiene, 3 7i-7- 

.55 Churches, Theaters, Halls, etc. 

.56 Hospitals. Asylums. 

.57 Prisons. Reformatories. 
.58 

.59 House Furnishing. 

1, Bed and Bedding. 

2, Curtains. Tapestries. 

3, Carpets. Rugs. Floors. 

4, Wall Paper. 

9, House Cleaning. 

.6 Hygiene of Employment. 

For Labor of children, see 331.3; Mining dangers and accidents, 622.8; see also 
Laboring classes, 331.8; Industrial sanitation, 628.5; Nuisances, 614.7. 

.61 Over-hours. Over- work. 

Occupations made Injurious. 

.62 By Inhalation of Vapors and Gases. 

Bleachers, match-makers, lard refiners, etc. 
.63 By Inhalation of Dust or by Absorption. 

Grinders, stone-cutters, millers, wool operatives, hair pickers, 
type founders, grocers, etc. 
.64 By Elevated, Low, or Variable Temperature. 

Bakers, forgemen, mariners, fishermen, farmers, laborers, etc. 
65 By Over-use of certain Organs. By Constrained Attitude and 

Sedentary Life. 

Engravers, public speakers, copyists, printers, salesmen, clerks, 
literary men, etc. See also Mental hygiene, 131. 
.66 By Accidents. See Public health, 614.8, Protection from accidents. 

Machinists, quarrymen, caisson-workers, manufacturers of ex- 
plosives, etc. 

.67 Military Hygiene. Barracks, Camp and Tent Life. 

.68 Naval Hygiene. Ship Life. 

.60 Hygiene of Travel and Exploration. 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



613.7 Hygiene of Recreation and Sleep. 

.71 Gymnastics. See also 37I-73. School Hygiene, Care of Body 

For Curative gymnastics, see 615.82, Massage. 

.72 Athletics and other Muscular Exercise. 

See also 796, Out-door sports. 
.73 Training and Overstrain. See also 3 7i.7S. Championship games. 

.74 Amusement or Play. 

See also 796, Out-door sports, and 371-74, Recreations. 
.75 Parks. 

Some subjects more properly placed in Public Health, are grouped here by 
attraction. 

.76 Vacations. See also 371.23, School Vacations. 

.77 Holidays. See also 371.23, School Holidays. 

.78 

.79 Rest and Sleep. Late Hours. See 613.86, Insomnia. 

.8 Hygiene of Nervous System. 

Including the action of Stimulants and Narcotics. See also 615.78, Drugs 
acting on Nervous System; 615.95, Neurotic Poisons. 
For Mental overwork, see 131, Mental Hygiene. See also 178, Temperance. 
.81 Alcohol. See also Temperance, 178; Beverages, 613.3 ; Inspection of Bever- 

ages, 614.34. 

.82 Opium and Hashish. See also 178.8. 

.83 Chloral and Caffeine. See also 178.8. 

.84 TobaCCO. See also 178.7. 

.85 Other Narcotics. 

.86 Insomnia. See also 613.79, Rest and Sleep. 

.87 Morbid Habits. Bad Social Customs. See also Social Ethics, 177; 

Late Hours, 613.79. 
.88 Luxury. Privation. 

See also Fasting; Famine; Starvation, 613.24 

.89 Celibacy. Monogamy. Polygamy. 

See also Polygamy and Monogamy, 173.2; Sexual Ethics, 176; Celibacy of 
Clergy, 254; Asceticism, 248. 

.9 Hygiene of Offspring. Heredity. 

See also Heredity, 575.1. 
.91 Congenital Defects of Body. 

See also Monstrosities, 573.9; and Orthopaedic Surgery, 617.3. 

.92 Inherited Mental Disability. 

See also Mental heredity, 136.3; Mental derangements, 132; and Mental 
physiology and hygiene, 131. 

.93 Transmitted Disease. 

See also special diseases in 616. 
.94 Stirpiculture. Eugenics. 



medicin: public helth 



614 Public helth 

Public hygiene Public sanitation State medicin Preventiv medicin 
See also 628, Sanitary engineering; 352.4 Boards of helth 

.02 Compends .03 Dictionaries, cyclopedias .04 Essays .05 Periodicals .06 So- 
cieties, conventions .07 Education .08 Sanitary appliances, exhibitions .09 His 
tory, description, legislation, reports, etc. divided like 930-999, e. g. 614.0942 
Public helth in England 



.1 Registration and Vital Statistics See also 312 Population 

. 1 1 Births and birth rates 

. 1 2 Deths and deth rates 

Divided geograficly like 930-999, e. g. Deth rate in England, 614.1242 

.13 Mortality at different ages 

For life insurance, life tables, biometry, etc. see Life insurance, 368.3, 
and Life contingencies, 519-5; Longevity, 612.68 

.131 Stillbirths 

.132 Infant mortality 

.133 Mortality in childhood 

.134 " " adult life 

.135 " " old age 

.14 Mortality of sexes, races, etc. 

.141 " " the sexes 

.142 

.143 

.144 " " races: colored, white, indian, etc. 

.145 " " city and country 

.146 " " different occupations s ee also 613.6 

.147 " from special diseases Causes of deth 

. 1 5 Morbidity 

.16 

. 1 7 Marriage 

• .18 Divorce See also 173. i Family ethics 

.2 State control of medicin 

.2 1 Medical education and degrees See 610.7; 378.2 Academic degrees 

.22 Anatomy and vivisection laws See 179.4 Ethics 

.23 Expert testimony and other medico-legal relations 

See 340.6 Medical jurisprudence 

.24 Registration of physicians, dentists, pharmacists, etc. 

License to practis 
.25 Regulation of medical practis 

See 174.2 Professional ethics, physicians 

.26 Quackery and malpractis 

.27 Nostrums and patent medicinS See also 614.353 Adulterations 

.28 Sale Of poisons See 615.9 Toxicology 

.29 Medical police 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



614.3 Adulterations: inspection of articles liable to affect public 
helth Pure food laws 

Public analysts State laboratories For chemic analysis see 543 

.31 Inspection Of food For chemic analysis see 543-1 ; Hygiene 613.2 

.311 Sugars Sirups Confectionery 

.312 Cereals Starches Bred 

.3! 3 Lards FatS Oils See 614.325-6 Butter, oleomargarin 

.314 Spices Condiments 

.315 Yeast Baking powders Cream of tartar 

.316 Fresh food Vegetables, fruits 

.317 Meats Fish (fresh) 

.318 Cand or preservd food Vegetables, fruits 

.319 Meat Fish Oysters (preservd) 

.32 Milk and milk products 

.321 Milk analysis See also chemistry, 543-2; dairy, 637-1277 

.322 Milk of known purity 

.323 Milk sold to consumer 

.324 Cream Skimd milk Condenst milk Buttermilk Kumiss 

.325 Butter and its imitations 

.326 Oleomargarin 

.327 Cheese and its imitations 

.33 Other articles of food 

.34 Inspection of beverages 

For chemic analysis see 543-1 ; hygiene, 613.3 

.341 Fermented 

.342 Wine 

.343 Brewd 

.344 Beer 

.345 Distild 

.346 Fruit drinks: lemonade, shrub, etc. 

.347 Tea Coffee Chocolate Coco See also 613.37, Hygiene 

.348 Mineral waters Soda water 

See also 613.38, Hygiene; 615.79 Therapeutics 

.349 Mixt drinks 

.3 5 Inspection Of drugs For chemic analysis see 543 4 

.351 Officinal or pharmacopeial drugs 

.352 Nonofficinal drugs 

.353 Empiric or patent medicins See also 614.27 state control 

.354 Cosmetics 

.355 Poisonous cosmetics 

.36 Inspection of tobacco 

.37 Inspection of pigments, wall and other papers, textil 

fabrics, toys, etc. 

.4 Contagious and infectious diseases: general 

.41 Causes and origin 

See 589.95 Bacteria, microbes; 616.01 Germ theory of disease 

.42 Geografic distribution Climatology 

.43 Modes of propagation and communication 



medicin: public helth 



Prevention and restriction See also Ambulances, 614.882 

Isolation, lazarettos, etc. 
Quarantine, etc. 

Maritime quarantine 

Inland " 

Control of rags, etc. 
Protectiv inoculation 

Against smallpox See also 616.912, Pathology 

Variolation 
Vaccination 

Bovine vaccination 

Humanized vaccination 

Vaccinal syphilis 

Revaccination 

Vaccinisation 

Revaccinisation 

Retrovaccination 

Compulsory vaccination 

Optional vaccination 
Antivaccination 

Against Cholera See also 616.932, Pathology 

M yellow fever See also 616.928 Pathology 

" hydrophobia Pasteurism 

See also 616.953 Pathology 

Disinfection 

Houses, clothing, rags, workshops, cars, ships, camps, air, soil, persona, 
sewers, vaults, excreta. Ded, see 614.64 Embalming, etc. 

Fumigating and other apparatus 

Stationary 
Portable 

Disinfectants Antiseptics Deodorizers 

Treated with reference to public helth. See also Materia medica 
615.777 and 615.778 

Heat 

Chemic disinfectants 
Carbolic 
Salicylic 
Chlorids 
Copperas 
Epidemics Plagues 
Contagious and infectious diseases: special 

These heds are for public helth discussions only. For treatment, etc. see 
Pathology, 616 

Filth diseases 

Typhoid or enteric fever 
Diftheria 

Diarrheal diseases 
Cholera 

Cholera-infantum 

Dysentery 

Diarrhea 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



614.52 Exanthemata 

.521 Smallpox 

.522 Scarlet fever 

.523 Measles 

.524 Rotheln, rubella, rubeola 

.525 Chickenpox 

.526 Typhus 

.53 Malarial fevers 

.531 Intermittent fever 

.532 Remittent fever 

.54 Other contagious and infectious diseases 

.541 Yellow fever 

.542 Phthisis Tuberculosis 

•543 Whooping cough 

.544 Mumps 

.545 Puerperal fever See also 618.72 

.546 Leprosy 

.547 Syphilis 

.548 Gonorrhea 

.55 Parasitic diseases 

Hookworm 

.56 Diseases communicated from lower animals 

.561 Anthrax Charbon 

.562 Trichiniasis 

. 5 63 Hydrophobia 

.564 Glanders 

.6 Disposal of the ded 

See customs, 393 Treatment of the ded 

.61 Burial 

.611 Earth burial 

.612 Tomb burial 

.613 Burials in churches Intramural 

.614 Use of perishable coffins 

.62 Cremation Crematories 

.63 Transportation of the ded 

.64 Embalming and disinfection of the ded Use of ice 

See 614.48 Disinfection; 61 5-777 Disinfectants 

.65 Effect of cemeteries on helth 

.651 By water pollution 

.652 " air " 



Mi- dic in: public iieLtiI 



614.7 Hygiene of the air and ground Nuisances 

See 613. 1 Air (Hygiene); 613.6 Hygiene of employment; 628.5 Industrial sanitation 

.71 Air pollution by dust and smoke [works 

.72 Air pollution by noxious gases, mineral trades, chemic 

.721 Carbon compounds 

.722 Carbonic oxid, carbonic acid, carburetted hydrogen 

.723 Illuminating gases Gas works 

.724 Mineral oil refining 

.725 Sulfur compounds 

.726 Chlorin " 

.727 Nitrogen " 

.728 Phosphorus " 

.729 Other 

.73 Air pollution by vegetable trades 

.731 Brewing 

.732 Distilling 

.733 Vinegar making 

.734 Sugar refining 

.735 Charcoal burning 

.736 Varnish making 

.74 Air pollution by animal trades 

.741 Slaughter houses Abattoirs Fish 

.742 Rendering works Boneboiling Tripe and gut cleaning 

.743 Pork packing Lard refining 

.744 Soap making 

.745 Tanning 

.746 Glue making 

.747 Lampblack 

.748 Commercial fertilizers 

.75 Storage and handling of noxious and offensiv materials 

.76 Other air pollutions See 628 Sanitary engineering 

.761 Stables Stable manure 

.762 Hog stys 

.763 Offal Ded and diseased animals and fish 

.764 Vaults Cesspools Water closets, privies, urinals, night soil 

.765 Sewers and sewer outlets Sewer gas 

.77 Conditions of soil as affecting helth 

Topografy Sanitar / Surveys 

.771 Analysis Of SOils See 543-7 Chemistry 

.772 Soil moisture 

Hygiene of natural water courses and of marshes. See 613.14 Hygiene 

.773 Ground atmosphere See 613.14 Hygiene 

.774 Solid constituents of soil 

.775 MalarioUS SOils See 613.14 Hygiene 

.776 Recovery of soils from pollution 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



614.78 Air and ground in towns 

.781 Laying out of towns and streets 

.782 Subways and elevated Ways See 628.47 Sanitation of towns 

.783 Parks Air spaces 

.784 Hight of bildings and proportion of occupiable area 

See 614.85 Bilding laws 

.8 Protection of human life from accidents, casualties, etc. 

Safety appliances 

See 613.66 Hygiene of employment 

.81 Drowning 

.811 Rescue of the drowning 

.812 Resuscitation of the drownd First help Pulmotors 

.82 Suffocation 

By gases, in vaults, mines, etc,; see also 622.8 Mining dangers. By illuminat- 
ing gases 

.83 Explosions 

.83 1 Manufacture and storage of explosivs and combustibles 

See also 662 Chemic technology 

.832 Gunpowder 

3 Dynamite, etc. 

.834 • Inspection of kerosene, etc. 

,835 " of illuminating gas 

.836 " of electric apparatus 

,837 " of steam boilers 

.84 Fires 

.841 Fire prevention 

.842 " detection 

.843 U extinction See 3S2.3 Fire department 

.844 Automatic 

.845 Chemic extinguishers 

.846 Fire engins Water towers See 621.68 Pumping engins 

.847 Fire escapes and other apparatus 

.8 " exits, etc. from public bildings 

.85 Bilding laws Inspection of bildings 

See 614.784 Hight of bildings 

.86 Protection of travelers 

.861 Travel on land 

.862 " " highways 

.863 u " railroads 

.864 * " water 

,865 Lighthouses, buoys, etc. 

.866 Pilots 

.867 Boats, life preservers, etc. 

.868 Rescue of shipwreckt Lifesaving servis 

.87 Exposure to cold Hospice of St Bernard 

> Aid to injured 

.88 1 Ambulance 

>2 Ambulance for contagious diseases See also 614.44 

.883 Bed wagon 



MEDIC IN ". THERAPEUTICS 



614.9 Hygiene of animals Veterinary sanitation 

.91 Infectious diseases of domestic animals 

.92 Parasites Of animals See 591-69 Economic zoology 

.93 Animal diseases communicable to man See also 614.56 

.94 Care and housing of animals 

.95 Feeding of animals 

.96 Transportation of animals 

.97 Methods of slaughtering 

.971 Painless extinction of animal life 

615 Materia medica and therapeutics 

.02 Compends .05 Pharmaceutic journals .06 Pharmaceutic societies 
.07 Education, schools of pharmacy .09 History 

.1 Materia medica Drugs Pharmacology 

For examining boards, laws, etc. see 614.24 Registration of pharmacists. See 
also 614.35 Adulteration of drugs; 543.4 Chemic analysis 

. 1 1 Pharmacopoeias 

. 1 2 Dispensatories 

. 1 3 Formularies 

,14 Prescription writing Posology 

.2 Inorganic drugs 

Divided like 546. 615.218 Phosphorus; 615.258 Mercury; 615.272 Iron. See 
also note to 615.7 

3 Organic drugs 

See also note to 615.7 
3 1 Carbon Compounds Divided chemicly like 547 

3 2 Vegetable products Divided botanicly like 580 

33 Vegetable products Divided by character 
1 Starches 2 Sugar 3 Glucosids 4 Tannins 5 Gums 6 Drugs 
containing alkaloids 7 Bitters 8 Organic acids 

34 Fixt oils and acids 

35 Ferments: diastase, pepsin, etc. 

36 Organotherapy 

3 7 Serotherapy 

Opsonic theory; see also physiology, 61 2.1 18223 
Vaccine therapy; see also public helth, 614.473 Vaccination 

4 Practical pharmacy 

5 Therapeutics Action of medicins in general 

5 1 Certainty of medicins 

5 2 Antagonism of medicins 

53 Law of similars Homeopathy 

Homeopathic works are clast with the subjects treated. This hed is for 
Hahnemann's theory only 

54 Influence of age 

Infant therapeutics Therapeutics of old age 

55 Influence of sex 

56 Influence of environment 

57 Influence of idiosyncrasy 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



.6 Administration of medicins 

.61 By stomach 

.62 " rectum 

.63 " subcutaneous tissue Hypodermic medication 

.64 U lungS Inhalation See also 612.385 Absorption 

.65 " veins Transfusion of blood 

.66 " SerOUS and mUCOUS membranes Peritoneum, vagina, etc. 

See also 612.387 Absorption 

.67 " skin Baths 

See also physiology 612.384 

.7 Medicins groupt by effects 

Treatises on specific drugs, digitalis, ergot, etc. are clast in the divisions of materia 
medica, 615.2-615.3; iron, 615.272; digitalis, 615.32381 

.71 Drugs acting on circulatory system 

.711 Stimulants 

Alcohol, ammonia, digitalis, coffee, ergot 

.716 Depressants 

Aconite, veratrum group, nitrites 

.72 Drugs acting on respiratory system 

.721 Expectorants 

.726 Errhines Sneezing 

.73 Drugs acting on digestiv system 

,731 Emetics 

Ipecac, mustard, metallic salts, apomorphin 

.732 Cathartics 

1 Laxat.vs 2 Salines 3 Purgativs 4 Hydragogs 5 Drastics 
6 Mercurials 

.733 Anthelmintics 
.734 Aids to digestion 

1 Bitters, tonics 2 Ferments, pepsin, pancreatin, etc. 3 Acids, 
antacids 

.735 Demulcents, emollients, etc. 

Bismuth, oxalate of cerium, etc. 

.74 Drugs acting on glandular system 

.741 Sialagogs (Saliva) 

.742 Cholagogs (Bile) 

.743 Diaphoretics (Perspiration) 

Pilocarpin, heat, exercise 

.75 Antipyretics Antiperiodics 

Quinin, salicylates, coal-tar products, kairin, antipyrin, antifebrin, cold, 
baths. See also 613.41 Baths 

.76 Drugs acting on genito-urinary system 

.761 Diuretics 

Water, citrates, acetates, digitalis, caffein, copaiba 

.766 Uterins Oxytocics 

Vibu nura, ergot, etc. 



medicin: therapeutics 



615.77 External agencies 

.771 Irritating 

.772 Astringents 

.773 Rubefacients 

.774 Epispastics Blisters 

.775 Escharotics Caustic potassa 

.776 Protectiv Emollient 

Fats, oils, powders, starch, bismuth, oxid of zinc 

.777 Deodorants Disinfectants 

See 614.48 Disinfection; 614.64 Disinfection of ded 

.778 Antiseptics Germicides 

.78 DrUgS acting On nerVOUS System See also 615.95 Neurotic poisons 

.781 Anesthetics Chloroform, ether 

.782 Hypnotics Chloral, bromids 

.783 Analgesics Opium 

.784 Mydriatics Belladonna 

.785 Excitants Strychnin 

.786 Depressants conium 

.788 

.789 Other drugs 

Camfor, valerian, asafetida 

.79 Mineral Waters See also 613.38 Hygiene; 553. 7 Occurrence in nature 

.8 Other remedies 

.81 Mechanical remedies 

.811 Bloodletting Venesection Cupping 

.812 Setons and issues 

.813 Bandages Ligatures 

.814 Acupuncture 

.815 Pneumatic aspiration 

.82 Manipulation Exercise 

See also Hygiene, Massage, Osteopathy, curativ gymnastics 

.83 Imponderable remedies 

.831 Light Blue glass 

.832 Temperature: heat, cold 

.833 Moisture 

.834 Climate See also 6 1 3. 1 Hygiene 

.835 Altitude 

Decrease of oxygen and increase of nitrogen with increasing elevation 

.836 Pneumatic differentiation 

.837 Music 

.84 Electricity Electrotherapeutics Radiotherapy 

See also 537.87 and 621.3915 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



615.85 
.851 

.852 

.853 
.854 
•855 
.856 

.86 

.87 
.88 
.89 

•9 

.91 
.92 
.921 
.922 

.923 

.924 

•925 

.926 
.927 
.928 
.929 

■93 
.94 

•95 

.96 
.961 
.962 

.963 
.964 

.965 
.966 
.967 

•97 

.98 
.99 



Cures 

Mind cure Influence of mind on body 

Mental condition as affecting disease; occupation as remedy 
See also 130 Mind and body 

Faith cure Christian science See 265.8 Religion 

See also state control of medicin, 614.24; Christian science theology, 
230.95; sects 289.5 

Hydrotherapy Water cure 
Food cures: grapes, milk, beef, etc. 
Thomsonianism Herb doctors 
Perkinism Metallic tractors 



Patent medicins 

Ancient and medieval remedies 

Including those of modern uncivilized peoples 

Toxicology Poisons 

For other relations see Poisons, in Relativ index following Tables 

Irritant poisons 
Mineral irritants 
Acid poisons 
Alkalin poisons 
Nonmetallic poisons 

Phosphorus See also 615.218 Drugs 

Metallic poisons 

Arsenic See also 615.219 Drugs 

Mercury See also 615.258 Drugs 

Led Painters colic See also 615.251 Drugs 

Copper See also 615.256 Drugs 

Vegetable irritants 

Hellebore, aloes, croton oil, etc. 

Animal poisons 

Cantharides, diseased meat, ptomains, tyrotoxicon, etc. 

Neurotic poisons 

See also 615.78 Drugs acting on nervous system 
Cerebral Or narcotic poisons Carbonic oxid and acid 

Opium 

Prussic acid 

Cyanids 

Alcohol 

Ether 

Chloroform 

Chloral hydrate 
Spinal poisons 

Nux" vomica, strychnia 

Cerebrospinal poisons 

Aconite, belladonna, lobelia 

Cerebrocardiac poisons • 

Digitalis, tobacco 



medicin: diseases 



616 Pathology Diseases Treatment 

May be subdivided by o like 610, if wisht. Use 616.01 for etiology, germ theory, 
bacteriology, classification of diseases. Use 616.07 for diagnosis, study of disease, 
and subdivide it as follows: 1 Pulse 2 Tung 3 Eye, skin, etc. 4 Aus- 
cultation, percussion 5 Thermometry 6 Chemistry, urin analysis 7 Mi- 
croscopy, radioscopy, etc. 8 Pathologic anatomy 9 Postmortem examination 

.1 Diseases of circulatory system 

. 1 1 Membranes of the hart 

.12 Hart Angina pectoris 

.13 Arteries 

.14 Veins 

.15 Blood 

.2 Diseases of respiratory system 

.201 Croup 

.202 Hay asthma, hay fever 

.203 Influenza, epidemic catarrh 

.204 Whooping COUgh See also 614.543 

.205 Coryza, catarrh 

.206 Asphyxia 

.21 Nose Naso-pharyngeal space 

.22 Larynx 

.23 Trachea Bronchi Bronchitis Asthma 

• .24 Lungs 

.241 Pneumonia, lung fever 

.242 Congestion 

.243 Hemorrhage 

.244 Abscess 

.245 Gangrene 

.246 Phthisis, tuberculosis, consumption See also 614.542 

.247 Embolism and aneurism of pulmonary artery 

.248 Emphysema 

.249 Collapse 

.25 Pleura Pleurisy 

.3 Diseases of the digestiv system 

For diseases of teeth see 617.6 

.31 Mouth: tung, fauces Sore throat, quinsy, mumps 

See also 614.544 

.32 Pharynx Esophagus 

.33 Stomach Gastritis, dyspepsia, vomiting 

.34 Intestins Hernia, diarrhea, constipation, colic 

.35 Rectum Anus Piles 

.36 Liver Gall bladder Jaundis 

.3 7 Pancreas 

.38 Peritoneum Omentum Mesentery Peritonitis 

.39 Dietetic diseases 

Surfit, starvation, scurvy, dyspepsia 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



616 .4 Diseases of lymphatic system and ductless glands 
.41 Spleen 

.42 Lymphatics: thoracic duct 

.43 Thymus 

.44 Thyroid body Goiter, Graves disease 

.45 Suprarenal bodies 

.5 Dermatology Skin diseases 

.51 Inflammatory affections 

Diffuse, papular, scaly, ncttlcrash, hives 

.52 Catarrhal, vesicular, pustular Eczema, shingles 

See also 614.561 

.53 Disorders of sebaceous glands 

.54 Hypertrofies Atrofies 

Corns, warts, while hair, baldness 

.55 New formations Pigmentary changes 

Albinism, freckles 

.56 Disorders of swet glands 

.57 Parasitic diseases See 616.96 Parasitic diseases 

.58 Other skin diseases 

Chilblain, frostbite, chaps 

.6 Diseases of genito-urinary system 

For diseases of women, see 618 

.61 Kidneys Ducts Bright's disease 

.62 Bladder Calculus 

.63 Urinary disorders Diabetes 

.64 Male urethra 

.65 Prostate 

.66 Penis 

.67 Scrotum 

.68 Spermatic cord Testes 

.69 Functional diseases of male generativ organs Sper- 
matorrhea, impotence 

.7 Diseases of organs of locomotion 

.71 Bones (except spine) 

.72 Joints (except spine) 

.73 Spine Curvature 

.74 Muscles 

.75 Tendons Fascia? 

.76 Bursae Sheaths of tendons 

.77 Connectiv tissue 

.8 Diseases of nervous system 

.81 Diseases relating to cerebrospinal circulation Apoplexy 

.82 Diseases relating to cerebrospinal meninges 

.83 Structural diseases of brain and cord 



mkdicin: diseases 



616.84 Functional diseases of brain and cord For insanity see 1.5 2.1 

.841 Vertigo 

.842 Paralysis 

.843 Neurasthenia 

.844 Spinal irritation 

.845 Eclampsia, Convulsions See also obstetrics, 618.75 

.85 Neuroses 

.851 Chorea, St Vitus dance 

.852 Hysteria See 135 Somnambulism, 132.4 Catalepsy, 132.3 Hypochondria 

.853 Epilepsy 

.854 Tetanus, lockjaw 

.855 Aphasia 

.856 Anesthesia, hyperesthesia 

.857 Megrim, sick hedake 

.86 Neuroses due to special poisons 

.861 Alcoholism See also Dipsomania, 132.7 

.862 Metallic tremor 

.87 Diseases of nervs Neuralgia, cramp 

.88 Diseases of sympathetic system 

.9 General diseases 

.91 Infectious diseases 

.911 Erupt i v fevers 

.912 Small pOX See also 614.471 and 614.521 

.913 Cowpox 

.914 ChickenpOX See also 6 1 4 . 5 2 5 

.915 Measles See also 614.523 

.916 Rubella, rubeola, rotheln See also 614.524 

.917 Scarlet fever, scarlatina See also 614.522 

.02 Other fevers General works on fevers 

See also 612.57 Animal heat 

.921 Dengue, breakbone fever 

.922 Typhus See also 614.526 

,923 Plague 

.924 Relapsing fever, famin fever 

.925 Cerebrospinal fever 

.926 Simple continued fever 

.927 Enteric fever, typhoid fever See also 614.511 

.928 Yellow fever See also 614.476 and 6i4-54i 

.93 Diftheria Cholera Malarial fever 

.931 Diftheria See also 614.512 

.932 Asiatic Cholera See also 614.475 and 614.5U 

•933 Sporadic cholera 

.934 Epidemic diarrhea See also 614.517 

•935 Dysentery See also 614.516 

.936 Malarial fever see also 6x4.53 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



616.94 Septic diseases 

.941 Phagedena 

.942 Erysipelas 

.943 Pyemia 

.944 Septicemia 

.95 Venereal diseases Hydrophobia, etc. 

.951 Syphilis See also 614.547 

.952 Gonorrhea See also 614.548 

.953 Hydrophobia See also 614.477 and 614.563 

.954 Glanders See also 614.564 

;955 Horsepox 

.956 Splenic fever 

.96 Parasitic diseases See also 614.55 

.961 Animal parasites 

See 591-69 Economic zoology; 614.92 Parasites of animals 

.962 Entozoa 

.963 Trematoda, flukes 

.964 Cestoda, tapeworms 

.965 Nematoda Round worms, thredworms, trichinae 
See also 614.562 

.966 Acanthocephala, thornheded worms 

.967 Insecta parasitica Maggots 

.968 Ectozoa 

1 Insecta parasitica: mosquitoes, gnats, bedbugs, fleas, lice 

5 Arachnida parasitica: mites, ticks 

8 Suctoria parasitica, leeches 

.969 Vegetable parasites See 581.69 Economic botany 

.97 Effects Of poisons See 615.9 Toxicology 

.98 Effects of injuries and climate 

.981 Presence of for en bodies 

.982 Mechanical injuries 

.983 Excessiv exertion and strain 

.984 Excessiv venery 

.985 Privation 

.986 Exhaustion 

.987 Chemic agents 

.988 Climate 

.99 Other general diseases 

.991 Rheumatism, rheumatic fever Gout 

.992 Tumors 

.993 Nonmalignant : cysts, wens 

.994 Malignant: cancer 

.995 Tubercle 

.996 Scrofula Rickets 

.997 Myxedema Cretinism 

.998 Leprosy See also 614.546 



medicin: surgery 



17 Surgery 

May be subdivided by o like 610, if wisht 

.1 Injuries 

. 1 1 Burns and scalds 

. 1 2 Lightning and electric shock 

.13 Contusions and abrasions 

.14 Wounds 

.141 Incised 

.142 Contused 

.143 Lacerated 

.144 Punctured 

.145 Gunshot See 617.99 Military surgery 

.146 With lodgment of foren bodies 

.147 With complete separation of parts 

.148 PoisOnd See 6 1 s. 9 Toxicology 

. 1 5 Fractures 

.16 Dislocations 

. 1 7 Sprains 

.18 Asphyxia 

.2 Results of injuries 

Constitutional effects and other complications. See also 616.94 Septic diseases 

.21 Shock 

.22 Inflammation 

.23 Abscess Sinus Fistula 

.24 Ulcers Sores 

.25 Mortification Gangrene 

.26 Traumatic fever 

.27 TetanUS See also 616.854 

.3 Orthopedic surgery Deformities 

For convenience the whole subject of deformities is clast here, tho many of them 
have no surgical treatment. See also 573.8 Dwarfs and giants; 573.9 Monstrosi- 
ties; 611. 012 Teratology; 613.91 Congenital defects 

.3 1 Incomplete development or growth 

Divided like 611 Anatomy 

.32 Incomplete coalescence of parts: harelip 

.33 Coalescence of parts 

.34 Extension of commissure (Apparent duplication) 

.35 Coalescence of fetuses Siamese twins 

.36 Supernumerary parts or organs: extra fingers or toes 

.37 Disproportionate growth of parts 

.38 Transposition or displacement of parts 

.39 Congenital distortions, including talipes, club foot 



DE C I M A L CI. A S S I F] CATION 



617.4 Surgical operations 

.41 Circulatory system 

.42 Respiratory system 

.43 Digestiv system 

.44 Glandular and lymphatic system 

.46 Genito-urinary system 

.47 Motor and integumentary system 

.48 Nervous system 

.5 Regional surgery 

.51 Hed Trephining 

.52 Face Mouth See 617.6, Dentistry; 617.7, Eye; 617.8, Ear 

.53 Neck Throat 

.54 Chest 

.55 Abdomen 

.56 Pelvis 

•57 Upper extremities Artificial arms, hands, etc. 

.58 Lower extremities Artificial legs, feet, etc. 

.6 Dentistry Diseases of teeth 

.61 Diseases of dental pulp 

.62 Diseases of dentin and cementum 

.63 Diseases of dental periosteum 

.64 Malposition and malformation of teeth 

.65 Odontalgia, toothake 

.66 Extraction of teeth 

.67 Stopping teeth 

.68 Transplanting teeth 

.69 Artificial teeth 

.7 Ophthalmic surgery Diseases of the eye 

.71 Conjunctiva Cornea Sclerotic Ophthalmia 

.72 Iris Choroid Ciliary body 

•73 Optic nerv Retina 

.74 Lens and its capsule Vitreous humor Affections of 

the globe Cataract 

.75 Disorders of vision 

Myopia, shortsightedness, astigmatism, colorblindness, daltonism. See also 
physiolgy, 612.845 

.76 Muscular apparatus Lacrimal apparatus 

Strabismus, squint 

.77 Eyelids 

.78 Orbit and neighboring parts 

.79 Artificial eyes 



medicin: surgery 



617.8 

.81 
.82 

•83 
.84 

•85 
.86 

•87 
.88 
.89 
•9 

.91 
.92 

•93 
.94 

•95 
.96 

•97 
.98 

•99 

6l8 

.1 

.11 

.12 

•13 
.14 

•15 
.16 

•17 

.18 
.19 



Diseases of the ear 

Affections of external ear 
Auricle 

Auditory canal 
Affections of middle ear 

Membrana tympani 

Eustachian tubes 

Mastoid cells 
Affections of internal ear 

Operativ surgery 

See 615.781 Anesthetics 

Armamentaria Surgical instruments 
Orthopedic appliances Splints, trusses, etc. 

See 617.3 Orthopedic surgery 

Surgical dressings 
Amputation Resection 
Plastic surgery 



Military surgery 

Diseases of women and children 

Gynecology Diseases of women 

Ovary 

Fallopian tube 
Periuterin diseases 
Uterus and cervix 
Vagina 
Vulva 

Functional and symptomatic disorders 

Diseases of menstruation Leucorrhea Sterility 

Diseases of brest 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



618.2 Obstetrics 

.21 Pregnancy Physiology 

22 Diagnosis Signs of pregnancy 

23 Duration 

24 Hygiene Management 
,25 Multiple pregnancy: twins, etc. 
.3 Pathology of pregnancy 

Diseases of pregnancy and their treatment 

.31 Ectopic gestation Extra-uterin pregnancy 

.32 Pathology of ovum 

.33 Deth and retention of fetus 

.34 Pathology of fetal appendages 

.35 Decidua 

.36 Placenta 

.37 Amnion 

.38 Umbilic cord 

.39 Abortion Miscarriage Stillbirth Molar pregnancy 

See 173.4 Infanticide; 340.6 Medical jurisprudence; 343 Criminal law 

.4 Parturition Labor Physiology 

.41 Mechanism of labor 

.42 Presentations Positions 

,43 Clinic course and phenomena 

.44 Conduct of normal labor Management 

.5 Pathology of labor 

Abnormal labor from faults 

51 of powers Anomalies of expellent forces 

52 of passages Mechanical obstacles to expulsion of fetus 

,53 Of Child Abnormalities Of fetUS See 617.3 Deformities 

Complications 

54 Hemorrhage 

,55 Rupture or laceration of genital tract 

56 Retention of placenta 

.57 Inversion of uterus 

58 Prolapsus funis 

59 Other complications 



medicin: surgeky 



618.6 Puerperal state Physiology 

Management, including care of child 

.7 Pathology of puerperal state Puerperal diseases 

.71 Diseases of lactation: milk fever, mastitis, etc. 

.72 Puerperal fever See 614.S45 Public helth 

.73 Metritis Peritonitis See also 616.38 Cellulitis 

.74 Septicemia See also 616.944 Pyemia See also 616.943 

• 75 Convulsions See 616.845 Eclampsia 

.76 Puerperal mania See 132. 1 insanity 

.77 Phlebitis Venous thrombosis Phlegmasia dolens 

See 616.14 Diseases of veins 

.78 Other puerperal affections 

.79 Sudden deth after delivery 

.8 Obstetric operations 

.81 Application of lever and forceps 

.82 Version 

.83 Embryotomy 

.84 Dilatation of os and cervix 

.85 Symphyseotomy 

.86 Caesarian section 

.87 Removal of placenta 

.88 Induction of labor Removal of ovum 

.89 Intra-uterin injections Antiseptics in midwifery 

.9 Pediatrics Diseases of children 

619 Comparativ medicin Veterinary 

.1 Horses 

.2 Cattle 

.3 Sheep, goats 

.4 Swine 

.5 Poultry 

.6 Birds 

.7 Dogs 

.8 Cats 

.9 Other 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



620 Engineering 



See also 690 Bilding; 721 Architectural construction 



620 . 1 
621 



622 
623 

624 
625 
626 
627 
628 
629 



SUMMARY 

Applied mechanics Engineering materials 
Mechanical engineering 

Steam engineering 

Hydraulic engins or motors 

Electric engineering 

Air and gas engins and other motors 

Pneumatic machinery Refrigerating machines 

Blowing and pumping engins 

Mills Factories Engineering works 

Millwork Hoisting and conveying machinery 

Machine tools 
Mining engineering 
Military and naval engineering 

Naval architecture 
Bridges and roofs 
Railroad and road engineering 
Canal engineering 

River, harbor and general hydraulic engineering 
Sanitary engineering 
Other engineering industries 



.01 Statistics 

.02 Quantities and cost 

.03 Contracts and specifications 

.04 Designs and drawings 

.05 Executiv 

.06 Working and maintenance 

.07 Laws and regulations 

.08 Patents 

.09 Reports 

.1 Applied mechanics Engineering materials 

Class here general works on materials with reference to their fitness in engineer- 
ing See also 691 Bilding materials 
. 1 1 Strength of materials General theory 

General works considering various materials. For particular materials see 
620. 1 2— . 1 9 Provision is made below for classing tests on 2 different bases: 
1) by character of test, 2) by material tested. Class under material rather 
than under test when the two conflict. See also note under 620.112 
For theory or mechanics of structures see 624; for theories of construction of 
bildings see 690 . 1 
.111 General 

This hed is left for specialists wishing to analyze general works or collect 
clippings and notes too limited for . 1 1 yet not specific enough to be put 
with a particular test or material. Libraries are unlikely to need any 
general hed except 620.11 



ENGINEERING 



620.112 Tests Factors affecting strength 

Kinds of tests. Directions for making various tests, laboratory manuals 
See note to 620.11 

1 General: influence of temperature, selection of test pieces, etc. 

2 Corrosion Wethering Protection against deteriorating influences 

3 Elastic limit tests: plasticity, fatigue, deformation 

See also 620.11246 Repeated stress 
A Tension, compression, torsion, flexure, shearing 

Class here combined tests as well as general works covering these tests 
If wisht, subdivide farther as follows: 

41 Tensil tests 

42 Compression tests 

43 Torsion " 

44 Flexure (transverse) tests 

45 Shearing tests 

46 Repeated stress tests 

5 Impact Repeated shock tests 

Crystallization and formation of cleavage planes 

6 Hardness tests 

7 Special tests 

Varying for different materials 

8 Tests on special shapes and forms 

82 Plates and structural shapes 

Bars, rods, angles, beams: T, bulb, I, and channel beams 

83 Colums, bilt colums Tubes, pipes, cylinders 

84 Rollers Spheres, solid or hollow Ball bearings 

85 Springs 

86 Hooks Chains Hoops Rings 

87 Rivets Bolts Screws Nails 

Riveted joints of plates 

88 "Wire Wire rope Cables Hawsers 

89 Other forms 

9 Other tests 

.12 Tests of timber See note to 620. 11 

.13 Stone Cement Concrete 

.132 Stone 

.135 Cement 

.136 Concrete 

.137 Reinforced concrete 

.139 Other: artificial stone 

.14 Brick, tile, etc. 

For glass see 666. 1 Manufacture of glass, 691 .6 Glass as a bilding material. 
In engineering it is an accessory material not requiring a place under strength 
tests 

.15 Masonry adhesivs 

Cement, mortar, plaster of paris, etc. See also bilding materials 691.5 
Lime, plaster, cement 

.17 Iron and steel 

.18 Other metals 

.19 Other materials 

.195 Mineral: asbestos, mineral wool 

.196 Asphalt Tar 

.197 Vegetable: paper, hemp, etc. 

.198 Animal: hair, hide, bone, etc. 

.199 

•2 Compends Handbooks Kent, Trautwine 

.3 Dictionaries, cyclopedias 

.4 Essays 

.5 Periodicals 

.6 Societies 

.7 Study and teaching Instruments 

.8 Tables and calculations 

.9 History of engineering 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



621 Mechanical engineering 

May be subdivided like 620.0 and by form numbers 

.1 Steam engineering 

Subdivide like 620 and 620.0, but use 621. 1.01 as below. Other generalities of 
steam engineering are in 621. 11 and 621.18 
.101 Applied thermodynamics 

Theory and use of steam in steam engin General energy considerations 
Steam economy 
1 General 

Expansion, entropy; extension of expansion approaching vacuum (con- 
densers) superheating, cylinder condensation, jacketing, etc. For 
condensers, superheaters, etc. see 621 . 197 

.11 Mechanism of steam engin Design of engin parts 
.111 General 

.112 Types of engins : structural 

Reciprocating engins in general. Types specified below are all recipr r 
eating, except 1 Primitiv and 9 Other 
1 Primitiv 

21 Single acting 

22 Double acting 

3 According to transmission of motion 

32 Direct connected 

33 Indirect: beam connected 

4 According to position 
42 Horizontal 

44 Vertical 

45 Oscillating 

46 Inclined 

5 According to terminal pressure 

52 Condensing 

In early period called 'low pressure' 

53 Noncondensing 

In early period called 'high pressure* 

6 According to expansion 

61 Single expansion 

62 Compound 

63 Double expansion: cross compound 

64 " " tandem " 

65 " " angle " 

66 Triple expansion 

67 Quadruple expansion 
9 Other types 

95 Steam turbins 

Better clast 621 . 165 

96 Rotary engins 

Better clast 62 1 . 166 

.12 Marine engins 

For propulsion see 623.8 Naval architecture 

.121 General 

See also 6 2 1 . 1 1 and 621.18 

.122 Types of marine engins 

1 Primitiv 

Inventions of Papin, Perier, Fulton, Stevens, etc 

2 Beam and side lever engins 

4 Horizontal, inclined, vertical engins 

5 Oscillating 

8 Launch engins 

9 Other special engins 

,123 Marine steam turbins 

See also 621 . 165 



STEAM ENGINEERING 



621.13 Locomoti vs 

.131 Theory of the locomotiv 

1 Adhesion Tractiv force Horsepower 

2 

3 Tests 

.132 Types 

Variations modifying tractiv force and speed, and affecting more thar 
1 class of mechanism. For variations in steam apparatus (oil burning 
locomotivs, etc.) see 621 . 133 and 62 1 . 134 

1 Primitiv forms 

2 

3 Types according to distribution of wheelbase and load 

Exprest by Whyte nomenclature for wheel combinations 

5 

6 Types according to purpose 

62 Freight or goods engins Hog engin 

63 Yard, switch or shunting engins 

65 Passenger engins - 

67 Mountain " 

68 Mining " 

69 Other special locomotivs 

8 Peculiar types 

Combined 'engin and coach wagon' 

9 Types in different countries 

Subdivided like 940-999; e.g. English locomotivs 621 . 132942 

.133 Locomotiv boilers Production of steam 

Better clast in 621.18423, as boilers of locomotiv type serv many other 
purposes For boiler management see 621 . 193 

1 Combustion Fuels Petroleum Fuel consumption 

See also 621 . 18357 

2 Grate and ashpit Firebox Stays 

See also 621 . 1835 

3 Shell and tubes 

4 Smokebox and stack Spark arresters 

See also 621 . 1838 

5 Exhaust pipe 

6 Dome 

9 Miscellaneous fittings 

Gage cocks, safety valvs, whistles, pumps, injectors, etc. 

.134 Engin of the locomotiv 

1 Driving mechanism Cylinders, pistons, rods 

2 Steam distribution Valvs and valv gears 
22 Special types of valvs and valv gear 

3 

4 Compound principle 

Distribution in compound locomotivs 

5 Lubrication of locomotiv 

9 Other parts of locomotiv: throttle, etc. 

.135 Running gear 
.136 Tenders 

1 Design, weight, brakes, etc. 

2 Appliances 

3 Taking water without stopping; track tanks; water scoops 

,139 Miscellaneous parts 

Cowcatcher or pilot, hedlight, whistle, bell, sandbox 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



621.14 Traction engins Road locomotivs 

Selfpropelling engins for hauling over roads or ground, or doing ether work 
by locomotion. For railway engins see 621.13. For stationary hauling 
engins see 621.162 

Hauling may be accomplisht either by engins applying their power 
directly and moving with the load, i.e. locomotiv (621.13) over rails; or 
traction engins (621 . 14) over ground or roads; or by engins applying their 
power indirectly thru cables, etc. and standing in a fixt position either 
temporarily (621.15) or permanently (621.16) 

.141 Theory General 
.142 

.143 Boilers 

Better clast in 621.18423; 621.143 if used is limited to discussion of 

those suitable to traction engins 

.144 Types Traction engins for special uses 
.145 Compressing machines Steam rollers 

.146 Agricultural: plows, reapers, etc. 

.15 Portable engins 

Engins that may be moved from place to place, but that remain in a fixt 
position when working. If selfpropelling, the selfpropulsion is incidental. 
For fire engins and other pumping engins see 621 .64 

.151 Theory General 
.152 Types, structural, etc. 
.153 Boilers 

Better clast in 621.18423. If used, limited to discussion of those suit 
able to portable engins 

.154 Portable engins for special purposes 

Hoisting, dredging, drilling, etc. See also 621.86 Hoisting and convey 
ing machinery; 621.68 Fire engins; 627.7 Dredee; 

.156 Agricultural: threshers, etc. 

.159 Semistationary engins Various types 
.16 Stationary engins 

Engins fixt in position; e.g. those running factory machinery, cables, ele- 
vators, etc. For management see 621.193. For boilers see 621.18424 

.161 Theory and general 

.162 Types by use: hauling, dredging, etc. 

For pumps see 621 .64. For types clast by engin mechanism see 621 . 164 

.163 Stationary boilers 

Better clast in 621 . 18424 with only reference here 

.164 Types according to characteristics of engin mechanism 
or steam distribution 

When mechanism and steam distribution conflict, class according to 
mechanism; e.g. compound releasing-gear engins 621.1644 rather than 
621.1647. Each type may be subdivided like 621. 11; e.g. vertical 
throttling engins 621.1642244 

1 General 

2 Throttling engins 

3 Automatic shaft governor engins 

4 Releasing gear (Corliss) engins Drop cutoff 

5 Single acting engins: Westinghouse or Willans type 

6 Simple engins 

7 Compound engins, triple expansion, etc. 



STEAM ENGINEERING 



621.165 Steam turbins 

See also 621.123 Marine steam turbins 

1 Theory 

n Methods of calculation 

1 2 Vanes and buckets 

13 Guide vanes and nozles 

14 Stresses in rotor or disc 

15 Windage 

2 Types 

22 Velocity turbins 

23 Pressure turbins 

24 Combined velocity and pressure turbms 

3 Construction Details of design 

32 Vanes . Buckets 

33 Guide vanes Nozles 

34 Rotor Discs 

3 5 Valvs, governors, safety devices 

36 Thrust balancing 

37 Mass " 

38 Casing, etc. 

39 Bearings, etc. 

.166 Rotary engins 
.169 

.18 Steam generation and transmission 

Fuels, furnaces, boilers, piping, power plants 
For steam heating see 697.5 

.181 General 

.182 Fuels Combustion 

2 Fuels for boiler heating 

For fuels in general and fuel analysis see 662.6 

22 Solid fuels: coal, lignite, wood, sawdust, peat 

23 Liquid fuels: tar, petroleum, alcohol 

24 Gaseous fuels: gas from blast furnaces, coke ovens; natural gas 

25 Composit fuels: city refuse, coal dust, trash 

3 Fuel consumption 

Practical experiments with a single fuel 

4 Comparativ consumption 

Practical experiments with various fue's 

.183 Furnace Draft 

1 General 

Heating and grate surfaces 

2 Types of furnaces 

5 Furnace parts and construction details 
5^ Grates 

53 Stationary grates 

54 Shaking, dumping and step grates 

55 Ashpits Furnace doors 
57 Burners for liquid fuel 

6 Mechanical stokers 

62 With traveling grate 

63 " recking " 

64 " step grate (Roney grate) 

65 " plunger 

66 " screw 

7 Other appliances 

77 Pulverized fuel appliances 

78 Fuel and ash conveyers Ash removers 

See also 621.86 Hoisting and conveying machinery 

8 Chimneys Stacks Draft appliances 

Smoke consumers. For smoke prevention see 621 . 194 1 Firing 

82 • Natural draft Dampers Uptakes 

84 Induced draft 

85 Forced draft 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



621.184 Boilers For boiler plants see 621 . 19 

1 General 

13 Boiler economy Tests Feedwater 

2 Types 

22 Marine 

23 Locomotiv, traction, portable 

24 Stationary 

25 Firetube boilers (tubular) 

252 Internally fired 

2 53 Externally " 

26 Water tube boilers (tubulous) 

27 Flash generators Instantaneous vaporizing boilers 
5 Boiler construction Setting Parts 

5 a Shell Heds Tubesheets Domes Drums 
Riveted joints, staying and bracing 

53 Tubes Ferules Rings 

54 Casing 

55 Inspection and cleaning parts: man and hand holes, cleanouts, covers 

56 Setting and hanging 

57 Foundations: masonry, flues, etc. 
7 Boiler accessories 

72 Water gages, floaters, gage glasses, warning whistles 

73 Pressure gages, manometers, safety valvs 

79 Other: air cocks and blowout valvs, zincs, steam collectors 

.185 Steam transmission and distribution Piping 

1 General; laws of flow, condensation, friction 

3 Connections; mains, auxiliary piping 

4 Valvs Stop, safety, reducing Pressure regulators 

5 Drains and traps Receivers and distributing valvs 

6 Covering Insulators 

Nonconductors for high, low and medium temperatures 

7 Joints and cements Expansion joints 

8 Utilization of exhaust steam See also 697.5 Steam heating 

.19 - Steam boiler and power plants Central stations 

See also bilding, 697.5 Steam heating; and Boiler, Boilers in Relativ index 

.191 General 

.192 Arrangement and housing of apparatus 

5 Provision for enlargement 

.193 Care and management of steam apparatus 

.194 Boilers 

1 Firing 

2 Feeding 

Put here general discussion of feeding and feedwater appliances 
For separate description of appliances see 621.197 

3 Treatment of feed water: purification, softening 

4 Scale prevention Incrustation 
7 Inspection Tests Rating 

.195 Engins: oiling, packing, adjusting 

.196 Duration Wear 

5 Corrosion 

.197 Steam plant accessories Economic appurtenances 

2 Feedwater appliances 

Tanks, heaters, economizers, filters, purifiers, regulators 

3 Pumps Injectors Return traps 

4 Separators 

5 Superheaters 

6 Condensers and cooling towers 

62 Surface condensers 

63 Jet condensers 

64 Cooling towers • 
67 Condenser accessories 

7 Instruments 

Indicators, tachometers, gages, dynamometers, thermometers, 
pyrometers, lubricators, etc. 



ENGINEERING 



621.2 Hydraulic engins or motors 

Industrial use of water as motiv power, including machines run by water 
under pressure produced by accumulators and also constructions and 
appliances for distributing and regulating supply of water to motors 
For hydraulic engineering (dam, breakwater, etc.) see 627; for pumps see 
621.6; for reservoirs, aqueducts, etc. see 628.1; for theory of mechanics of 
liquids see 53 2 

.21 Water wheels 

Theory, classification, parts (e.g. paddles, vanes, buckets) water gates, cul- 
verts 

.22 Overshot or bucket wheels Brest wheels 

.221 Overshot wheels of low velocity 

.222 Overshot wheels of high velocity 

.223 Brest wheels Fairbairn wheels 

.224 Sluice gate or Sagebien wheels 

.23 Undershot or impulse wheels and floating wheels 

.231 Ordinary undershot wheels 

.232 Wheels with curvd vanes or buckets Pelton wheel 

.233 Vertical impulse wheels 

.234 Current suspension wheels 

.235 Floating wheels 

.24 Turbins 

See also 621.165 Steam turbins 

.241 General: parts (e.g. distributors, buckets, guide vanes) 
regulators 

.242 Reaction or pressure turbins 

.243 Outward flow 

Early forms: Barker's mill 

.244 Inward flow 

.245 . Downward flow 

.247 Impulse or Girard turbins 

.25 Water pressure engins Accumulators 

.252 Hydraulic pumps 

.253 Piping for high pressure 

.254 Accumulators 

.26 Hydraulic machinery and appliances 

For theory see 532 .81 

.262 Funicular engins Hydraulic tackle 
.263 Hoists Elevators Cranes 

Class preferably in 621 .86; i.e. purpose outweighs motiv power 

.264 Special handling and lifting machinery for steel works, etc. 

.266 Presses Forging and stamping machines 

.267 Accessories: injection pumps 

.269 Mining, tunneling and other hydraulic appliances 

Hydraulic giant, Brandt's hydraulic gun 

.27 Hydraulic rams 

For theory see physics 532.83 

.272 Lifting rams Montgolfier ram, Bolle ram, etc. 
.273 Pumping rams Leblanc ram 

See also 621 .64 Pumps 

.274 Compressing rams Sommelier ram 

.29 Flood gates Dams Mill sluices Hed and tail races 

Adaptation to hydraulic motors. For methods and principles of construc- 
tion see 627.8 Hydraulic engineering 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



621.3 Electric engineering 



001 Statistics; 002 Quantities and cost; 003 Contracts and specifications; 
004 Designs and drawings; 005 Executiv; 006 Working and maintenance: 
007 Laws and regulations; 008 Patents; 009 Reports 
May also be subdivided for form with like 620.1-.0 

SUMMARY 
621. 31-7 Hevy current engineering 

.31 Generation of electricity 

.3 1 1 General 

.312 Central stations 

•313 Dynamoelectric machinery 

.314 Stationary induction apparatus 

.315 Electrostatic apparatus 

.316 Accessories and parts 

.317 Control and central station wiring 

.319 Transmission 

.32 Electric lighting 

.33 Electric traction 

•35 Voltaic cells and batteries 

.36 

37 Electric measurements and testing 

38 Weak current engineering 

.382 Telegrafy 

.384 Wireless communication 

.385 Telefony 

.39 Other applications of electricity 

621.31-.37 Hevy current engineering 

.3 1 Generation of electricity Dynamoelectric machinery 

Transformers Transmission 
.311 General 

.312 Central stations: metropolitan, rural 

Divided by 001-009 like 621.3 with the following additions to 006: 
006 Working and maintenance 

4 Operation and running 

5 Regulation and control 

8 Testing 

9 Repairs and renewal 

Administrativ point of view; a specific repair belongs with 
the part repaird 

13 General central stations 

Combined power, traction, light, etc. stations 

132 Steam driven 

133 Gas 

134 Hydraulic 

135 Composit 

2 Stations for lighting only 

Divided by source of power like 621.31213 

3 Stations for traction onW 

Divided like 621.31213 

5 Storage battery pressure regulating equipment 

6 Substations 

63 Transformer substations 

64 Converter " 

65 Accumulator " 



ENGINEERING 



621.313 Dynamoelectric machinery 

1 General; construction, installation 

2 Direct or continuous current machinery 

2 1 Theory 

22 General types 

23 Continuous-current generators 

2 Series wound 3 Shunt wound 4 Compound wound 

24 Continuous current motors 

Subdivided like 621.31323 above 

245 Constant speed motors 

246 Multispeed motors 

247 Adjustable speed motors 

248 Varying " " (railway motors) 

25 Continuous-current converters 

26 Dynamotors and motordynamos 

27 Compensators or balancers 

28 Continuous-current boosters 

29 Other 

291 Acyclic or homopolar machines 

3 Alternating-current machinery 

32 General types of alternating current machinery 

321 Single phase machinery 

322 a 

323 3 

325 Other polyphase machinery 

4 Synchronous machinery 

4 1 Theory 

42 General types 

43 Alternating-current generators 

44 Synchronous motors 

5 Alternating-current converters 

51 Theory 

52 General types Description 

53 Synchronous converters 

54 Phase converters 

55 Frequeucy converters 

56 Double-current generators 

5 7 Motor converters 

6 Asynchronous machines 
61 Theory 

62 

63 Induction generators 

64 " motors 

65 Series alternating-current motors 

66 Repulsion motors 

67 Frequency converters 

68 Phase converters 

7 Rectifying apparatus 

72 Mechanical rectifiers 

73 Arc 

74 Electrolytic 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



621.314 Stationary induction apparatus 

1 Theory 

2 General types and description 

3 Transformers 

31 

32 Constant-current transformers 

33 Constant-potential transformers 

34 Phase-changing transformers 
38 Meter transformers 

4 Auto transformers 

5 Potential regulators 

51 Compensator potential regulators 

52 Induction 

53 Magneto 

6 Reactors or choke coils 

7 Induction coils 

.315 Electrostatic apparatus: condensers 

.316 Details of electric machinery Parts 

Armatures, field cores, etc. 

.317 Central station wiring Control devices and switchboards 

For meters and mesuring instruments see 621.37 

1 General 

2 Panels 

22 Generator panels 

23 Motor " 

24 Feeder 

25 Transformer " 

26 Converter " 

27 Lighting " 

28 Accumulator " 

3 Switches 

31 General 

32 Knife switches 

33 Dial 

34 Plug 

3 5 Oil 

36 Circuit breakers 

4 Rheostats and control devices 

5 Signal devices 
6 

7 Barriers and compartments 

8 Station protectiv devices (fuzes, lightning arresters, etc.) 

.318 Manufacturing processes 

Processes peculiar to electric machinery and apparatus: e.g. fcuis lating, 
varnishing, baking, armatur? stamps and dies 



ENGINEERING 



621.319 Transmission of electric energy 

Limited to transmission of current from control to substations (stepdown 
transformers) and to questions common to all lines. For transmission sys- 
tems for a special application see subject; e.g. traction lines 621 332 

i General 

12 Systems 

122 Direct or continuous current systems 

Including 2 wire systems 

123 3 wire (or Edison) and other 
129 Other direct current systems 

13 Alternating current systems 

131 Single phase systems 

132 2 phase (or quarter phase) systems 

3 3 wire system 

4 4 

133 3 phase systems 

a Delta or mesh connections 

3 Star or Y connections 

139 Other polyphase systems 

15 Composit systems 

Direct and alternating current combined 

2 Lines and conductors 

For local wiring see specific application; e.g. electric light wiring 621.328 

2 1 General 

Interaction of parallel lines, heat losses. For traction lines see 
621.332; for interior wiring for electric light see 621.328, for telegraf 
see 621.382, for telefones see 621.385-7 

22 Overhed or aerial lines 

222 Systems 

223 Poles: foundations, guys. etc. 

224 Cross arms Pins 

225 Towers 

' 23 Underground lines 

23 2 Systems 

233 Condits 

234 Manholes 

3 Cables and conductors Insulating materials 

32 Uninsulated conductors Bare wire 

33 Insulated " Wire and cable 

34 Cables 

37 Insulating materials 

Leakage Influence of chemic composition 

4 Insulators 

8 Protectiv devices 

82 Line lightning arresters 

For protection of centra] stations see 621.3178 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



621.32 Electric lighting Illumination 

Class here works limited to electric lighting, but more general than any ot 
the subhecls below. This number is for matter differentiating lighting 
from other branches of electric engineering, but not for subjects which 
lighting has in common with other branches. For generation and control 
of electricity (including central stations) see 621.31, for transmission and 
wiring see 621.319, for mesuring see 621.37 
For theory of electric light see 537.83 Electric lighting 

.321 General 
.325 Arc lighting 

Including systems and lamps 

1 General: efficiency, cost, etc. 

2 Constant- current or series'systems 

3 Constant potential or parallel systems 
4-5 Arc lighting according to 

4 Type of arc 

If emphasis is on form of current, class under 621.3255 If there 
is conflict, prefer 621.3254 

42 Open arc 
421 

422 " direct current 

423 " " alternating current 

43 Inclosed arc 
43i 

432 " " direct current 

433 " " alternating current 

5 Form of current 

If emphasis is on type of arc, class in 621.3254 

52 Direct current 

521 

522 u •' open arc 

523 " inclosed arc 

53 Alternating current 
53i 

532 " " open arc 

533 " " inclosed arc 

6 Corhposit electrode arcs 

Flaming arcs. Carbid, Bremer magnetite, titanium oxid arcs 

7 Details Accessories 

Arc light carbons 

8 Applications 

For welding see physics 537.85, and metallurgy 669 
" therapeutic applications see 615.84 and 621.3915 
82 Searchlights 

326 Incandescent lighting 

Including lamps and systems 

1 General: efficiency, cost, etc. 

2 Systems (Edison 3 wire system) 

3 Carbon filament lamps 

3 1 Metalized filaments 

32 Other carbon filaments 

4 Metal filament lamps 

41 Platinum filaments 

42 Tantalum " 

43 Tungsten " 

44 Osmium " 

45 Other metal filaments 

5 Glowers of other materials 
53 Nernst lamps 



ENGINEERING 



621.327 Incandescent vapor lighting and lamps Other electric 
lighting 

3 Vacuum or incandescent vapor lamps 

4 Mercury vapor lamps 

For mercury rectifiers see 621.3137 

5 Carbon vapor lamps Moore lamp 

7 Vacuum lamps for special radiations: Crookes tubes, etc. 

.328 Apparatus at servis end of line 

1 Underwriters requirements 

National electric code 

2 House wiring 

3 Panels 

4 Fuzes 

5 Insulators, etc. 

6 Meters 

See also 621.37 Electric mesurements and testing 

7 Switches 
8 

9 Other apparatus 

.33 Electric traction 

See 625 for construction of route; 656 for business management, main- 
tenance; 654 for communication and signals; 699 for car bilding; 725 3 
for architecture of stations, terminals, carsheds, shops, round houses, etc. 
This number is concernd properly only with the apparatus and appli- 
ances for transmission and use of the current after it enters the line. 

.331 General 

2 Systems 

4 Systems according to current 

42 Direct current 

43 Alternating current 

431 Single-phase 

432 2 phase 

433 3 phase 
439 Others 

5 Systems according to delivery of power 

52 Trolley systems 

53 Overhed trolley 

54 Underground trolley 

56 Third rail systems 

562 Unprotected third rail 

564 Protected " " 

.332 The line (including track) 

1 General 

Interaction of parallel lines, heat losses, etc. are better clast in 621.3192 1 
17 Feeders and return systems 

2 Overhed wire Trolley lines 

23 Catenary suspension 

25 Trackless trolley 

3 Third rail 

5 Underground conductor or contact 

6 

7 Accessories 
q Other types of line 

.333 Track 

r General 

16 Deteriorating influences 

167 Electrolysis Leakage 

3 Rails 

4 Bonding 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



621.334 Rolling stock 

For nonelectric rolling stock sec 656 for administration, 699 for con. 

struction 

2 Locomotivs 

3 Motor tramcars 

4 Accessories and parts Control systems 

Motor, controller, current collecting devices, etc. Multiple unit 

control 

5 Locomotiv and car wiring 

7 Running gear and other nonelectric details 

.35 Chemic electricity Voltaic cells and generators 

Primary and secondary 

.351 General 

E.m.f, counter e.m.f, polarization, weight, capacity; efficiency, life, 
crumbling, deterioration and detrimental influences; residues 

.352 Parts and accessories of cells and accumulators 

1 Containers: jars, trofs, vats, etc. 

a Electrodes and their accessories: positiv and negativ plates or elements 
Grids, supporting frames, insulating rods, etc. 

3 Diaframs and partitions 

4 Electrolytes Depolarizers Packing 

5 Circulators Condits and piping 

6 Connections Terminals Binding posts 

7 Regulating apparatus 
8 

9 Other apparatus 

•353 Primary cells 

W See also S37.s^Voltaic electricity; 541.37 Electrochemistry 

1 General 

3 Single fluid 

4 Double " Hevy current cells 

5 Open circuit or nondepolarized 

6 Closed circuit or depolarized 

7 Accessories and parts 

8 Classification according to use or operating methods 

.354 Accumulators or storage batteries 

Secondary cells and batteries 
1 General 

18 Care and handling of accumulators 

7 Accessories and parts 

•355 Led accumulators 

1 General 

18 Care and handling 

2 .Naturally formd: Plants type 

3 Artificially formd: Faure type 

4 Combined Plante^Faure types 

5 Other led accumulators 
52 Complex oxid types 

55 Led element accumulators 

56 Copper led " 

57 Zinc 

58 Cadmium " " 

.356 Alkalin accumulators 

.357 Other types of accumulators 

Thallium, gas, etc. 

.358 Other classifications of accumulators 

According to use cr operation 

•359 Other topics pertaining to chemic generation of electricity 



■36 



Vacant for future use; perhaps for direct transformation of heat or 
fuel energy 



ENGINEERING 



621.37 Electric mesurements, meters and testing 
.371 General 

Tariffs may be clast here, tho better put in 654 

.372 Standards Calibration of instruments 
.373 Meters General types 

Recording meters. See also special meters, 621.384 

Prepayment meters. See also special meters, e.g. 621.3745 Watt hour 

•374 Special meters and mesurements 

2 Resistance meters: inductance, capacity 

Wheatstone bridges, ohmmeters, resistance boxes 

3 Potential meters : voltage 

Voltmeters, electrometers, standard cells 

4 Intensity meters: current 

Galvanometers, ammeters, coulometers, Ampere-hour meters 

5 Quantity or work meters Watt-hour meters 

6 Power meters Watt meters 

7 Frequency meters Oscillografs 
9 Other meters and mesurements 

91 Phase meters Power-factor meters Synchronizers 

•379 Other electric mesuring instruments 

For other than electric mesiiremen: s; e.g. electric thermometers 

Weak current engineering 

.38 Electric communication: telegrafy, telefony, wireless 

Libraries have too much material clast in 654 to make it practicable tc 
abolish that number for construction and instruments; but for electric- 
engineers and new libraries who prefer it, the detaild technical classification 
is developt here. 

For overhed or underground lines see 621.3192 

.381 General 

,382 Telegrafy Systems 

When systems and instruments conflict, classify according to systems. 
For business administration, see 654; for wireless see 621.384 

15 Codes 

152 Morse 

153 Continental 

154 Phillips (press code) 

2 ABC, dial, needle telegraf, etc. 

2 1 Early experimental forms 

22 ABC 

23 Dial 

24 Needle 

25 Pointer 
29 Other 

3 Hand operated code telegrafy 

3 1 Simplex 

311 Open circuit 

312 Closed circuit 

32 Duplex 

321 Differential duplex systems 

322 Stearns duplex 

323 Polar duplex 

325 Bridge duplex systems 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



621.382 34 Quadruplex 

35 Multiplex 

36 Synchronous multiplex : Delany 

37 Harmonic " Gray 

4 Automatic code telegrafy High speed systems 
41 Electrochemic automatic: Bain, Morse 

44 Ink recording or embossing: 

45 Wheatstone 

46 Pollak-Virag 

47 Teiepost (Delany) 

5 Printing telegraf 

51 Tape printing: stock tickeis 

53 Other tape printing : Hughes 

55 Page printing: Buckingham, Murray, Baudot 

57 Multiple page printing: Rowland 

6 Writing telegrafy 

Transmitting and recording characters while being written; Gray's 
telautograf 

7 Facsimile telegrafy 

Sometimes cald fototelegrafy 

8 Submarine cable telegrafy 

9 Other wire systems 

94 Induction telegrafy; from moving trains, etc. 

95 Combined telegrafy and telefony Fantom circuits 

.383 Telegraf instruments 

1 Transmitting: keys, senders, etc. 

2 Intermediate and accessory: relays, repeaters, switches 

21 Relays 

22 Differential relays 

23 Polarized " 

24 Repeaters, for simplex; Milliken, Ghegan, Toye, etc. 

25 u a d U pi ex or quadruplex 

26 ' Half ' repeaters 

27 Switches and distributing apparatus 

28 Protectiv apparatus 

29 Miscellaneous telegraf accessories 

3 Receiving instruments 

Sounders, recorders, etc. Subdivided, if wisht, like 621.3824-8 

.384 Wireless electric communication: telegrafy, telefony 

1 General 

2 Wireless telegrafy Systems 

2 1 Spark telegrafy ; by free oscillations 

25 Continuous-train telegrafy: by forced oscillations 

3 Instruments 

31 Sending apparatus 

35 Antennae, aerials, and their substitutes 

36 Receiving instruments and apparatus 

4 Applications, adaptations, specific installations 

5 Wireless telefony systems 

6 Apparatus 

61 Sending apparatus 

65 Aerials, etc. 

66 Receiving apparatus 

7 Applications, adaptations, specific installations 

8 Vacant for possible development of visual transmission by wireless 



ENGINEERING 



621.385 Telefony Systems 

See also 621.3845 Wireless telefony 

1 General 

2 Party line 

When 2 and 3 or 2 and 4 conflict, 3 or 4 prevails 

2 2 Series 

23 Bridging 

24 Selectiv 

3 Intercommunicating systems 

Without central switchboard 

32 Common return systems; selectiv at each station 

34 Radial common return systems; selectiv at one station only 
36 2 -wire systems; separate returns 

4 Central switchboard systems 

Manual; for automatic see 621.3857 

42 Local battery or magneto systems 

46 Common battery or central energy systems 

5 Multiple switchboard systems 

6 Trunking Transfer systems 
6 1 Trunking 

63 Transfer systems 

7 Semiautomatic and automatic systems 
72 Semiautomatic 

75 Automatic 

76 Strowger system (Automatic Electric Co) 

8 Private exchanges 
.386 Telefone instruments 

Terminal; subscriber's instruments 

2 Transmitters 

3 Receivers 

4 Induction coils 

5 Condensers 

6 Hook or other switches 

7 Call receiving apparatus 

8 Call sending 

9 Miscellaneous accessories 
92 Coin collecting devices 
94 Protectiv devices 

96 Current supply (local batteries) 

.387 Central switchboards and other station equipment 

1 General 

2 Switchboards, manual 

22 Local battery or magneto 

26 Common battery 

3 Multiple switchboards 

35 Divided multiple 

4 Trunks Transfer boards 
4 1 Trunks and trunking 

43 A boards 
45 B boards 

47 Multiple plug transfer 

5 Switchboard parts and accessories 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



621.387 6 Power plant equipment and accessories 

62 Accumulators 

63 Charging generators 

64 Ringing " 

7 Automatic and semiautomatic switchboards 

Including accessories. Subdivided like 621.3857 

8 Telefone transmission 

For transmission common to other branches of electricity see 621.319 
Put here only that peculiar to telefony 

81 

82 Long distance 

83 Transposition 

84 Telefone cable construction 

85 Loading 

86 Pupin coils 

9 Other central station accessories 

92 Distributing frames and racks; main 

93 " ■ " 44 intermediate or secondary 

94 Protectiv devices 

See also 621.3178 and 621.31982 

96 Meters and counters 

See also 621.3286 Electric light meters 
.388 Vacant for visual transmission by wire 

.389 Other electric communication 
.39 Other applications of electricity 

Subdivide like 600; e.g. electricity applied to mining 621 3922, applied to 
medicin 621.3915. This place is provided for specialists who prefer to 
mass all their material under 621.3. Libraries should class rather by pur- 
pose of the application; e.g. books on electric heating will be more useful in 
a general library under 697.7 with the question of heating than in 621.3997 
with a general assortment of unrelated applications. References here show 
a library's resources on special applications 

.4 Air and gas engins, etc. 

.41 Hot air engins 

.42 Comprest or rarefied air or gas engins 

.43 Internal combustion engins 

.431 General theory of internal combustion engins 

.432 Cycles and systems of operation 

1 4-cycle systems Otto cycle 

2 2-cycle systems 

3 Other and modified systems 

.433 Gas turbins 

.434 Internal combustion engins clast by fuels 

1 Engins for gaseous fuels 

11 Engins for natural gas 

12 a u iii um i na ting gas 

13 an blast furnace gas 

14 " " producer gas. For gas producers see 665 . 8 

15 Engins for acetylene gas 

2 Engins for liquid fuels 

2 1 Engins for gasolene 

22 mm k erosene 

23 " " other petroleum oils 

24 " " alcohol 

3 Engins for solid fuels 



ENGINEERING 



21.436 Special engins or motors 

Those not limited to a single system or fuel; e.g. description or discussion 
of Diesel motor. Arrange alfabetically by name of machine 

.437 Parts and accessories of internal combustion engins 
.438 Special applications 

3 Selfpropeld machinery 

Engins for farm machinery, fire engins, roadrollers, etc. See also 
special machines 

4 Selfpropeld vehicles 

Class here only adaptation and application of internal combustion 
engins to motor vehicles. See also 629.2 for motor vehicles 

5 Motors for small boats 

6 " " large vessels 

7 Airship motors 

For airships see 629.15 

.44 Binary vapor engins 

.45 Windmills 

.46 Animal motors Tredmills 

.47 Solar engins 

.49 Power plants and central stations 

.5 Pneumatic machinery Mechanical refrigeration 

.51 Air compressors 

.515 Dry air compressors 

.517 Wet " 

.52 

.53 Comprest air transmission and distribution 

.532 Details of transmission Piping, mains, gages, etc. Designs of transmis 
sion 

.54 Applications for comprest air 

For pneumatic hoists, etc. see 621 .86 

.541 Comprest air motors 

.542 Pneumatic tools: drills, hammers, etc. 

See also 821.9 Machine tools 

•543 

.544 Special applications in railway servis 

.545 Comprest air locomotivs 

.546 Pumping by comprest air 
.549 Other applications 

Pneumatic cleaning, sandblasts, tubes 

.55 Rarefied air and vacuum appliances 

Vacuum cleaners: general discussion and description. See also domestic 
economy 648.52 Methods of sweeping and dusting 

.56 Refrigeration 

For cold storage see 664.8 

.564 Refrigerating fluids 

.565 Refrigerating systems and plants 

1 Brine system 

a Direct expansion system 

.566 Design Calculation of piping, refrigerating surface, 
etc. 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



.57 Refrigerating machines 



.572 Ammonia compression machines 

.573 Ammonia absorption " 

,574 Carbonic acid machines 

,575 Air machines, vacuum machines, etc. 

.579 Other 

.58 Icemaking 

.581 Can system 

.582 Plate system 

.6 Blowing and pumping engins 

.61 Piston blowers Blast furnace blowing engins, etc. 

.62 Rotary blowers 

.63 Centrifugal blowers 

Including fans: exhaust and plenum 

.64 Power pumps and pumping engins 

Regardless of motiv power 

.641 General theory Design and construction 

.642 Tests of pumps and pumping engins 

.65 Direct acting pumps 

,652 Piston pumps 

.654 Plunger " 

.66 Rotary pumps 

.67 Centrifugal pumps 

.68 Fire engins 

.69 Other blowing and pumping devices 

Steam jets, ejectors, etc. 



ENGINEERING 



621.7 Mills Factories Engineeri 

Engineering questions affecting es- 
tablishment and conduct of manu- 
facturing plants. Arrangement of 
shops and departments (including 
storehouses, offises, etc.) with refer- 
ence to sequence of processes, econ- 
omy of power and handling; also 
equipment and internal arrangement 
of each shop. See also 

651 Offis methods and equipment 

657 Accounting, costkeeping, esti- 

mates 

658 Business methods 

659 Advertizing, etc. 

670 Manufactures: articles, and 
methods and machines for 
making them 

725.4 Architecture of factories 



; works 

In 621.7 is considerd the disposi- 
tion of the material for which the 
architect constructs the shell, the 
assembling into a unit of elements 
essential to a great factory. A works 
manager may wish to keep all his 
notes on his own plant here, includ- 
ing machines and processes for his 
special product, but a general library 
should class manufactured articles, 
with the special means and methods 
of producing them, under the number 
for the article; e.g. a library would 
class material on spindles and looms 
in 677, but the manager of a woolen 
mill might prefer to class them in 
621.7983 as an integral part of his 
plant, tho classification under the 
regular number will usually prove 
more satisfactory in all cases 



.701 Location 

With reference to supply of raw material, market for finisht product, 
shipping facilities, relativ cost of freight on material or product; e.g. the 
much greater cost of carrying a bulky car than an equal weight of com- 
pact raw material as a factor in locating an automobile factory 

704 Organization and administration 

Managers and engineers, professional staff; artizans and laborers regarded 
as machine accessories; hours and shifts considerd solely with reference 
to efiect on output. For wages and other economic aspects see 331 Capi- 
tal, labor and wages; for factory legislation (protection and welfare of 
employees) see 338.9. For organization of clerical force, see 651 

.705 Mechanics and laborers 

.71 Drafting room 

.711 General 

.712 Arrangement 

.713 Equipment 

.714 Materials and supplies 

.715 Methods and processes 

.719 Other 

.72 Woodworking shop Pattern shop 

May be subdivided like 621.71 

.73 Forge shop 

May be subdivided like 621.71 

.74 Foundry 

May be subdivided like 621.71 

.75 Machine shop 

May be subdivided like 621.71 

.76 Blast furnace 

May be subdivided like 621.71 

.77 Rolling and drawing mils 

May be subdivided like 621.71 

.78 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



621.79 Other shops and departments 
.792 Boiler and sheet metal shops 

Stamping and punching May be subdivided like 621 .71 

.794 Special process shops 

Galvanizing, plating, etc. May be subdivided like 621 .71 

.795 Finishing shop 

Painting, glazing, grinding, buffing, testing. May be subdivided like 
621 .71 

.796 Storehouses 

3 Materials and supplies 

4 Explosivs 

6 Products Shipping department 

.798 Department turning out main product 

Processes and machines Varying for different kinds of factories and 
provided only for factory use, see note to 621 . 7. Libraries should leave 
vacant May be subdivided like 621 . 71 

.799 Other minor shops and departments 

.8 Principles of mechanism Power transmission a#i b" 
Hoisting and conveying machinery 

.81 General Principles of mechanism Machine design 

.82 Journals, shafting, etc. 

.821 Journals 

.822 Bearings: ball, roller, etc. Hangers Bearing metals 

.823 Shafting 

.8235 Flexible shafting 

.825 Couplings and clutches Universal joints 

Friction clutches 

.826 Shaft brakes 

.83 Tootht gears and cams 

.831 General: theory, forms of teeth, tooth curvs 
.832 Efficiency of gears Tests Friction of gears 
.833 Design of gears 

1 Spur gears 

2 Bevel and skew bevel gears 
■j Worm and spiral gears 

Screws for transmitting motion, endless screws 

.834 Construction: gear cutting and casting 

.835 Chain gearing 

.837 Ratchet gearing: pawls, dogs 

.838 Cams 

.84 Valv motions and gears 

General, trade catalogs; for special valvs see subjec 

.846 Valvs and cocks 

.85 Machinery and mill gearing 

Class here transmission by flexible connections 

.852 Belt connection 

.853 Hemp rope transmission 

.854 Wire rope 

.856 Pulleys Sheaves 

.858 Friction gearing 



ENGINEERING 



621.86 Hoisting and conveying machinery 

For dredges see hydraulic engineering, 627 . 7 Dredging, dredging machin- 
ery See also 621.26 Hydraulic machinery: 621.18378 Fuel and ash 
conveyers 

.861 

.862 Hoists: blocks and tackle 

.863 Mechanical tackle Chain blocks 

864 Winches Capstans Windlasses 

.865 Power shovels 

.867 Conveyers Telferage 

4 Belt or bucket conveyers 

5 Belt: moving sidewalks 

6 Bucket: escalators, moving stairs 
9 Other conveyers: cash carriers, etc, 

.868 Telfers 

4 Selfpropelling 

.869 Other: jacks, etc. 

.87 Cranes and elevators 
.&71 

.872 Derricks 

.873 Revolving cranes 

621.873-5 may be subdivided like 621. 8771-5 by kind of power if 
wisht; e.g. 3 Steam 4 Hydraulic 5 Electric 

.874 Traveling cranes 

.875 Locomotiv cranes 
.876 

877 Elevators 

1 Handpower 

2 Belt driven 

3 Steam, gasoline 

4 Hydraulic 

5 Electric 
6 

7 For special purposes 

71 Passenger elevators 

72 Freight " 

For mines see 622. 17-. 68 

73 

74 Dum waiters Book lifts 

Lifts for small objects 

8 \pparatus 

81 Car and guides 

82 Power transmitting devices 

83 Counterbalancing weights and guides 
. 84 Control devices 

85 Safety 

86 Accessories 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



621.88 Fastenings 

.882 Screws and bolts Systems of screw threds 

For screws for transmitting motion see 621 .8333 

.883 Keys and cotters 

.884 'Rivets Design of riveted joints 

.89 Friction Lubrication Lubricants 

.9 Machine tools 

Manipulation Discussion and catalogs of different kinds and makes of 
metalworking tools. For manufacture of various tools, see 672. For wood- 
working tools, see 674 Wood manufactures; also 684 Cabinet making, 694 
Carpentry, 736 Wood carving 

.91 Planing and milling machines 

.912 Metal planers, shapers, and slotters 

.92 Grinding and filing Abrasivs 

.922 Cylinder and surface grinding machines 

Lapping machines 

.923 Emery wheels 

.924 Filing machines 

.93 Cutting and sawing 
.931 

.932 Metal sawing and cutting machinery 

.94 Turning 

.941 

.942 Metal turning lathes 
•943 

.944 Pipethreding machines 

.945 Boring mills 

.95 Perforating machinery 

.951 

.952 Drilling machinery Drills 
•953 

.054 Reamers 

.955 Tapping machines 

.96 Punching and shearing machinery 

.97 Hammers Riveting tools 

.98 Bending, straightening, and shaping 

.981 

.982 Bending machinery 

.983 Straightening machinery 

.984 Flanging and die press machinery 

.99 



ENGINEERING 



622 Mining engineering. s= e ai so 338.2 Mining products-, 332.41 coin- 

age metals 

May be subdivided like 620 and 620.0; e.g. Societies, 622.06; Reports, (;22.ooc> 

.1 Exploration and Prospecting 

.11 Theory Applied Geology, etc. 

.12 Prospecting. Practical Methods. 

Including Divining Rods. 

.13 Mineral Surveys. 

.14 Mine Surveying. 

.15 Magnetic Surveys. 

.16 Theory of Faults. See 551.87 and 553.19 

•17 

.10 

.19 Mining Prospectuses. See 553. 

2 Practical Mining. 

.21 Excavation. 

.22 Quarrying. 

23 Drilling and Blasting. 

.24 Deep Boring. 

.2 5 Shaft Sinking. 

.26 Tunneling and Drifting. 

.27 Stoping. 

.28 Timbering. Masonry lining. See also 622.50 

.3 Working of Mines, Exploitation 

•31 Open Workings. 

.32 Hydraulic Mining and Sluicing. 

•33 Coal Mining. See 553.2. 

.34 Metal Mining. See 553.3 and .4. 

•35 Working Thick Deposits. 

.36 Salt Mining. See 553.63. 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



622.4 Ventilation and lighting of mines 

.41 Theory Gases met with, etc. 

.42 Natural ventilation 

.43 Furnaces Steam jets, etc. 

.44 Fans See 621.62 

.45 Airways Stoppings Regulators 

.46 Mesurement of ventilation 

.47 Lighting Safety lamps, etc. 

.5 Drainage 

.51 Theory of infiltration of water 

.52 Natural drainage 

.53 Cornish pumps See 621.6 

.54 Steam pumps See 621.64 

.55 Hoisting of water 

.56 Dams and watertight linings See also 622.28, Timbering 

.57 Acid waters 

.6 Extraction Hoisting and transportation 

.61 Handling mineral in working place 

.62 Underground roads 

.63 Mine cars Trams, etc. 

.64 Gravity roads and planes 

.65 Tramming and animal haulage See 625.7 

.66 Mechanical haulage 

.67 Hoisting engins Drums Ropes Whims 

.68 Cages Skips Buckets 

.69 Surface transportation 

Including mineral roads, wire ropeways, transhipment, loading and unload 
ing, etc. 

.7 Mechanical preparation Ore dressing 

.71 Theory Preliminary operations 

72 Hand dressing 

73 Crushing Stamping engin 
.74 Screening 

75 Jiggi n £ O fe concentrators 

.76 Slime treatment 

.77 Magnetic separation 

.78 Coal washing 

.79 Dressing works 

.8 Dangers and accidents See also 613.6 Hygiene; 331.82 Laboring classes 

.81 Explosions of firedamp 

.82 Mine fires 

.83 Crushing and fall of ground 

.84 Flooding of mines 

.85 Accidents to miners 

86 Rescue and relief 

•87 

.88 

.89 



ENGINEERING 



Military and naval engineering 

For military and naval science, maneuvers, strategy and tactics see 355-3 59 

SUMMARY 

623.1 Fortifications: field and permanent 

.2 Siege operations: mines, etc. 

.3 Defensiv operations 

.4 Ordnance and projectils 

.5 Gunnery 

.6 Military roads and bridges 

.7 Military signals: telegraf, ballooning, etc. 

.8 Naval architecture 
.9 Armor Torpedoes, etc. 

1 Fortifications: field and permanent 

11 Principles of fortification 
in Profiles 

112 Plans 
113 

114 Defilading 
115 

ci6 Details: bastions, curtains, glacis, etc. 

j 1 7 Accessory defenses 

Flanking defenses; outworks, palisades: moats, obstacles, etc. 

12 Construction of permanent fortifications 

122 Earthwork 

123 Masonry: concrete 

124 Armor 

13 Systems of forts 

131 Central fort 

132 Citadel 

133 Fortified positions 

134 Barrier forts 

15 Temporary fortifications Field works 

iq Special forts 

Divided like 930-999; e.g. history of the fortress of Gibraltar 625.19468 

2 Siege operations Mines 

Class here only engineering operations. For conduct of sieges, see 355.44 

21 Siege works 

Investment, establishing camps 

22 Circumvallation and countervallation 

23 Establishing parallels and advancing batteries 

24 Zigzags Saps 

Trenching, blindage, gabionades 

25 Breaching batteries Breaches 

For assaults see 355.44 

26 Land mines and torpedoes 

See also 623.9 Submarine torpedoes 

27 Other means of demolition 

Firing and exploding devices 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



3 Defensiv operations ' 



For maneuvers see 3 5 5-44 

34 Defense of trenches 

35 " breaches 

36 Countermines 



4 Firearms, ordnance and projectils Arsenals 

Including ammunition in general and fireworks. For manufacture or explosivs 
see 662. For general history of war customs and wepons, and of ancient engins 
of war see 399. Class here wepons for gunpowder and similar explosivj 

41 Artillery material 

Clast according to use 

412 Field artillery material 

413 Mountain " " 

414 Landing " " 

415 Siege 

416 Fortress " 

Including large guns (fortress, coast and naval) considerd together 

417 Coast artillery material 

418 Naval " 

42 Guns 

421 Guns according to form and construction 

See also 623.5 Gunnery; 623.47 Gunmaking 

1 Early forms: bombards, culverins, etc. 

For blunderbuses and other early forms of small arms see 623.441 

2 Guns proper or long cannon 

3 Short cannon or howitzers (shell guns) 

4 Mortars 

5 Guns made in a single piece 

6 Bilt up guns 

61 Hoopt guns 

62 Jacketed guns 

63 Hoopt and jacketed guns 

64 Wirewound guns 

422 Guns according to mode of loading and operating 

1 Muzzleloading guns 

2 Breechloading 

3 Rapidfire guns 

4 Machine " 

42 Multiple tube guns 

Gatling guns, Hotchkiss revolving cannon 

43 Single tube guns 

5 Automatic and semiautomatic guns 

Hotchkiss, Maxim, Colt 

423 Form and interior arrangement of guns 

1 General plan 

2 Outside form 

3 Hooping 

4 Jacketing 

5 Bore 

o Rifling 

7 Chamber 



ENGINEERING 



623.424 Breech and firing mechanisms 

1 Breech closing apparatus 

1 1 Block 

12 Wedge 

13 Screw 

2 Firing apparatus Vent Vent bushing Firing pin 

3 Safety apparatus: gas checks, etc. 
.425 Sighting attachments 

For detacht apparatus, sec 623.462 

1 Backsight, sliding notch, eyehole, etc. 

2 Sight Foresight 
.43 Mounts and carriages 

Including their parts and accessories 

.431 Field and mountain mounts and carriages 

1 Field mounts 

2 Mountain mounts 

3 Machine gun mounts 

4 Caissons and limbers 

5 Ammunition chests 

6 Battery carriages (i. e. tenders) 
.432 Siege mounts and carriages 

1 Siege gun mounts 

2 Howitzer mounts 

3 Mortar mounts 

4 Siege carriages (i. e. tenders) 

.433 Fortress, coast and naval mounts 

For accessories see 623.435 

1 Casemate mounts 

Pedestal and pivot mounts 

2 Barbet mounts 

3 Disappearing mounts 

4 Turret mounts 
.434 Naval mounts 

For discussion limited to naval use 

.435 Mechanism of mounts 

Platforms, circular pintle block and pivots 

1 Checks and transoms 

2 Chassis and crosshed slides 

3 Mechanism for maneuvering and going into battery : wheels 
trucks, rollers 

4 Sighting apparatus 

5 Recoilchecking mechanism Breeching Vent plug 

6 Recoil mechanism Brakes 

61 Automatic friction recoil checks 

62 Screw brakes 

63 Hydraulic brakes 

64 Pneumatic " 

65 Trail spades 

7 Reactionary mechanism 

Devices for restoring guns to firing position after recoil 

71 Spring recuperators 

72 Pneumatic recuperators 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



623.436 Maneuvering appliances 

1 Levers, handspikes, roller handspikes 

2 Breeching tackle 

3 Shot barrows, shell barrows 

4 Projectil hoists 

See also 621.86 Hoisting and conveying machinery 

.44 Small arms 

Mechanism and military efficiency 
For small arms practis see 355.5 

" manufacture of small arms see 683 

u wepons prior to firearms see 399 

.441 Primitiv forms of firearms 

Blunderbus, harquebus, etc. 

.442 Rifles, muskets, carbines, musketoons 

Including also bayonet as part of the complete wepon 

1 Single shot, muzzleloading 

2 u a breechloading 

3 Repeating rifles 

3 1 With magazine 

32 " loader 

4 Automatic guns 
.443 Pistols and revolvers 

1 Single shot pistols 

3 Automatic pistols 

4 Revolvers 

.444 Side arms Cutting arms 

For halberds, axes, dirks, poniards, and other antiquated forms see 399 

2 Swords 

3 Bayonets : saber bayonets, sword ba}/onets 

4 Lances 

.45 Ammunition and fireworks 

Kinds and relativ efficiency for military purposes. For details of manu 
facture of powder and explosivs see 662 

.451 Artillery projectils 

Including exploder as part of proiectil 

1 Spheric projectils 

1 1 Solid shot 

12 Bombs 

13 Shells: early shrapnel 

1 4 Grenades 

2 Elongated projectils 

22 Case shot : canister and grape 

25 Elongated bullets 

3 Shells 

4 Modern shrapnel 

5 Segment and ring shell 

6 Incendiary shells 

For illuminating shells see 623.45446 

7 Shells with high explosiv Torpedo shells 

8 Armorpiercing shells and other projectils 



ENGINEERING 



623.452 Powders Explosivs 

See also 662.2 Powder manufacture 

1 Gunpowder 

2 Other powders 

Other explosivs 
.453 Fixt ammunition 

.454 Exploding devices and fireworks 

See also 662 Pyrotechnics, explosivs, matches, etc 

1 Matches and fuzes 

1 1 Slow matches and fuzes 

12 Quick matches and fuzes 

2 Exploders 

2i Percussion caps 

2 2 Primers 

23 Projectil fuzes 

24 " detonators 
29 Other exploders, etc. 

3 Fireworks, bombs, etc. 

For torpedoes see 623.9 

31 Incendiary devices 

32 War rockets 
33 

34 Petards 

3 5 Camouflets 

4 Illuminating fireworks 

41 Links 

42 Torches 
43 

44 Signal rockets 
45 

46 Illuminating projectils Star shells 

.455 Small arms ammunition 

For powder see 623.452 

1 Spheric bullets 

2 Elongated bullets Minie ball 

3 Cartridges Fixt ammunition 
32 Jacketed bullets 

35 Prohibited bullets: dumdum or expanding; explosiv 

Those prohibited by Hague conference 

.46 Artillery accessories 

.461 Battery tools 

.462 Instruments 

1 Sighting apparatus: rear sight, quadrants, elevating 
range scales 

5 Range finders 

.463 Implements: rammers, swabs, levers 

•47 Arsenals 

Subdivide like 621.7 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



48 Preservation and care of munitions 

Reception, tests, accidents 

481 Preservation 

1 Magazines 

2 Guns 

3 Carriages 

4 Small arms 

482 Reception Tests Buying 

1 Inspection 

2 Acceptance tests 

3 Function of commissions Experimentation 

483 Accidents Explosions; preventiv mesures 

1 Accidents to persons 

2 " - material 

21 Accidents to arms 

22 "in transit 

Damage to boats, cars, etc. 

23 Accidents to structures 
5 Gunnery 

Theoretic and experimental; efficiency of artillery system as a whole. See also 
'Projectils' in Relativ index following Tables 

51 Theory and strength of guns 
52 

53 Interior ballistics 

Effects of powders; experiments 

54 Exterior ballistics 

55 Sighting and firing 

551 Field and mountain guns 

552 Siege guns 

553 Fortress, coast and naval guns 

554 Naval target practi? 

56 Effect of projectils 

561 On living targets: impact, gases 

562 " inanimate targets 

1 Earthworks 

2 Masonry Concrete 

3 Armor 

57 Reaction of mounts 

571 Rigid rolling mounts 

572 " sliding " 

573 Theory of braking 

574 Mechanically controld recoil 

575 Nonrecoil mounts 

58 Traction of carriages 



ENGINEERING 



623.6 Military roads, bridges and bildings 

From the special point of view of military servis. For construction in general 
see 690.1 and 721; for bridges, roads and railways see 624 and 625; for seacoast 
walls, see 627 Hydraulic engineering 

.61 Military bildings 

Duplicating 725.18 for military engineers. Libraries should use 725.18 and 
leave 623.6x-.614 vacant; for construction of fortifications see 623.1 

.6ll 

.612 Barracks 

.613 Military establishments 

Groups of bildings forming a unit; e.g. military schools, army posts 

.614 Magazines 

.62 Military roads and thorofares 

See also 625.7 Construction of roads 

.63 Military railways 

See also 625 Railway construction 

.631 

.632 Destruction of tracks 

•633 
.634 

.65 Military bridges 

For permanent bridges see 624 

.651 

.652 Pontoon bridges 

.653 Trestle bridges 

.654 Other temporary bridges 

.66 Bridge material 

.7 Military signals Aeronautics, etc. 

Special military applications of science 

.71 Military topografy 

Special processes and instruments. See also 526 Topografy in general 

.72 Photografy 

Reproductiv processes applied to military art. See also 770 Photografy 

.73 Signaling Military telegrafy 

.731 Visual signals: heliografs, searchlights, etc. 

.732 Military telegrafy 

Both wire and wirelcs. See also 621.382 and 654 Telegrafy 

.733 Military telefony 

Both wire and wireless. See also 621.385 and 654.6 Telefony 

.74 Military aeronautics 

For principles see 533-6 Aeronautics: for construction of airships see 629.13 
Class here only military utility 

.741 Machines lighter than air 

.742 Free balloons 

.743 Dirigible balloons 

.744 Captiv balloons 

•745 

.746 Machines hevier than air: aeroplanes 

.749 Other 

.75 Military sanitation 

Camp sites: soil, water, drainage, etc. For personal hygiene see 613 6 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



623.8 Naval architecture Shipbilding 

Including warship accessories. Class here comprehensiv works on shipbilding. 
Subdivide with 001-009 and 02-09 like 620. For ship design and theory see 
623.81 Design; for principles of flotation see 532.3 Floating bodies 

.81 General Design 

Class here also separate discussion of such general questions as notation, dis- 
placement, stability, strength, resistance, propulsion and design; i. e. speed and 
power, coal endurance and steaming radius, passenger or cargo capacity, etc. 

.82 Types of ships and boats 

.821 Primitiv and early forms 

2 Rafts, catamarans, dugouts; galleys 

.822 Modern sailing vessels 

5 Caravels, sailing yachts, etc. 

See also 797 Yachting; 623.824 Power yachts 

.823 Engin driven vessels 

Steam, internal combustion, electric, etc. 

2 Tugs and lighters 

4 Ferry boats : passenger, freight and train 

.824 Passenger and cargo vessels 

River, lake or ocean liners; power yachts, etc. For tugs, ferryboats 
small motor boats, etc. see 623.823 

.825 Warships 

Fighting vessels: battleships, cruisers, gunboats, monitors, torpedo boats, 
submarines. For sailing men-of-war see 623.822 

.826 Other government vessels 

Transports, hospital ships, store and fuel ships (supply, food, refrigera- 
tion, ammunition ships; colliers, oilers, mineplanters, etc.) repair ships, 
lightships and lighthouse tenders, police boats, revenue cutters, fish 
commission boats, fireboats, etc. 

.828 Other power vessels 

Ships for cable laying, icebreakers, trawlers, etc. For dredges see 627.7 

.829 Other boats 

Flatboats, scows, lighters, canal boats, barges, rowboats and canoes, life- 
boats, surf boats 

.83 Appliances peculiar to shipbilding 

Model tanks and experiments, including also Froude's tests on full size ships; 
launching ways and launching; dry or graving docks; moldloft and scriveboard 

.84 Hull and its accessories 

Structural: watertight compartments; systems of construction (wood, com- 
posit, iron and steel), structural details (framing, bulkheds, etc.) 
Nonstructural: joinery, nonstructural decks 

.85 Hull accessories: masts and spars; rudder and steering 

gear; drainage, etc. 

Lighting, ventilating, heating, refrigerating; electric plant and lighting 
for ship installation only; see also 621.3 Electric engineering 
Ship fittings: doors, hatches, etc. 

.86 Equipment and outfit 

Superadded, not bilt in, but necessary for effectiv use of ship 

Sails and rigging; anchors, chains, cables, hawsers; compasses, sounding 

machines, speed logs; boats, rafts, life preservers, buoys 

Furniture, saloon and cabin furnishings; table and galley (kitchen) outfit. 
See also domestic economy, 64s 

.87 Propelling machinery 

Vibration and balancing. For theory of propulsion see 623.81 

See also 621.12 Marine engins; 621.165 Steam turbins; 621.18 Boilers 

.9 Armor and armament 

Distribution, armoring; proper hight, etc; battery 
For manufacture of armor plate see metallurgy, 669.1 Iron and steel 
.gcj Torpedoes Launching tubes and other accessories 



ENGINEERING 



624 Bridges and roofs Viaducts 

Subdivide if wisht like 620. 1-. 9 and 620.0 

.1 General 

. 1 2 Purpose 

Highway, foot bridges, etc. regardless of structural type 

•13 

.14 Location Approaches 

. 1 5 Foundations 

General works Foundations of bildings are better clast 721.1 

.151 Foundation bed Nature of soil 

.152 Excavation, timbering, shoring 

624.153-. 157 may be subdivided like 721.13-.17 

.153 Material for bilding foundations 

For material for superstructure see 624.01 

.154 Pile foundations : general Material 
.155 methods of sinking 

.156 Platform foundations 

.157 Subaqueous foundations 

Processes: cofferdam, caisson, freezing 

.16 Piers and abutments 

Wood, masonry, metal. Subdivided like 620 . 1 

.17 Stresses and strains 

General; if limited to a special type, class with that type 

.171 General Computation of stresses 

.172 Loads 

Ded, live or moving loads 

.173 Highway 
.174 Railway 

.175 Wind pressure 

.176 Working stresses 

.2 Girders and girder bridges 

Including floor systems; see .25 below 

.21 Girders 

Continuous; discontinuous or independent 

.22 Solid beams 

.222 Wood 

.227 Metal 

.23 Plate girders Lattis girders 

.24 Trestles 

.25 . Floor systems 

.27 Girder bridges 

.3 Trusses and trussed bridges 

Constructed of systems of braced girders, 

.31 

.32 Simple truss 

.33 Continuous truss 

.3 5 Cantilever truss Balance bridge 

.4 Tubular bridges Box-girder bridge 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



624.5 Suspension bridges 

.52 Flexible Rope bridge 

.53 Rigid 

.55 Cables 

.56 Towers or piers 

. 5 7 Anchorage 

.6 Archt bridges 

.62 Wood 

.63 Masonry 

Stone, brick, concrete, reinforced concrete 

.67 Metal : iron and steel 

.68 Hinged arch 

.7 Compound structures 

Structurally compound; e. g. plate girder and suspension, trussed arch 

.8 Movable bridges Drawbridges 

.82 Bascule: counterpoise, folding 

.83 Swing: pivot, swivel, turning 

.84 Lifting 

Whole bridge lifted vertically 

.85 Rolling 

Floating; see also 624.87 

.86 Aerial and other traveling bridges 

.87 Pontoon bridges: floating, boat or raft 

.9 Roofs 

For other relations see Roofs in Relativ index 

625 Railroad and road engineering 

May be divided by and oc like 620. For railway operation see 656 

.1 Way and works 

.11 Route 

Reconnaissance, preliminary and locating surveys; center line; grades; 
curvs; switchbacks 

.12 Permanent way Roadbed 

Earthwork: surveys, computation, classification, cuts and fills. Drainage 

.13 Structures: tunnels, culverts, snowsheds 

Class here gensral works on tunnels; see also mining 622.26 

For bridges and trestles see 624; for transportation bildings see 725.3 

.14 Track: ballast, ties and tieplates, strains 

Including general works covering also rails and their accessories 

.140 Monorail tracks 

. 1 5 Rails and accessories 

Rail braces, rail joints, chairs, track bolts, nut locks, spikes 

.10 Track accessories 

Turnouts, switches, sidings, bumping posts; crossings; signals; turn- 
tables; ashpits, track tanks; cattle gards 

. 1 7 Road maintenance and repair Materials 

.18 Road equipment 

Fences, gates, platforms, track scales, yards, etc. Stations, depots, shops, 

etc. considerd as road accessories 

For stations, depots, roundhouses, etc. see 725-3 

For shops see 621.7 

.19 Other topics 



ENGINEERING 



625.2 Trains and accessories 

Interrelations of road and rolling stock; strain and wear 
For car bilding see 699 For time tables, traffic, etc. see 656 

.21 Running gear 

Trucks, bogies and Bissell bogies; wheels, axles, tires, balancing; axle boxes 
and gards; lubrication 
Suspension, bearing springs 

.2 2 CarS See also 699 car bilding 

Transverse section of car and track gage 
Effect of length of car in rounding curvs 

.23 Passenger cars 

.24 Freight and combination cars 

.25 Brakes Buffers and couplings 

.26 Power requirements 

Length and weight of trains. Speed 

See also 621.13 Steam engins; 621.3342 Electric engins; 621.43 Gas engins 

.27 

.28 Monorail rolling stock 

.3 Inclined and mountain railways 

.32 Funicular railways 

.33 Rack railways 

.4 Elevated and underground roads, subways 

.5 Cable roads 

.6 Street railways, tramways 

See also 62T.33 Electric traction; 625.4 Elevated and underground railways; 
625.5 Cable roads; 699 Carbilding 

.7 Roads, highways, streets 

See also local government, 352.7' Streets, highways; for pavements see 625.8 

.71 Road systems 

.711 Rural 

.712 Urban 

.72 Location 

Preliminary and locating surveys Grades Curvs 

.7^ Roadbed, foundation 

Earthwork Subsurface drainage 

.74 Dirt roads Crowning Drainage 

.75 Surfacing Oil and other binders 

.76 Maintenance and repair 

.77 Trees Parkings 

.78 Subsurface condits, pipes, etc. 

Sewers; water, steam and gas pipes as affecting roads 

.79 Other topics 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



625.8 Pavement 

.81 Flagstone 

.82 Stone blocks and brick 

Including cobblestone. Requirements of paving stones 
For \itrified brick see 625.87 

.83 Wood pavements Corduroy, plank, blocks 

.84 Concrete pavements 

.85 Asfalt 

.86 Stone roads 

Macadam, telford and other broken stone processes 

.87 Metal, vitrified brick, reinforced blocks 

For other brick pavements see 625.82 
.88 Sidewalks Ma y be divided like 625.81-.87 

.888 Curbs 
.89 Other topics 

.9 Ship railways 

626 Canal engineering 

.1 Route 

.2 Water supply 

.3 Size and shape 

.4 Locks 

.5 Lifts and inclined planes 

.6 Canal boats: size, shape, etc. s ee 623.829 shipbiiding 

.7 Towing; power, etc. 

.8 Irrigation canals and other irrigation works 

.9 Ship canals 

627 River, harbor, and general hydraulic 

engineering See also 624.157 and 721.17 Subaqueous foundations 

.1 Rivers: force of water, discharge, bars 

River improvement 

.2 Harbors Breakwaters 

.3 Docks Piers Quays Shipping facilities 

.4 Dikes and levees, embankments 

.5 Other protection and reclamation of land from tides and 

Waves, drainage For agricultural drainage see 631.6 

.6 Jetties 

.7 Dredging Dredging machinery 

8 Dams 

.9 Lighthouses Buoys 

628 Sanitary engineering Waterworks 

.01 Theories, utility .02 Compends .03 Dictionaries .04 Essays .05 Period- 
icals .06 Societies .07 Study and teaching .08 Polygrafy .09 History and 
description of sanitation and general sanitary works, divided geograficly like 930-999 

,1 Water supply of towns For isolated supply see 628.7 

. 1 1 Sources of water supply 

Lakes, rivers, springs, wells, and pumping 

. 1 2 Pumping vs gravitation systems 

Pump well, standpipe, high servis, Holley system 



ENGINEERING 



02o. 13 


Storage and servis reservoirs 


.14 


Condits, aqueducts, tunnels See 62s 




Mains and Servis pipes Freezing, iron, led 


T A 

.10 


Impurities and their removal : filter basins, etc. 


.17 


Public (sprinkl ng, fire, flushing), manufacturing, 




domestic use and waste; meters 


.2 


Sewerage works 


.21 


Sewerage systems 


.211 


Combined system 


.212 


Separate system 


.213 


Liernur system 


.214 


Shone system 


.215 


Berlier system 


.210 


Other systems 


.217 


(Juttall 


.2 lo 


Depth and alinement 


.219 


Grade and velocity 


.22 


Shape and size of sewers 


.22 1 


Stormwater flow 


.222 


Ordinary flow 


.223 


Circular section 


.224 


Ordinary eg shape 


.225 


Other eg shapes 


.226 


Other forms 




.225 


rormulas tor size 


• 2 3 


Ventilation of sewers 


.231 


Openings in streets 


.232 


Lamp posts 


.233 


Flues in houses 


•234 


Pipes on houses 


•235 


House drains 


.230 


Chimneys and furnaces 


•237 


Charcoal and chemicals to deodorize sewer gas 


.235 


Special mechanism 


•239 


bpccial construction 


.24 


Design and construction of sewers 


•25 


Sewer appurtenances 


.251 


Junctions 


.252 


House connections 


•253 


Manholes and lampholes 


.254 


Flushing shafts and fixtures 


•255 


Catch basins and inlets 


.256 


Traps and ventilators 


.257 


Valvs and penstocks 


.258 


Overflows and regulators 


.259 


Miscellaneous 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



628.26 River crossings 

.27 Intercepting and outfall sewers 

.28 Reservoirs and tank sewers 

.29 Pump : ng stations 

.3 Sewage and its disposal 

.3 1 Physical properties of sewage 

.32 Deodorization and disinfection of solids and liquids 

See also 628.237 

.33 Subsidence 

.34 Precipitation 

.341 Precipitation tanks 

.342 Mixing machinery 

.343 Filter presses 

.344 Precipitation by salts of alumina 

.345 By lime 

.346 By salts of iron 

.347 By other methods 

.348 Disposal of sludge 

.349 Miscellaneous 

.35 Filtration 

.36 Irrigation 

.361 Broad irrigation 

.362 Ridge and furrow irrigation 

.363 Flatbed irrigation 

.364 Subsurface irrigation 

.365 Intermittent downward filtration 

.366 Carriers and appurtenances 

.367 Drains and drainage of sewage farms 

.368 Filtration areas 

.369 Miscellaneous 

.37 Sewage farming Required modifications of ordinary 
methods 

.38 Sewage manures See" also agriculture, 631.8^25 

.39 Discharge into sea, etc. 

.4 Sanitation of towns 

.41 Middens and privies 

.42 Pail systems 

.43 Earth closet systems 

.44 Domestic ashes, garbage and refuse 

.45 Public urinals and latrines 

.46 Street cleaning and sprinkling 

.47 Pavements and subways 

.48 Trees in streets and squares 

.49 Manufacture of fertilizers from town wastes 



ENGINEERING 



5 Industrial sanitation 

51 Factories and trades 

511 • Prevention of dust and fumes 

512 Protection of throat and eyes 

513 Protection against infection 
519 Special trades 

52 Effluvium nuisances 

521 Situation of works 

522 Use of high chimneys 

523 Condensation in water 

524 Combustion in furnaces 
529 Special trades 

53 Smoke nuisance 

538 From steam generators 

539 From special industries 

54 Disposal of solid and liquid wastes 

541 Discharge into streams 

542 Absorbing wells and burial 

543 Clarification by subsidence 

544 Chemical treatment 

545 Filtration 

546 Purification by the soil 

549 Special methods and pecial trades 

6 House drainage 

7 Rural water supply : villages and country houses 

8 Ventilation and heating 

This hed is chiefly for ventilation. Most matter on heating goes in 697 
See also Heating, Ventilation, in Relativ index following tables 

Lighting 

For other relations and applications see Lighting in Relativ index 

Other branches of engineering 

Automotiv industries 

Air, land, water, treated together; for water craft alone see 623.8 

Aeronautics Aerial navigation 

Usual form division .09 to include general accounts of voyages, but class special 
voyage with type of machine used 

41 Aerostatics 

42 Aerodynamics, bird flight, soaring 

43 Meteorologic conditions; wind currents, etc. 

44 Aerodromes, flying grounds, parks 

Experiment stations, landing places, sheds, hangars 

45 Navigation 

Atmospheric roads, airways; aerial maps, topografy; airsickness; disasters 

48 Laws, international and local 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



629.1$ Aircraft lighter than air Aerostation 

.151 Nondirigible 

Hot air balloons, montgolfieres; pilot balloons; balloon sonde- kite and 
captiv balloons 

.154 Dirigible Airships 

.155 Rigid 

.156 Semirigid 

.157 Nonrigid 

.16 Construction 

.161 Gas envelop, material 

Balloon fabrics, netting, gas used, apparatus for inflation 

.162 Car or basket, cabin, seats 

Method of attaching to gas envelop 

.163 Motors 

See 621 .4387 

.164 Propellers 

.165 Steering apparatus 

.166 Balancing: gyroscope 

.167 Landing apparatus: anchors, parachutes 

.17 Aircraft hevier than air Aviation 

.171 Kites 

.172 Gliders 

.173 Monoplanes 

.174 Biplanes 

.175 More than 2 planes 

.176 Helicopters 

.177 Ornithopters or orthopters 

179 Special adaptations: hydroaeroplanes, aviets 

.18 Construction 

.181 Structure 

Planes, wings, ailerons, etc. 

.182 Seats, cabin, etc. 

.183 Motors 

See 621.4387 

.184 Propellers 

.185 Steering apparatus 

.186 Stability, balancing apparatus 

.187 Starting and landing apparatus 

.19 Applications of aeronautics 

.2 Motor vehicles, automobiles 

Mechanically propeld and motor vehicles for highways: bicycles, motor cycles, 
etc. For highway vehicles for separate tractors (animal or mechanical) see 684 



USEFUL ARTS 



Agriculture 

SUMMARY 

631 Farmsted Soil 

632 Hindrances 

633 Field crops 

634 Fruits Vinyards Forestry 

635 Garden crops 

636 Domestic animals 

637 Dairy and dairy products 

638 Bees, silkworms, etc. 

639 Hunting, trapping, fish culture 

i Rural life 

Rural exodus. Improvement of country life conditions 

.2 Compends 

,23 Agricultural physics 

24 " chemistry 

28 " botany 

29 " zoology 

Only for general treatises. Those relating to a special subject ar clast with 
the subject: e. g. chemistry of milk 637.127 

.3 Dictionaries, cyclopedias 
.4 Essays 
.5 Periodicals 

6 Societies, clubs, conferences 

61 Official institutions; government departments 

62 Voluntary associations 

Not under government control 

621 International (International institute of agriculture) 

624-9 Associations divided by country 

Subdivided like 940-999: e. g. 630.6244 French agricultural societies, 
630.6273 Patrons of Husbandry, including state and local granges; 
Farmers alliance, etc. 

Societies of limited scope ar clast with their subjects; e. g. horse breeders 
associations 636.106 

63 Congresses, conferences, temporary organizations 

7 Study and teaching 

For agriculture as a school subject see 375.63; for school gardens see 372.36 

71 Instruction, schools 

711 Colleges Alfabetic; but may be subdivided like 940-999 if preferd 

712 Schools Arranged like .711 colleges 

713 Short courses 
2 Summer 

5 Winter 

714 Correspondence courses 

715 Institutes Farmers institutes 

716 Courses in nonagricultural institutions 

717 Extension work 

County agent, boys and girls clubs 
719 Other instruction 

72 Research work Experiment stations 
74 Museums, exhibits 

77 Special pedagogic methods 

775 Normal training classes 

79 Competitions, prizes, etc. 

,9 History, divided like 930-999 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



631 The farm, farmsted Soil 



SUMMARY 

63 1. 1 Farm economics 

.2 " bildings 

.3 " machinery and tools 

.4 Land, soil, soil chemistry 

.5 Tillage and farm operations 

.6 Drainage and reclamation 

.7 Irrigation and conservation of moisture 

.8 Fertilizers 

.9 Climate, roads, etc. 
.09 Geograflc distribution of cultivation 

.091 Zones and physical regions 

1 Arctic regions 

2 Temperate zone 

3 Tropics 

4 Mountains 

63 1.1 Farm economics 

Farm and estate management 

.11 Selecting and acquiring a farm 

Land settlement guides 

Location: nearness to market; means of communication, by water, by land 
(railways, highways), climate and rainfall 

.112 Purchase 

Cost, valuation, taxes 

.113 Rent 

.114 Share systems (Metayage) 

See also 631.1153 

.115 Systems of working a farm 

1 Owner his own farmer 

2 By a manager 

3 Share system 

From owner's point of view 

See also 631.114 from worker's point of view 

4 Renting 

From owner's point of view 

See also 631. 113 from renter's point of view 

.116 Scale of farm 

1 Large farm 
2 

3 Small farm (One-man farm) 

.12 Laying out farm 

Locating bildings, fields, farmsteds, roads and lanes 

.13 

.14 Types of farms 

.141 Crop farm 

.142 Vegetable farm 

.143 Fruit " 

.144 Woodlands 

See 634.9 Forestry 

.145 Stock farm 

See 636 Domestic animals; 637.113 Dairy farms 

.146 Fish culture in ponds 

See 639 Hunting, trapping, fishing 



AGRICULTURE 



Finances and accounts Bookkeeping records 
Expenses 

Buying supplies Purchases 
Wages 

Insurance: bildings, stock, crop 

See also Insurance business 368.5 

Packing, shipment 

For methods see 631.564 

Returns Selling products 

Marketing 

Farm bildings 

For architecture, see 728.67 Farm houses; 728.9 Outbildings 

Houses Dwellings 
Barns Poultry houses Stables 
Granaries Silos 
Carriage houses 
Machine sheds 
Other bildings 
Fences, walls, hedges 
Roads, bridges, etc. 
Farm machinery Tools, appliances, etc. 

Care and repair of farm machinery- 
Clearing and soil working : general tools 
Digging tools, machines, etc. 

Spade: turf, ditching, post, polisht-drain, longhandled garden 

spades 

Shovel: prongd Shovel For steam shovel see 621.865 

Spud 

Small tools 

Trowel, for mason's trowel see 693. Dibble, dibber or dibbler. See 
also seeders 

Posthole digger 

Posthole auger or borer. Spudding bit 

Forks ; for digging, etc. Dung-fork 

For hay forks, pitchforks, see 631.3535 

Digging machines 

Spaders, rotary spaders, horse shovel, road scraper 

Crow or crowbar 

Pick. See also mining picks 622. 

Pickax, mattock, grubbing hoe, grubbing ax 

Stump extractor or puller Stone gatherer Bush sithes 
Plows 

Common plow ; walking plow ; hand plow 
Riding plow; sulky plow 

Double plow, double-furrow plow, 2-furrow plow 

Balanst plow Gang plow, multiple-furrow plow 
Power plow 

Steam plow, traction engin, stationary engin; oil or gas engin; electric 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



631.3124 Reversible plow, turning moldboard plow 

Sidehil or hilside plow, turn-wrest plow, one-way plow, dril plow, also 
sometimes called double plow and swing plow 

5 Breaking plow 

Paring plow, sod plow, prairie plow, skim plow 

6 Pulverizing plow, stubble plow, digging plow 

Subsoil plow, mole plow 

Double mold board plow, doublebrested plow 

Middle " buster " or burster, middle breaker 

7 Other special plows 

Vinyard plow Stump jumper, or stumpjump plow 

Seeding plow Skim colter plow 

Scooter Bul-tung and calf-tung plow 

8 Disk plow 
.313 Harrows 

1 Smoothing harrows 

Bush harrows; plank-scraper; fixt and adjustable tooth, frame harrow 

2 Chain harrow 

3 Spring-tooth harrow 

4 Curvd knife-tooth harrow, pulverizer 

5 Revolving harrow 

6 Disk harrow: ful disk, cutaway 

7 Spading harrow, scuffle harrow 

8 Special uses 

Orchard disk harrow 

.314 Rollers, etc. 

1 Rollers 

Wood, stone, metal. Hand, horse, riding, power 

2 Disk rollers 

3 Clod crushers, clod breaker 

4 Subsurface packer 
6 Planker, plank drag 

.315 Hand gardening tools 

1 Hoe 

Draw, field, bayonet, garden 

2 Thrust, Dutch, push, scuffle, D hoe 

3 Scarifier or scraper 

4 Weeder 

Hand weeder, finger weeder, weed-hoe, weeding forceps, weeding fork, 
weeding iron, weeding pincers, weeding tongs 

5 Weed cutters 

Weed hook, weeding chisel, weeding shears 

6 Garden rakes: wood, iron 

.316 Cultivators 

1 Wheel hoe, hand cultivator 

2 Horse cultivators 

Walking cultivators, horse hoe, shovel plow 
Scarifier, scooter, scuffler, hasp, sweep, grubber 

3 Riding or sulky cultivators 

Balance frame 

4 Surface or gofer cultivator 

Heel scrape, scrape 

5 Disk cultivator 

6 Stalk cutter 



AGRICULTURE 



63 1 .33 Seeding and sowing machinery 

.331 Seed sowers, seeding machines 

1 Broadcast sowers, seeders 

Hand machines 

2 Walking 

3 Riding 

4 Land and row markers 

5 Furrow sowers Drils 

6 Walking 

7 Riding 

8 Special sowers 
.332 Planters 

1 Hand, foot 

2 Walking 

3 Riding 

4 Check rowers 

8 Special planters 

•333 Fertilizer distributers 

1 Hand machines 

2 Walking 

3 Riding 

4 Liquid fertilizer 

5 Pulverized " 

6 Farmyard manure, manure spreders 
.334 Mixt spreders 

Both fertilizer and seed 

•335 Propagation apparatus 

Cutting benches, layering pots, etc. 

.336 Transplanters 

1 Bailers 

6 Tree conveyers 

.34 Equipment for care of plants, trees, etc. 

.341 Grafting, etc. implements and material 

Budding knife, grafting knife, grafting wax 

.342 Pruning 

1 Shears or pruner Hedge trimmer 

2 Knife or hook 

3 Chisel 

4 Bil hook 

5 Ax or hatchet 

6 Saw 

7 Scraper 

.344 Protection and shelter 

See also 632.1 and 632.9 

1 Bel glasses 

2 Cold frames 

3 Hot beds 

4 Greenhouses 

5 Forcing houses 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



631.345 Supports 

[1 Vertical cords and wires 

2 Poles, stakes, stays, props 

3 Trellises, espaliers 

Horizontal wires or cords 

4 Fruit walls 

.346 Receptacles: pots, boxes, etc. 

.35 Harvesting 

.351 Hand tools, primitiv tools 

1 Sickle, reaping hook, grass knife, grass hook 

2 Sithe 

3 Cradle, cradle sithe 

.352 Mowers 

7 Lawn mowers 

•353 Other haying implements 

1 Hay spreders, tedders 

2 Hay rakes, gatherers, binders, windrowers 

3 Hay loaders 

4 Hay stackers 

5 Hay forks and carriers 

.354 Reapers 

1 Self binders 

2 Harvester Combined harvester and thresher 

3 Heders Clover heders 

•355 Corn harvesters 

1 Corn shockers 

2 Stubble cutters 

3 Corn pickers 

4 Strippers 

5 Toppers 
.358 Special crops 

1 Fruits, nuts 

3 Legumes, peas, beans, etc. 

4 Root crops, etc. 

5 Fiber crops: cotton, flax, hemp 

6 Sugar cane 

7 Other crops 

8 Tree products 

Maple (sap), pine (turpentine), gums, resins, gutta percha, etc 



AGRICULTURE 



631.36 Machinery, tools, etc. used in preparing for storage or 
transport 

.361 Threshers, etc. 

1 Primitiv tools 

Flails, drags, wain 

2 Mechanical threshers 

3 Huskers 

4 Shellers 

.362 Cleaning 

1 Primitiv tools 

Shovel, siv, fan 

2 Winnowers, fanning machines 

3 Sorters, sifters 

6 Washers for roots and tubers 

.363 Silo machinery 

Ensilage cutters 

.364 Packing for transportation or storage 

1 Bundlers 

2 Balers Baling presses 

3 Bunchers 

4 Packers: baskets, boxes 

See 631.3721 

.37 Power, power transmission appliances Transport 

.371 Motiv power 

1 Human power 

2 Animal power 

3 Water power 

4 Windmils 

5 Steam engins 

6 Gas engins, oil and alcohol 

7 Electricity 
.372 Tractors 

1 Steam 

2 Gas, oil, alcohol 

3 Electric 

.373 Transport appliances 

1 By carrying 

Baskets, boxes, bags, etc. handbarrows 

2 On animals backs: packs, saddlebags, etc. 

3 Drags Sleds Stoneboats 

4 Hand-carts, wheelbarrows 

5 Wagons Chute wagons Drays 

Dumping wagons, hayracks, lumber watrons, trucks 

6 Motor trucks 
9 Other vehicles 

.374 Harness Saddles 

.38 Implements for care of farm animals 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



631.4 Land, soil 

.41 Soil chemistry 

Chemic properties and constitution of soil 

.411 Composition according to geologic origin 

.416 Inorganic chemistry 

.417 Organic chemistry 

.42 Analysis and experiments 

Methods of investigation: chemic, mechanical 

.43 Soil physics 

.431 Specific weight (gravity) of soil 

.432 Humidity 

Water Ground water 

Soil moisture: hygroscopic, capillary 

Permeability Absorption 

.433 Atmosfere: air, gases 

.436 Temperature 

Warmth of soils 

.44 Soil classification Adaptability 

Alkali lands; soils for special crops, tobacco, etc. 

.45 Soil fertility: maintenance, exhaustion 

See also 631.8 Fertilizers 

.46 Soil bacteriology: microbes, ferments, sterilization 

.47 Soil surveys 

.49 History 

.5 Tillage and farm operations 

.51 Soil preparation and working 

.511 Spading, digging, forking 

.512 Plowing, subsoiling 

.513 Blasting, use of explosivs 

.514 Harrowing 

.515 Rolling, planking 

.516 Hoeing, raking, weeding 

.517 Cultivating 

.52 Selection, breeding, etc. 

.521 Selection 

Seed selection 
" cata ogs 

5 Plant selection 

4 Nursery catalogs 

.522 Plant breeding 

.523 Hybrids Crossing Creation of new varieties 

.524 Introduction of new kinds 

.525 Acclimatization 



AGRICULTURE 



631.53 Methods of plant multiplication 

.531 Seedage Seeds 

1 Sowing broadcast 

a Drilling, in rows 

3 Planting in nils or separate seeds 

7 Spores 

.532 Separation of growing plant 

1 Young bulbs, offsets 

Bulbels, bulbules or bulblet; separation of small from parent bulb 

2 Tubers 

Cutting into " sets " each with an eye 

3 Division or partition of tufted growing plants 

.533 Detaching of separate plants 

1 Suckers, root suckers, stem suckers 

2 Runners, stolons 

3 Proliferous buds 

.534 Layering 

1 Ordinary ; each shoot makes one new plant 

2 Multiple, serpentine, or trench 

3 Mound or stool layering 

See also 631.5323 

4 Circumposition, potted, aerial, air or Chinese layering 

6 Layering trees and shrubs 

7 " vines 

.535 Cuttings 

1 Choice of cutting 

2 Preparation for planting 

3 Planting 

4 Branch or stem cuttings 

5 Short cuttings: cuttings of single eye or bud 

6 Root cuttings 

7 Leaf and bulb scale cuttings 
.536 Transplanting 

For grafting and budding see 631.54 

.54 Caring for plants 

For protection against injuries, see 632 

.541 Grafting 

For bridge grafting, sometimes called bark grafting, see 632.8 

1 Selection of stock and scion, affinity 

2 Suitable age and season 

3 Methods of grafting Scion grafting 

31 Cleft grafting 

32 Splice " 

33 Whip 

34 Saddle " 

35 Veneer " 

36 Bark 

In England and France called crown grafting, see 63r.54r42; and 
sometimes used to mean bridge grafting, see 631.541 

37 Herbaceous grafting 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



631.5414 
41 

42 

43 
44 
5 

6 

7 
8 

.542 

1 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

17 

2 

21 

22 

23 
24 
27 
3 

•543 
•544 

1 

2 
3 
4 
5 

•545 
.546 

1 
3 
4 
5 
6 

•547 

1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 



Grafting according to position of scion 

Root grafting 
Crown " 

See also 631.54136, note 
Stem grafting (on main stem or trunk) 
Top " (in top or branches) 
Bud grafting Budding 

Formerly called inoculation Flute grafting 

Grafting by approach, inarching 
Binding and protecting grafts 
Indoor grafting 

Pruning 

Winter pruning 

Theories of pruning 
Methods of pruning 

Heading in 

Thinning of branches 
Scraping 
Time to prune 
Summer pruning Work on green wood 
Pinching in 
Nipping off buds 
Clipping 

Ringing, girdling 
Thinning fruit 
Trimming (to secure definit shape) 



Forcing 
Bel glasses 
Cold frames 
Hotbeds 
Greenhouses 
Forcing houses 

Retardation 
Training 

Vertical, poles, stakes, cords 

Espalier or trellis training 

Wall training 

Arbor training 

Cordon training 

Stages of plant growth 
Seedling 
Increase, growth 
Maturity 
Flowering 
Fruitage 
Ripening 



AGRICULTURE 



631.55 Harvesting, storage, preservation 

These numbers treat of the material operations of harvesting. Class anything 
about a definit crop under its special number; e. g. 633.11 Wheat crop. See 
also 631.56 for preparation of crop for market, 636.085 for preparation of food 
for cattle, etc. For farther preparation of agricultural products not usually 
done by the farmer at the present day, see the various divisions of commerce, 
technology and manufactures 

.552 Mowing 

.553 Hay making, stacking, etc. 

.554 Reaping 

•555 Corn harvesting 

.556 Harvesting other special crops 

For cutting and felling trees see 634.9 Forestrv 

1 Fruits, nuts, etc. 

3 Legumes: peas, beans, etc. 

4 Root crops and tubers 

5 Fiber crops; flax, hemp, cotton picking 

6 Sugar cane, etc. 
7 

8 Saps, gums, resins, etc. 

9 Other crops 

.56 Preparation for storage and transport 

See note under 631.55 

.561 Preparing grains 

2 Threshing, etc. 

3 Husking corn, etc. 

4 Shelling corn 

.562 Cleaning, etc. 

2 Winnowing 

3 Sorting, sifting 

6 Washing (roots, tubers, etc.) 

.563 Storing green fodder 

Cutting, and filling silos 

.564 Packing for transportation or storage 

2 Baling 

4 Packing in baskets, boxes and barrels 

•57 

.58 Special methods 

.581 Fallowing 

.582 Crop rotation 

.583 Intensi v farming 

.584 Catch crop culture 

.58s 

.586 Dry farming Deep soil culture 

.587 

.588 Application of special forces 

1 Electro culture 

2 Radio u 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



631.6 

.61 

.611 

.6l2 

.613 

.614 

.615 
.616 
.617 

.62 
.63 

•64 
•65 

•7 

•71 
.72 

•73 

•74 
•75 
.76 

•77 
.78 

•79 

.8 

.81 

.811 

..812 

.813 

.814 

.815 
.816 
.817 
.818 



Reclamation Drainage 

Agricultural engineering 

Initial operations 
Prairies 

Waste lands : rocks and bushes 

Hilsides: terracing 

Forests 

Marshes Swamps 

Lands under water Polders 

Deserts 

See 631.7 Irrigation 

Drainage methods 

Ditches Drains (open, coverd, tile) 

Drainage systems 

Plans, layouts 

Dikes and embankments 
Water removal by machinery 

Pumps, windmils, etc. 

Irrigation, water supply 

Conservation of moisture. Rainfall, streams 

Source of water : wels, reservoirs 
Irrigating canals 
Systems of irrigation 

Plans, etc. 

Mesure and distribution of water 
Cost of water 



Machinery 

Methods of conserving moisture 

Mulching 

See also 631.586 Dry farming; 631.8 Fertilizers, amendment of soils 

Fertilizers 

History, nature, uses 

Nutrition of plants ; necessary principles 
Production, preparation, collection, conservation 
Composition 

Loss of fertilizing principles 
Economic value 

Use Methods of application and distribution 
Purchase Transport Cost 

Frauds Adulterations Control; legislation, inspeo 
tion, analysis 

Any special fertilizer may be subdivided like 631.81; e. g. 

631-8525 Economic value of bone as a fertilizer 
631.8733 Composition of seaweed 



AGRICULTURE 



631.82 Mineral amendments 

.821 Lime, gypsum, plaster 

.822 Marl 

.825 Sulfate of iron 

.83 Potash fertilizers 

.831 Wood ashes, vegetable ashes, burning turf 

.832 Chlorids 

.833 Sulfates 

.84 Nitrogen fertilizers 
.841 Ammonia 
.842 Nitrates 

1 Calcium cyanamid 

5 Sewage 

.84^ Animal industry residues: skin, etc. 

Slaughter house refuse. See also 831.852 Bone 

.844 Fish 
.845 Blood 
.846 Tankage 

.847 Vegetable nitrogen fertilizers 

Cotton seed meal, castor beans, pomace 

1 Nitrifying crops 

2 Soil inoculation Bacteria Nitrification 

For soil conditions see 631.46. Here class introduction of bacteria to 
improve the soil. The difference is the same as between 631.4* Soil 
fertility and 631.8 Fertilizers 



.848 


Azotin, ammonite, etc. 


.85 


Fosf oric acid 


.851 


Natural rock 


.852 


Bone 


.853 


Slags 


.854 


Guano 


•855 


Superfosfates 


.86 


Farmyard and stable manures, etc. 




Subdivided like 636; e. g. 631.862 Cow manure 


.87 


Vegetable manures 


.871 


Muck 


.872 


Leaves 


.873 


Seaweed 


.874 


Green manures 


.875 


Vegetable compost 


.876 


Residue from vegetable industries 


.88 


Fertilizer experiments 


•9 


Climate, roads, etc. 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



2 Hindrances: blights, pests, insects 

Including those injurious to either plants or animals, but material relating to diseases 
of animals is better clast in 619 or 636.089 and may attract all matter specially 
relating to animals 

.1 Elemental destruction Protection 

.11 Low temperature, frost, freezing 

.111 Methods of protection 

.112 Warnings: wether bureau, thermometers 

.113 Covering 

.114 Artificial clouds 

.115 Fires 

.116 

.117 

.118 Repairing damages 

.12 Excessiv heat and drout 
•13 

.14 Hail 

.15 Lightning 

.16 Wind and rain 

.17 Floods, inundations 

.18 Fires: forest and prairie 

.19 Other destructiv agents 

Earthquakes, fumes, gas, etc. 

.2 Galls Cecidiology 

No subdivision at present 

.3 Bacteria and bacterial diseases 

No subdivision at present 

.4 Fungi 

Divided like 589.2 

.5 Parasitic and injurious plants 

.58 Weeds 

.59 Plants injurious or poisonous to animals 



AGRICULTURE 



632.6 Injurious animals 

Divided like 590, but class injurious insects in 632.7 insted of 632.657 

.7 Injurious insects 

Divided like 595-7 

.71 Thysanura, etc. 

Bristle tails or silver fish, spring tails 

.72 Orthoptera 

Grasshoppers, locusts, roaches, earwigs, leaf insects. See also 632.75 for 
leaf hoppers 

.73 Pseudoneuroptera 

Dragon flies, thrips 

.74 Neuroptera 

Lacewing flies, caddis flies 

.75 Rhynchota, hemiptera 

Afids, biting lice, cicads, grass flies, scale insects, chinch bug, squash bug, 
mealy bug, leaf hoppers. See also 632.72 for other leaf insects 

.76 Coleoptera 

Beetles, flat-hed and round-hed borers, weevils, wire worms 

.7; Diptera 

Flies, mosquitos, gnats, midges, fleas, root maggots, army worm, Hessian 

fly 

.78 Lepidoptera 

Butterflies, moths, caterpillars 

.79 Hymenoptera 

Ants, bees, wasps; saw, gall, and ichneumon flies 

.8 Diseases and injuries 

Other than coverd by 63 2. 2-. 7 

.9 Means of protection 

Other than coverd by 632.1; e. g. netting and covers, screens, gards, scarecrows 

.94 Methods and apparatus 

Spraying, dusting, fumigating 

.95 Preparations and materials 

.951 Insecticides 

.952 Fungicides 

.953 Antiseptics 

.96 Natural enemies of pests 

t May be subdivided like 590 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 

633 Field crops: grains, grasses, fibers, etc. 

SUMMARY 

.1 Cereals, grains 

.2 Grasses 

.3 Legumes 

.4 Root crops 

.5 Fiber crops 

.6 Sugar plants and starch 

.7 Alkaloidal plants 

.8 Perfumes, spices, condiments, etc. 

.9 Other plants 

.1 Cereals 

. 1 1 Wheat 

. 1 2 Buckwheat 

.13 Oats 

. 1 4 Rye 

.15 Corn, maize 

.16 Barley 

.17 Millet, sorghum, etc. 

.171 Millet 

.172 Panic grass 

.173 Prosos 

.174 Sorghum 

For sweet sorghum see 633.62 

.175 Broom corn 

.176 Shallu 

.177 Kafir, milo maize 

White kafir, blackhul kafir, red kafir 

.178 Durra, Jerusalem corn 

Yellow milo, brown durra, white durra, rice corn, white Egyptian 
Egyptian corn 

.18 Rice 

.19 Other 

.2 Forage crops: grasses 

Class here general treatises on forage crops. Divided according to Hackel 

.21 Blue grass Poa 

.22 Orchard grass Dactylis 

.23 Red top, bent grass Agrestis 

.24 Timothy Phleum 

.25 Cereal grasses Divided like 633.1 Cereals 

.26 Other cultivated grasses 

.261 Bermuda grass Cynodon 

.262 Bromus 

.263 Rye grass Lolium 

.264 Fescues Festuca 

.265 Oat grass Arrhenatherum 

.266 Paspalum 

.267 Phalaris 

.27 



AGRICULTURE 



633.28 Other grasses 

Class here only such grasses as hav no specific number 
Divided like Hackel in 633.2r-.267 

.281 Maydeae 

Zoysicae 

Tristegineae 
.282 Andropogonae 
.283 Paniceae 
.284 Oryzeae 

Phalarideae 
.285 Agrostideae 
.286 Aveneae 
.287 Chlorideae 
.288 Festuceae 
.289 Hordeae 

Bambuseae 
.3 Forage crops: legumes, etc. 
.3 1 Alfalfa Medicago 

Black medic, bur clover 

.32 Clovers, berseem Trifolmm 

.33 Cowpeas Vigna 

•34 Soybean Glycine 

•35 Vetches Vicia 

.36 

.361 Sainfoin Onobrychis 

.362 Kidney vetch Anthyllis 

.363 Velvet bean Mucuna 

.364 Japan clover Lespedeza 

.365 Beggar weed Meibomia Desmodium 

.366 Sweet clover Melilotus 

.367 Lupin Lupinus 

.37 Other legumes 

.371 Sophoreae 

.372 Podalyrieae 

Genisteae 

.373 Trifoliae 

.374 Loteae 

•375 Psoraleae 

Galegeae 

.376 Hedysareae 

•377 Valbergieae 

.378 Vicieae 

•379 Phaseoleae 
.38 

.39 Other forage crops 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



633.4 Root crops 

These ar practically all also clast as vegetables in 635.1 and .2 and for con- 
venience of correspondence the same arrangement is followd here: 633 4 divided 
like 635.1 and 633.49 divided like 635.2 

.41 Beet Beta vulgaris 

See also 633.63 Sugar beet 

.416 Half sugar mangel 

.417 Mangel and mangel wurzel 

.42 Turnip Brassica rapa 

.425 Hybrid turnip 

.426 Rutabaga Brassica campestris 

.43 Carrot Daucfus carota 

.44 Parsnip Pastinaca sativa 

.49 Tubers and bulbs 

.491 Potato Solanum tuberosum 

.492 Sweet potato Ipomaea batatas 

.494 Jerusalem artichoke Helianthus tuberosis 

.5 Textil fibers, cordage, plaiting, basket, etc. 

. 5 1 Cotton Gossypium 

.52 Flax Linum 

.53 Hemp Cannabis 

For other fibers known as hemp, see 633.56-.57. Brown and Indian hemp 
ar indefinit. For ' true Indian hemp ' see 633.567 

.54 Jute Cor chorus 

•55 Ramie, China grass Boehmeria 

.56 Other soft fibers 

.561 China jute Abutilon 

.562 Sunn hemp Crotalaria 

Bengal, Bombay, Conkanee, false, Konkan, Madras or Salsette hemp or 
Travancore flax; also incorrectly Dekkan or Ambari hemp. Jubbulpore 
or Jabbalpur hemp 

.563 Ambari or Dekkan hemp Hibiscus 

Kanoff and Gambo hemp. Dekkan hemp also known in market as Bin- 
lipatam jute 

,564 Majagua Paritium Hibiscus titiaceus 

.565 Olona Touchardia 

566 Colorado river hemp Sesbania 

,567 Canada (or Indian) hemp Apocynum 

True Indian hemp; also called black Indian hemp 

.57 Hard fibers 

,571 Manila hemp, iVbaca Musa 

572 New Zealand hemp Pkormium 

573 Mauritius hemp Furcraea 
,574 B owstring hemp Sansevieria 
.575 B r omelia fibers 
,576 Pineapple fiber Ananas 



AGRICULTURE 



633-577 Agave fibers 

1 Sisal, henequen Agave rigida 

2 Ixtle, istle, tampico A gave heteracantha 

Jaumave istle Agave lophantha 

Tula istle Agave Lecheguilla; also A. univitlata, A. caerulescens, 
A. Kerchoevii 

Palm istle Palma samandoca, Samuela carnerosana, Paltna Pita, 
Yucca treuleana 

3 Manila maguey Agave Cantula 

4 Aloe fiber 

5 Maguey fiber A gave atrovirens, A. collina, A. Potosina, 
A. Tequilana, A. vivipara 

6 Zapupe " zapupe verde " zapupe azul " 

.58 Fibers for plaiting, basket and wicker work; ruf weaving 

.581 Coir, coconut fiber Cocos 

.582 Raffia Raphia 

.583 Esparto grass, alf a, half a Stipa 

.584 Hat fibers 

Jipijapa plant Carludovica Panama hats 
Yaraw or hat palm Inodes 

Straw, wheat, rye, barley, rice; in agricultural aspect better clast in 633.1 

.585 Rushes and sedges Juncus Cyperaceae 

.586 Reeds Arundo 

.587 Bamboo 

.588 Osier, willow Salix 

Other woods, splints, rattan 

.59 Fibers for other industrial uses 

Filling or stuffing fibers, calking natural fibers: Cuba bast, etc. brush fibers, 
broom root, paper materials, usually better clast from agricultural standpoint 
with other uses of the material 

.6 Sugar plants and starch 

.61 Cane Saccharum 

.62 Sorghum Andropozon sorghtim Brot. S. vulgar e Linn. 

.63 Sugar beets Beta 

.64 Maple Acer saccharum Marsh 

.65 Palm 

.66 Other sugar plants 

.68 Starch 

Single plants usually better clast from agricultural standpoint with other uses 
of these plants; e. g. wheat, corn, rice, potatoes, etc. 

Alkaloidal plants 

For those chiefly medicinal see 633.88 

.71 Tobacco Nicotiana 

.72 Tea Canellia thea Link Thea Linn. 

.73 Coffee Coffea 

.74 Cacao, coco, chocolate Thesbroma 

.75 Poppy (opium) Papaver 

.76 Kola or cola 

.77 Mate* Ilex 

Brazil or Paraguay tea, Jesuits tea, yerba 

.78 Chicory, succory Cichorium 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



,8 Perfumes, spices, condiments, etc. 

8 1 Perfumery- 

See also 668. s 

8n Floral: rose, jasmin, violet 

,8 1 2 Herbal: lavendar, rosemary, geranium, patchouli 

813 Citrin: bergamot 

814 Woods: sandalwood, cedar 

815 Roots: orris, vetiver 

816 Balms and gums: myrrh, benzoin 

82 Flavoring 
,821 Vanilla 

822 Mints Mentha 

823 Wintergreen Gaultheria 

824 Sassafras 

825 Ginger Zingiber 

83 Spices 

See also 664.5 

.83 1 Allspice 

.832 Cloves 

.833 Cinnamon 

.834 Nutmeg 

,84 Condiments 

,841 Pepper Piper 

,842 Red pepper, paprika Capsicum 

843 Chili Capsicum, specially c. fastigatum 

844 Mustard 

845 Capers 

846 Horseradish 

,85 Oil producing plants 

Usually better clast from agricultural standpoint with the purpose for which 
the oil or plant is used 

.86 Vegetable dyes, dye plants 

.861 Yellow 

.862 Blue 

.863 Red 

.864 Green 

.87 Tanning material 

Usually better clast from agricultural standpoint with the tree or plant from 
which the material is derived 

.871 Sumac Canaigre 

.88 Medicinal plants 

89 Other 



AGRICULTURE 



634 Fruits, orchards, vinyards, forestry 

SUMMARY 

.1 Pomaceous fruits 

.2 Drupaceous " 

.3 Citrous " 

.4 Minor fruits 

.5 Nut 

.6 Palmaceous fruits 

.7 Small fruits 

. 8 Grapes 

.9 Forestry 



.1 Pomaceous or pome fruits 

.11 Apple Pyrus malus 

.12 Crab apple 

.13 Pear Pyrus 

.14 Quince Cydonia 

. 1 5 Medlar Mespilus 

.16 Loquat, Japan plum Eriobotrya Japonica 

.2 Drupaceous or stone fruits Prunus 

.21 Apricot Prunophora 

.22 Plum Prunophora 

.23 Cherry Cerasus 

.24 Racemose cherries: wild cherry, choke cherry, padins, 
sand cherry 

.25 Peach Amygdalus or Prunus Persica 

.26 Nectarin (variety) 

.3 Citrous fruits : orange family, etc. 

.31 Orange Citrus aurantium 

.32 Varieties 

.321 Trifoliate C. trijoliata 

.322 Mandarin, tangerine, kid glove orange C. nobilis 

.323 Grape fruit, pomelo, shaddock C. decumana 

.324 Kumquat C. Japonica 

.33 Citron group C. medica 

.331 Citron var. genuina 

.334 Lemon " limon 

.337 Lime " acida or limetta 

.34 Other 

.341 Glycosmis G. aurantiaca 

.342 Lime berry, bergamot lime Triphasia trijoliata or 
aurantiola 

.343 White sapota, cochil sapota Casimiroa edulis 

.36 Moraceous fruits Mulberry family 

.37 Fig Ficus Carica 

38 Mulberry Moms 

39 Bred fruit Artocarpus incisa 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



634.4 Minor fruits 

.41 Anonaceous fruits, custard apple family 

.411 Sour-sop Anona muricata or Asiatica 

.412 Sweet-sop, sugar apple A. squamosa 

.413 Cherimoya; Jamaica apple A. cherimolia 

.414 Pond apple; mamon A. glabra or laurifolia 

.415 Custard apple ; bullocks hart A. reticulata 

.418 Northern papaw Asimina triloba 

.42 Myrtaceous fruits, myrtle family 

.421 Guava Psidium 

.422 Rose apple ; jamrosade Eugenia jambos 

.423 Surinam cherry: Cayenne cherry; pitanga Eugenia 

uniilora or Michelii 

.43 Sapotaceous fruits, star apple or sapodilla family 

.431 Sapodilla, naseberry Achras sapota 

.432 Marmalade tree or plum Mammae sapota, Lucuma 

mammosa 

.433 Star apple Chrysophyllum Cainito 

.44 Anacardiaceous fruits, cashew family 

.441 Mango Mangifera Indica 

.442 Jew plum, Pomme Cy there, sweet Otaheite apple 

Spondias dulcis 

.443 Spanish plum Spondias purpurea 

.45 Ebenaceous fruits; ebony family 

.451 Kaki; Japan persimmon Diospyros Kaki 

.452 Persimmon D. Virginiana 

.46 Leguminous fruits; bean family 

.461 Tamarind Tamarindus Indica 

.462 St Johns bred; carob; karoub; algaroba Ceratonia 
siliqua 

.5 Nut fruits Nuciculture 

.51 Walnut Juglars 

.511 Persian or English walnut J. regia 

.512 Black walnut J . nigra 

.513 Japan walnut /. Sieboldiara 

.518 Butternut, white walnut ] . cinerea 

.52 Hickory nut Hicoria 

.521 Pecan H. pecan 

.522 Shagbark or little shelbark hickory H. ovata 

.523 Big or bottom shelbark hickory H. laciriosa 

.524 Pignut H. glebra 



AGRICULTURE 



634.53 Chestnut Castanea 

.531 European chestnut C. sativa or vesca 

.532 American chestnut C. americana 

•533 Japan chestnut C. crenata or Japonica 

.537 Chinkapin C. pumila 

.54 Filbert, hazelnut, cobnut Corylus 

. 5 5 Almond Prunus 

.551 Almond P. amygdalus 

.552 Russian almond P. nama 

.555 Tropical almond Terminalia Catappa 

.57 Miscellaneous nuts 

.571 Litchi, Leechee Nephelium Litchi 

.572 Ginkgo G. biloba 

.573 Cashew Anacardium occidentale 

.574 Pistachio Pistacia vera 

.58 Peanuts Arackis hypogaea 

.6 Palmaceous fruits 

Palm family and miscellaneous tree fruits 

.61 Coconut, coco palm Cocos nucifera 

.62 Date palm Phoenix dactylifera 

.63 Oliv Olea Europea 

.64 Pomegranate Punic a granatum 

.651 Papaw; melon papaw, melon zapote Carica 

.652 Spanish lime Ginep Melicocca bijuga 

.653 Alligator or Avocado pear Per sea gratissima 

Aquacata, midshipmans butter 

.654 Mammee apple, S. Domingo apricot Mammea Amer- 
icana 

.661 Hovenia 

.662 Jujube Zizyphus 

.663 Myrica 

.664 Seagrape; shore grape Coccoloba uvifera 

.665 Pigeon plum Coccoloba Floridara 

.666 Otaheite gooseberry Phyllanthus distichus 

.667 Strawberry tree Arbutus unedo 

.7 Small fruits, bush fruits and herblike fruits 

.71 Rubaceous, cane or bramble fruits Rubus 

.711 Raspberries 

1 European 2 Black cap 3 Red 

.712 Oriental raspberries, wineberry, Japanese wineberry 

.713 Blackberry 

.714 Loganberry 

.7.17 Dewberry 

1 Northern 2 Southern 3 Pacific 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



634.72 Ribaceous fruits Groselles Ribes 

.721 Currants 

.722 Garden or common currant R. rubrum 

.723 Black currant 

1 European R. nigrum 

2 American R. Americanum 

3 California R. bracteosum 

.724 Buffalo, Missouri, flowering or golden currant R. aureum 

.725 Gooseberry 

.726 European R. grossularia 

.727 American R. oxycanthoides 

.73 Huckleberry, blueberry, etc. 

.731 Blue tangleberry or dangleberry Gaylussacia frondosa 

.732 Black huckleberry G. resinosa 

.734 Low or dwarf blueberry V actinium, Pennsylvanicum 

•735 Canadian blueberry V. Canadense 

.736 Low or pale blueberry V. vacillans 

•737 Swamp blueberry, high huckleberry V. corymbosum 

.74 Miscellaneous bush fruits 

.741 Juneberry Amelanchies 

.742 Buffalo berry Lepargyraea argentea Shepherdia 
argentia 

.743 Goumi Elaeagnus longipes or multiiiora 

.744 Caraunda Christ'sthorn Carissa Carandas 

.745 Cranberry bush, high or tree cranberry Viburnum 
opulus 

.746 Barberry Berberis 

.747 Elderberry 

.75 Strawberry Fragaria 

.751 Garden strawberry, pine strawberry F. chiloensis 

.752 Hautbois strawberry F. moschata 

.753 Alpin and perpetual strawberry F. vesca 

.754 Scarlet or Virginia strawberry F. Virginiana 

.76 Cranberry V actinium macrocarpor, etc. 

.77 Nonwoody or herblike fruits 

.771 Musacious fruits Musa 

.772 Banana Musa sapientium 

.773 Plantain banana, cooking banana, Adam's fig var. paradisiaca 

.774 Pineapple Ananas sativus 

.775 Cactaceous fruits 

1 Prickly pear, tuna Opuntia tuna 

4 Indian fig Opuntia ficus Indica 

7 Barbados gooseberry, lemon vine, blad apple Pereskia 
aculeata 

.776 Miscellaneous herblike fruits 

1 Cyphomandra; tree tomato Cyphomznira betacea 

2 Ceriman Monster a deliciosa 



AGRICULTURE 



634.8 Grapes, vinyards 
.9 Forestry 

635 Garden crops; kitchen and market gardening 

SUMMARY 

.1 Edible roots, including tubers and bulbs 
.2 Tubers and bulbs 

.3 Edible leaves or flowers 
.4 Greens, pot herbs 
.5 Salads 

.6 Edible seeds and fruits 

.7 Condimental and sweet herbs 

.8 Mushrooms, truffles 

.9 Floriculture 



.1 Edible roots 

.11 Beet 

. 1 2 Turnip 

Usually a field crop. See 633.42 

.126 Rutabaga Swedish turnip Turnip-rooted cabbage 

.127 Navew, French turnip 

.128 Celeriac, turnip-rooted celery 

.13 Carrot 

.136 Turnip-rooted chervil 

.137 Chicory 

Better in 633.78 

. 1 4 Parsnip 

. 1 5 Radish 

.16 Salsify, oyster plant, vegetable oyster 

.166 Scorzonera, black salsify 

.167 Scolymus, Spanish salsify 

.2 Edible tubers and bulbs 

.21 Potato 

.22 Sweet potato, Spanish potato, batata 

.23 Yam 

.24 Jerusalem artichoke, topinamber 

.25 Onion 

.26 Other plants of Allium family 

.261 Leek 

.262 Garlic 

.263 Shallot, scallion 

.264 Cibol, Welsh onion (French, ciboule) 

.265 Cive, chive 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



635.3 Edible leaves, flowers and stems 

.3 1 Asparagus 

.32 Artichoke 

.327 Cardoon, chardoon 

.33 Sea kale 

34 Cabbage 

,341 Kale or borecole 

.347 Collar ds 

.348 Kohlrabi 

.35 Cauliflower 

.356 Broccoli 

.36 Brussels sprouts 

.4 Greens 

.41 Spinach 

.42 Chard, sea-kale beet, Swiss chard 

.43 Orach, French spinach 

.44 Mustard 

.45 Sorrel Dock 

.46 Dandelion Purslane (pusley) 

.48 Rubarb 

5 Salads 

,51 Bitter salads 

Dandelion. See 635.46 
Cardoon. " 635.327 

.52 Lettuce Lactuca saliva 

.53 Celery Apium graveolens 

54 Chicory or succory Cichorium intybus 

Also used as pot herb and root 

.55 Endive Cichorium endivia 

.56 Piquant or warm salads 

Class any species or variety with its genus; e. g. bitter cress, cardamins 
amara with 635.562 

.561 Water cress Nasturtium officinale 

.562 American water cress Cardamine rotundifolia 

.563 Garden cress Lepidium sativum 

.564 Winter cress Barbaria vulgaris 

.565 Swine cress Senebiera coronopus 

566 Indian cress Tropaeolum majus 

For mustard see 635.44 

.57 Neutral salads 

Lamb's lettuce, corn salad, fetticus 



AGRICULTURE 



635.6 

.61 
.611 

.615 
.618 

.62 
.621 

.622 

.623 

.624 

.627 

.63 

.64 

.646 

.647 

.648 

.65 

.651 

.652 

.653 
•654 
.655 

.66 

.667 

.668 

.67 

.677 

•7 

•7i 
.72 

•74 

•75 

.76 

•77 
.78 
.8 
9 



Edible seeds and fruits 

Melons 

Muskmelon: cantaloup, nutmeg, winter, etc. 
Watermelon: preserving or " citron " 
Zit kwa, wax gourd 

Chinese preserving melon, Chinese watermelon 

Squashes 

Summer or bush squashes 

Crooknecks, scallop or pattypan, pineapple 

Fall and winter, or longrunning squashes 

Canada crookneck, Hubbard 

Vegetable marrow 
Pumpkins 

Luffa, rag gourd, dishcloth gourd, vegetable sponge 
Cucumbers Gherkins Martynia 
Tomato 

Egplant, guinea squash, aubergine 
Physalis, husk tomato, strawberry tomato 
Okra or gumbo 
Beans 

Broad bean 

Kidney bean: garden, snap and string bean; haricots 

Lima or sugar bean 

Dolichos 

Soy or soja bean See 633.34 
Peas 

Chick pea Cicer arietinum 

Lentils Lens esculenta 
Sweet corn 

Pop corn 
Condimental and sweet herbs 

For the regular condiments of commerce see 633.84 and 664 5 

Seasoning leaves and flowers 
Garden mint, spearmint 

Flavoring for pickles, vinegar, etc. 

Dil, tarragon, samfire, costmary 

Seeds for flavoring 

Anis, coriander, carraway 



Garnishes: parsley, leaf chervil 
Mushrooms, truffles 
Floriculture 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



636 Domestic animals 

.08 Zootechny 

The breeding and keeping of animals in domestication 
SUMMARY 
.08 r Selection Economics 
.082 Formation of stock, races, breeding 
.083 Care 
.084 Feeding 

.085 Food; general questions 
.086 Foods; divided like 633 
.087 Other foods 
.088 Utilization and training 
.089 Hygiene Diseases 

.081 Selection Economics, etc. 

1 Selecting and acquiring stock 

1 1 Capture 

Of wild animals and of domesticated animals allowd to run wild. 
" Round up " of western ranches 

1 1 1 Capture by snares, traps, nets, etc. 

112 « « W epons, guns, etc. 

113 " " help of other animals, dogs, horses, ferrets, 

hawks, etc. 

12 Purchase Original cost 

1 3 Barter Horse trade 

14 Standards of excellence Points 

15 Soundness Imperections Blemishes 

16 Estimating age 

2 Brands and branding and other marks of ownership 
28 Catalogs of brands 

3 Stock farms Ranches 

31 Descriptions of individual farms 

Alfabetic 

6 Finances and accounts 

7 Expenses 

71 Supplies, food, etc. 

73 Wages 

75 Insurance 

8 Returns, yield, profit 
81 Weight tables 

87 Stock farm catalogs 

88 Catalogs of sales 



AGRICULTURE 



636.082 Formation of stock 

Races, breeding, heredity, etc. 

1 Character of herd, flock, colony, etc. 

11 Species, races, breeds, strains; heredity, variation 

2 Herd books, stud books, flock books, etc. 

3 Composition of herd, flock, colony; sexes 

Including notes and articles about the different kinds 

31 Male 

32 Female 

33 Neuter (of bees) 

34 Castrated male Gelding 

35 " female 

36 Young animals 

37 Males 

38 Females 

4 Breeding Reproduction 
41 Breeding in and in 

Line breeding. Animals closelv related by blood 

43 Cross breeding 

431 Hybrid 

Individuals of different species 

432 M^tissage 

Individuals of different races 

44 Choice of parents 

45 Generation 

451 Sexual excitement: heat., tut 

453 Sexual union 

454 Impregnation 

Fusion of male and female element 

46 Laying of egs 

461 Nests 

47 Incubation Hatching 

47 1 Natural 

474 Artificial Incubators 

.083 Care of animals 

1 Bilding and installation 

Stalls, boxstalls, pens, nests 

2 Care of stables or houses 

Clenliness, bedding 

3 Care of animals 

Grooming, clipping 

37 Special care of young 

Brooders 636.5 

4 Care of feet Shoeing 

5 Care of animals outdoors 

Shepherds, watch dogs, etc. 

6 Acclimatization 

61 Protection from cold: blankets 

62 " " heat 

66 " " wind and rain 

7 Care of harnesses and accouterments 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



636.084 Feeding 

1 Feeding of young 

1 1 Suckling 

12 Weaning 

13 Hand or artific al feeding 

2 General methods of feeding 

21 In stables, houses, etc. 

22 In pasture 

23 Mountain pastures, ranches 

31 Special provisions: water, salt, etc. 

4 Ordinary, rational feeding 

41 Rations Amount and proportion 

42 Kind and times of feeding 
45 Substitutions Variety 

5 Feeding for special purposes 

51 For breeding time 

52 For increast production: milk, egs, etc. 

53 For work 

55 For fattening 

56 Forced feeding, cramming 

.085 Food 

1 Composition 

2 Nutritiv value 

3 Food experiments 

4 Commercial value 

5 Different kinds of food 

For individual foods see 638.086 and .087 

51 Fresh or green fodder 

52 Ensilage 

54 Dry fodder 

Hay, straw, grains 

57 Prepared foods 

Industrial residues Cakes of oily grain or fruit 

6 Preparation and use of food 

9 Adulterations of foods for animals 

.086 Foods 

Divided like 633 

13 Oats 

15 Corn 

2 • Forage crops, hay 

25 Straw 

255 Cornstalks 

32 Clover 
41 Beets 



AGRICULTURE 



636.087 Other foods 

4 Fruits 

Divided like 634 

5 Garden crops 

Divided like 635. Use only for material not coverd by subdivisions 
of 633 

6 Animal food 

7 Mineral foods: salt, condiments 

.088 Utilization and training of animals 

1 For breeding purposes 

2 For work 

3 For production of food : meat, egs, etc. 

4 For animal products 

Wool, skins, fethers, etc. 

6 Breaking, training, etc. 

61 To saddle, etc. for carrying purposes 

62 To harness, for work 
66 Special training 

661 Carrying messages 

662 Hunting 

.089 Hygiene, diseases, etc. 

Hygiene is usually better clast 614.9, and Diseases 610 

i Anatomy 
2 

3 Hygiene 

5 Remedies, materia medica 

6 Diseases 

7 Surgical operations 
.1 Horse 

. 1 1 Oriental horse 

Arabian, Persian, Tartar, Turkish, Barb 

.12 Speed horse, race horse, light type, ' hot blooded ' 
.121 

.122 English thorobred or running horse 

.127 Other European 

1 Russian Orloff trotters 

.128 American trotter or pacer 

Morgan 

.13 Saddle horse 

Hunter; military (charger, cavalry horse, etc.), American saddle, Kentucky 
saddle, cob. park hack, palfrey 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



636.14 Coach or carriage horses 

Harness horse 

.142 English coach 

1 Cleveland bay 

2 Yorkshire coach 

3 Hackney 

.143 German coach 

East Prussian or Trakehner, East Friesland, Rhenish Prussian, Mecklen- 
burg, Schleswig, Hanoverian, Oldenburg, Holstein 

.144 French coach, 1 demisang ' 

.145 Italian: Corsican 

.15 Draft horse, cart horse, hevy type, ' cold blooded ' 

.152 English 

1 Clydesdale 

2 Suffolk punch or draft 

3 Black or shire draft 

.154 French and Belgian 

1 Norman, Percheron 

2 Ardennais 

3 Boulonnais 

4 Breton 

5 Nivernais 

8 Belgian draft, Flanders dray, Flemish horse 

.158 American draft 

Conestoga 

.16 Ponies 

.161 Ponies for special purposes : polo 

.162 Scotch, English and Welsh 

1 Shetland 

2 Galloway 

4 Exmoor 

5 Dartmoor 

6 New Forest 

9 Welsh 

.168 American 

Mustang, bronco, Indian pony 

.18 Allied animals 

.182 Ass: jackass, donkey, burro 

Asiatic, Catalonian, Italian, Maltese 

.183 Mule, hinny 

.184 Zebra, quagga, etc. 

.185 Zebrule, zebroid 



AGRICULTURE 



Cattle Greater ruminants 

May be divided like 636.08 1-. 089, but for utilization use .21 

Uses 

Subdivide like 636.088 See note above 

English cattle 
Old stocks 

Forest cattle, wild white, Chillingham 

Beef breeds 
Short horns 

Durham 

Teeswater 

Lincolnshire 

Red shorthorn 
Hereford whitefaced 

Polled Hereford 
Sussex 

Scotch, Welsh and Irish beef breeds 
Aberdeen Angus 

Angus doddie, Buchan humblies. polled Aberdeen 

Galloway 

Blue gray 

West highland: Kyloe 
Black Welsh 

Dairy breeds 

Channel Hand cattle 

Alderney 
Jersey 
Guernsey 
Scotch and Irish dairy 

Ayrshire 

Dunlop 

Cunningham 
Kerry 

Dexter Kerry, Dexter shorthorn 

Dual purpose breeds 
Devon 

North Devon, Rubies, South Devon 

South Hams 

Hammers 

Polled Durham 
Red polled 

Norfolk 
Suffolk 
East Anglian 
Longhorn (English) 

Dishley 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



636.23 German, Dutch and Swiss cattle 

.232 Beef breeds 

.234 Dairy breeds 

1 Holstein 

2 Holstein Friesian 

3 East Friesian 

4 Oldenburg 
.235 Dutch 

1 Dutch Friesian, Netherland, North Holland 

4 Dutch belted: Lakenfelds, Lakenvelders, Veldlakers 

6 Danish 

7 Jutland 
.236 Dual purpose 
.237 Swiss 

1 Brown Swiss 

2 Simmental 

3 Bernese 

4 Spotted race 

.24 French and Belgian 

.242 Beef 

.244 Dairy 

1 Breton, Brittany 

.245 Belgian dairy 

1 Flamande, Flemish 

2 Rosenstein 

.246 Dual purpose 

1 Norman 

2 Cotentin 

. 2 7 Other European 

.271 Russian 

Kolmogorian 

.28 Other countries 

.282 American beef breed 

1 Longhorn, Texas steer 

.283 American dairy breed 

1 American Holderness, Holderness 

2 French Canadian, Quebec Jersey 

.29 Allied animals 

.291 Brahmin sacred cattle; zebu 

.292 Bison family 

1 Bison; American buffalo 

2 Cattalo 

Hybrid of bison and cow 

3 European bison 



AGRICULTURE 



636.293 Buffalo or water buffalo Bubalus 

Bhains, mhains, arna, arni (Hindu) 
Moonding (Sudan) 
Karbo or Karbon (Malay) 
Carabao (Philippines) 

.294 Deer, reindeer 

.295 Camel: Arabian, Bactrian; dromedary 

.296 Lama, llama, alpaca 

.2971 Yak 

2 Gayal, gaur 

636.3 Sheep, goats Smaller ruminants 

May be divided like 636.08 1 -.089, but for utilization use .31 

.3 1 Uses 

Subdivide like 636.088 See note above 

.32 English breeds 

.321 Longwool breeds (coarse wool) 

1 Cotswold 

2 Leicester 

English Leicester, New Leicester or Dishley, Bakewell's Leicester 

3 Border Leicester 

Halfbred or Leicester-Cheviot or Cheviot-Leicester or Upland Leicester 

4 Lincoln 

5 Kent or Romney marsh 

6 Wensleydale 

Bluefaced Wensleydale, Wensleydale longwool, Wensleydale blueface, 
Tees water 

7 Devon longwool, Southam nolts, Bampton nolts 

8 South Devon or South Dum 

9 Roscommon 

.322 

.323 Shortwool breeds 

Medium- wool; middle-wool; down sheep; mutton sheep 

1 Southdown, Sussex, Sussex down 

Including Underhill and Upperdown 

2 Hampshire down, improved Hampshire down, Wiltshire brook, 
Berkshire knot, Wiltshire hornd 

3 Dorset or West country down, Dorset horn, hornd Dorset 

4 Oxford or Oxfordshire down 

Before 1859 calld Down-Co tswold 

5 Suffolk down, old Norfolk, hornd Norfolk 

6 Shropshire down, Morfe common 
.3241 Dorset and Somerset horn 

2 Ryeland or Lempster 

3 Clun Forest, Wicklow (Irish) 

4 Kerry Hill (Irish) 

5 Radnor 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



636.325 Mountain breeds 

1 Cheviot 

2 Blackfaced 

Scotch blackface or blackfaced Scotch, Linton Forest, Lammermuir, 
Tweeddale, blackfaced highland 

3 Herdwick 

4 Lonk or Lank Lancashire blackfaced 

5 Penistone 

6 Limestone, Limestone Crag 

7 Ruf Swaledale 

8 Shetland, Orkney, Hebrides 
.3261 Derbyshire gritstone 

2 Dartmoor 

3 Exmoor Exmoor h6rn 

4 

5 

6 Cornwall 

7 W elsh mountain 

.33 German and Dutch breeds Swiss 

.331 Low country or marsh sheep 

Hornless and short taild 

1 Dutch Texel 

4 Friesian 

East and North Friesland. Eiderstedt, Ditmarsh, Butjading, Zealand 

7 Northeast German 

Vaga, Elbingen 

•333 Upland sheep, heath sheep (German heidsnucken) 

1 Pomeranian or Polish, Mecklenburg (Spiegelschaf) 

2 Hessian 

3 Bavarian or Zaupel Franconian (Frankenschaf) 

4 Rhine 

5 Hanoverian, Miinster 

6 Styrian or Carinthian 

.34 French and Flemish breeds 

.342 Central plateau breeds 

1 Auvergne 

2 

3 La Marche 

4 

5 Limousin 

6 

7 Saintonge 

.344 Loire basin and north France breeds 

1 Berrichonne (Crevant, Cher, Indre) 

2 Solognote (Sologne) 

3 Comtoise (Franche-Comte) 

4 Ardennes (Poitou) 

5 Percheron (Perche) 

6 Angevin (Anjou) 

7 Cotentin 

8 Bretagne 

9 Charmoise (Loir et Cher) 



AGRICULTURE 



636.346 Pyrenese breeds 

1 Basquaise 

2 Bearnaise 

3 Landaise 

4 Gasconne 

5 Lauraguaise 

6 Lot 

7 Albigeois 

8 Aveyron 

Varieties: Larzac, Lacaune, Olempe, Cevennes, Causse 

9 Barbarins 

Varieties: Millery, Lahune, Marthold 

.35 Italian 

Neapolitan: long, broad or fat taild Bergamasker; Paduan; Italian or Sar- 
dinian, mountain 

.36 Spanish breeds Merinos, etc. 

.361 Escurial or Estramadura 

.362 Guadaloupe 

.363 Pavlar 

.364 Infantado 

.365 Nigretti 

.366 Other Spanish 

Aguirre, Atwood, Montares, Leonese, Chu:ra 

.367 Other European merino breeds 

2 Britisi 

3 German 
i Prussian 

32 Hanoverian 

33 Saxon 

34 Silesian 

37 Hungarian 

4 French: Rambouillet 
8 Danish, Swedish, etc. 

.368 Other merino breeds 

1 American 

2 Delaine 
3 

4 Australian 

.37 Other European sheep 

.371 Russian 

.372 North Europe: Scandinavia, Iceland, Faroe ilands 

Ovis brachyura borealis 

•373 Southeast Europe 

Lon^ tail, broad or fat tail: Macedonian or Clementine 

Lon^ tail and small tail, mixt wool: Cretan, Macedonian, Wallachiai, 
Moldavian or Hungarian 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



636.38 Other countries 

.385 Asiatic 

Short tail, nornd: Tartar, Kalmuck, Kinghir, Buriat fat rump (ovis 

steatopyga); stump tail (ovis brachycerca). See also 636.386 

Short tail, hornless: Mecca fat rump, Chinese (ongtischaf), Persian 

Long tail, broad or fat tail, dumba (ovis platyura): Syrian, Anatolian, 

Karamanian or Levant, Persian, Bokhara 

Arabian or Bedouin 

Kabardian or Circassian 

.386 African sheep 

Long tail, broad or fat tail: Egyptian, Tunisian, Berber or Algerian 
Long and small tail, hevy fleece: Bischarin (Nubian), dinka (sheep with 
manes, ovis africana), high leg or Guinea sheep (Kon^o), Morvan 
(longipes) , Libyan or Fezzan, Zunu or Angola 
Stump tail (ovis brachycerca). See also 636.385 

.39 Goats 

May be divide! like 636.081-.089, but for utilization use .301 

.391 Uses 

Subdivide like 636.088 See note above « 

.392 British goats 

Irish goat, Ionghaird 
English goat, shorthaird 

.393 German and Austrian goats 

Hartz mt, Hinterwald, Hungarian, Langensalza, Saxony, Schwarzwald, 
Starkenburg, Westphalian, Wiesental 

6 Swiss goats 

Alpine or common goat 

Blackneckt Valais, Schwarzhals or Schwarztal, Glacier, saddle Guggisberg 

7 Toggenburg 

8 Appenzell or flat-heded 

9 Saanen or Sarnen, Gessenay or Gassenay 

.394 French goats: Tarentaise 

.395 Italian goats : Maltese 

.396 Spanish goats 

Hornless, Granada, Malaga 
Shorthaird reds, Spanish- Maltese 

.397 Other European goats 

.398 Other goats 

1 American goats 

5 Asiatic goats 

Tibet (China), Angora (Persia), Syrian 

54 India 

Kashmir (or shawl Tibet), Nepal (variety of Nubian), Surats, Tarh 
(shaggy brown Himalayan goat) 

6 African goats 

Abyssinian (or Nubian), Guinea 

62 Egypt 

Egyptian (or Nile), Theban, Zaraibi 



AGRICULTURE 



636.4 Swine 

May be divided like 636.081 -.089, but for utilization use .41 

.41 Uses 

Subdivide like 636.088. See note above 

.42 English breeds 

.421 Small black breeds 

Use also for small breeds in general 

1 Essex 

2 Sussex 

3 Suffolk 

.422 Small white breeds 

1 Windsor 

2 Small Yorkshire 

3 Coleshill 

.424 Large white breeds 

1 Yorkshire 

2 Lancashire 

3 Cumberland 

4 New Leicester 

5 Lincolnshire 

6 Suffolk 

.426 Medium colord breeds 

Use also for medium breeds in general 

1 Black Berkshire 

2 Red Tarn worth 

3 Red Berkshire 

.42 7 Medium white breeds 

1 Middle Yorkshire 

3 " Suffolk 

.43 German and Dutch breeds 

.431 Lowland breeds Southern Germany 

Use this also as general number for short-ear swine 

Bavarian Franconian Halle Suabian 

Diisseltaler Glanschwein Luzern Wurtemberg 

.432 Hungarian short ear 

Carpathian, Bergschlag 
Bakonyer or Bakouner 
Szalontaer 

•433 Western and Northern Germany 

Use this also as general number for large-ear. Large Polish, Meissner 

.434 German marsh swine, large ear 

Danish ilands Holland Mecklenburg Schleswig-Holstem 

Hanover Jutland Oldenburg Westphalia 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



636.44 French 

.441 Large-ear French Celtic breed 

Northeastern France 
Champagne 

.443 Northwestern France 

Breton 

Norman Augeronne 

Craonnoise 

Mancelle 

Angevin 

.445 Southwestern France Spanish origin 

French Perigord 

Quercy 

Limousin 

Gasconne 

Bearnaise 

.447 Southeastern France 

Provence 
Roussillon 
Languedoc 
Bressane 

.449 Swiss 

Grison Biindener 

.45 Italian, Neapolitan, Maltese, Tuscon, Romagnole 

.46 Spanish and Portuguese 

.47 Other European 

.471 Curly bristles Southeastern Europe 

.472 Serbian Syrmian 

Mongolicza or Mangalicza 
Curly-bristle Hungarian 
Milos 

Sumadia or Obrenovics 

.473 Croatian 

.474 Rumanian, Moldavian 

Anatolian 
Albanian 

♦475 Russian 

.48 Other countries 

.481 American breeds 

.482 Poland-China 

.483 Red Jersey or Duroc- Jersey 

.484 

.485 Asiatic: Chinese, Tonkin, Siamese 

.486 Africa 

Cape breeds, Sennaar. Guinea 

.489 Oceania 

Papuan 



AGRICULTURE 



636.5 Poultry 

May be divided like 636.08 1-.089, but for utilization use .51 

.51 Uses 

Subdivide like 636.088; e. g. 636.513 Capon. See note above 

.52 English breeds 

.521 Dorking 

.522 Sussex or Surrey 

.523 Kent 

.524 Orpington 

.525 Redcap 

.526 Other English 

Lincolnshire buffs 

.527 Scotch grays 

.528 Other Scotch 

Scotch bakies or dumpies Jumpers Dumbartonshire 

.53 German and Dutch breeds 

.531 Hamburg 

.532 Lakenf elder 

.533 Ramelsloher 

.536 Styrian 

.537 Bohemian 

.538 Other 

East Friesian, Westphalian, Thuringian, Alsatian, Nassau, Augsburg, etc 
Magyar 

.54 French and Belgian breeds 

.541 Crevecoeur 
.542 Houdan 

.543 La Fleche Le Mans Caux 

.544 La Bresse, Louhans, Bourg, Bourbourg, Barbezieux, 

Coussade, Courtes-pattes 
.545 Faverolles 
.546 Gournay, Pavilly, Caumont 

.547 Other 

Coucou, French cuckoo, Mantes, Estaires 

.548 Belgian breeds 

Campenes or Campines, or Brackel; Brabant. Huttegen 

Bredes or Guelders or Guelderlands. Coucou de Malines. Bruges 

.55 Italian breeds 

Use also as general number for Mediterranean breeds 

.551 Leghorn 

.552 Paduan or Polish (in England) 

Also called Pompadour, Padouse, Polanders 

.553 Polverara 
.554 Ancona 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



6 3 6 



►•56 


Spanish breeds 


.561 


Castilian 


.562 


Minorcan 


.563 


Black bpanisn 


•564 


Blue Andalusian 


•505 


rrat 


•57 


Other European 


•S7i 


Pavlon (Russian) 


•572 


Siberian fetherfooted 


•573 


Sultans 


.58 


Other countries 




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Java 


s 


Buckeye 


6 


Winnebago 


.582 


Plymouth rock 


.583 


Wyandotte 


.584 


Rhode Island red 




Asiatic breeds 


I 


Cochin China Shanghai 


2 


Brahmaputra Brahma, Gray Chittagong 


3 


Langshan 


4 


Malay 


7 


Japanese fowls 



White Yokohama 
Phoenix 

,587 Special varieties 

I Bantams 

I I Common 

12 Game 

13 Polish 

14 Asiatic 

15 Japanese 

588 Other 

1 Game 

11 Azeel or Aseel 

12 English game 

13 Sebright (a bantam only) 

14 Cornish Indian, or Indian (in England), or Cornish (in 
America) 

15 Malay 

2 Deformd 

Rumpless or tailless or Wallikiki; Turkey necks, naked necks, Gilli- 
kins, nude 

3 Silkies 

4 Frizzles 



AGRICULTURE 



636.59 Other fowls 

.592 Turkey 

1 Original species 

11 American, or N. American 1 original ' or wild turkey (mele- 
agris Americana) 

12 Mexican wild turkey (meleagris Mexicana) 

13 Honduras wild turkey (meleagris ocellata) 

14 Crested turkey 

2 Bronze 

English Cambridge turkey 

3 Narragansett 

4 Buff 

5 Slate or Austrian whites (in England) 

6 White, or White Holland (in America) 

7 Black, or Norfolk or black Norfolk (in England) 

8 Bourbon red, or Bourbon butternut, or Kentucky red 
.593 Guinea fowl 

.594 Fezant 

.595 Peacock 

.596 Pigeons 

1 High class fancy pigeons 

1 1 Pouters 

12 English carrier 

13 Runt 

14 Barb 

1 5 Shortf ace tumbler 

2 High class toy pigeons 

21 Fantail 

22 Owls 

23 Turbits 

24 Frilbacks 

25 Jacobins 

26 Trumpeters 

27 Scandaroons 

28 Florentine amalgamated, Hen 

31 Dragoon, Horseman 

32 Priests 

33 Brunswick 

34 Oriental frils 

35 Homers, white homing, Antwerp 
4 

5 Other toy pigeons 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



636.597 Ducks 

2 English breeds 

2 1 Aylesbury 

22 Indian runner 

23 Blue Swedish 
4 French breeds 

Rouen, colord Rouen, also cald Rhone and Roan 

8 Other countries 

81 American 

82 Cayuga, black Cayuga 

Also called Big black and Lake duck 

83 Muscovy 

Colord Muscovy, Musk duck, white Muscovy 

85 Asiatic: Pekin, white Pekin 
By Chinese cald Mandarin 

.598 Goose 

3 German: Emden, white Emden 

4 French: Toulouse, gray Toulouse 

7 Sebastopol 

8 Other countries 

81 Wild or Canadian Gray wild 

85 Chinese: white, brown 

86 African 

Also cald Indian, gray African and Guinea 

87 Egyptian Colord Egyptian 
89 Spurwing (Australia) 

.6 Birds 

For poultry see 636.5. Here are clast domesticated birds useful for plumage or 
work, and pet birds 

.61 Birds useful for their f ethers 

For geese see 636.598 

.611 Ostriches 
.62 

.68 Song and ornamental birds 

.681 Swan 
.686 Cage and aviary birds 

.7 Dogs 

May be subdivided like 636.081 — .089, but for uses see 636.72 — .765 

.71 Breeds 

.72 Utility dogs 
.73 Draft and other work dogs 

,74 Watch dogs, herd dogs 

,75 Hunting and sleuth dogs Carrier dogs 

.76 Pet dogs 
,765 Toy dogs 

,77 Dogs in art 

See also 758 Animal painting 

,78 Dogs in literature 

Essays, stories, biografy, etc. 

79 Other topics 



AGRICULTURE 



636.8 Cats 

.81 Breeds 

.87 Cats in art See also 758 Animal painting 

.88 Cats in literature 

Essays, stories, etc. 

.9 Other: rabbits, guinea pigs, elefants, etc. 

637 Dairy and dairy products 

.1 Milk 

.11 Economics 
.113 Dairy farms 

Description of individual farms 

.116 Finances and accounts 
.117 Expenses 
.118 Returns 

.1185 Sale price 

. 1 2 Production and composition 

.121 Choice of dairy cows 

.122 Special food 

.124 Milking 

Milk pails, milk stools, milking tube 

.125 Artificial milkers 

.127 Composition of milk 

1 Fat 

2 Lactose, milk sugar, lactin; galactin 

3 Casein 

6 Milk testing 

Creamometer Lactobutyro meter Lactodensimeter Lactoscope 
Galactometer Lactocrite Lactometer Percent tuba 

7 Milk analysis 
.13 Care of milk 

.131 Bildings, dairies 

.132 Installation, apparatus 

1 Refrigerating apparatus, milk cooler 

2 Heating apparatus 

3 Pasteurizers 

7 Receptacles Storage Milk pans 

.133 Preservation 

1 Chilling 

2 Heating 

3 Pasteurizing 

.135 Transportation and sale of milk 

Milk cars, milk wagons, bottles, cans 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



.14 Utilization Consumption 

.141 Whole milk 

.142 Condenst milk 

.143 Milk powder 

.144 " farina 

.145 " sugar 

.146 Fermented milk Kumis 

.147 Skim milk 

.148 Cream 

.16 Accidents Alterations Diseases Impurities Adul- 
terations 

.17 Milk other than cow's milk 

.171 Mare's milk 

.172 Ass's " 

.173 Ewe's " 

.174 Goat's " 

.18 Substitutes for' milk 

.181 Vegetable milks 

.2 Butter 

.21 Economics 

.216 Finances and accounts 

,217 Expenses 

.218 Returns 

.2185 Sale price 

. 2 2 Composition 

.221 Character and properties of butter 

.222 Constituents of butter 

.223 Grades of butter 

.225 Butter testing 

.227 " analysis 

.23 Preparation of butter 

.231 Bildings Creameries Butter factories 

.232 Installation, apparatus 

1 Separators 
1 1 Skimmer 
12 

13 

1 4 Centrifugal separators 

2 Churns 

3 Washers 

4 Workers 

8 Presses, molds, stamps, etc. 



AGRICULTURE 



.233 Butter making 

1 Separating cream 

2 Churning 

3 Washing 

4 Working 

5 Salting 

6 Pasteurization 

7 Ripening 

.235 Transportation and packing 

1 Methods of packing Receptacles 

.24 Utilization Consumption 

Including residues 

.247 Buttermilk 

.26 Alterations Diseases Impurities Adulterations 

.27 Renovation 

.28 Substitutes for butter 

.281 Oleomargarin 

.282 Butterin 

.3 Cheese 

.3 1 Economics 

.316 Finances and accounts 

.317 Expenses 

.318 Returns 

5 Sale prices 

.32 Character and composition 

.321 Character and properties 

.322 Constituents 

.323 Grades of cheese 

.325 Cheese testing 

.327 Cheese analysis 

.33 Cheese manufacture 

.331 Cheese factories 

.332 Installation, apparatus 

1 Borlen 

2 Curd mils 

3 Presses 

.333 Cheesemaking 

1 Curdling Rennet 

2 Refining 

3 Pressing 

4 Heating 

8 Putting in molds 

•335 Transport, packing, etc. 

1 Packing 

2 Storage 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



^37-34 Utilization Consumption 

Including by-products 

.345 Milk sugar 

•347 Whey butter 

.35 Varieties 

.351 Rennet cheese from cow's milk 

.352 Soft cheese, fresh, unripend 

•353 " " ripend 

2 English 

3 German: Limburger 

4 French: Brie, Camembert, Neufchatel 

5 - Italian: Gorgonzola 
.354 Hard cheese 

2 English: Cheshire, Cheddar, Sage, Stilton 

3 German, Swiss, etc.: Emmental, Edam 

4 French: Gruyere, Gex 

5 Italian: Parmesan 
6 

7 Other European 

.355 Rennet cheese from other than cow's milk 

1 From sheep's milk: Roquefort, Texel 

2 " goat's " 

3 " reindeer " 

4 " buffalo " 

.356 Sourmilk cheese from cow's milk 

Cottage cheese, Dutch cheese, pot cheese, smear -case 

•357 Sourmilk cheese from other than cow's milk 

638 Bees, silkworms, etc. 

Insects whose products ar useful for food or manufactures 

.1 Bees, honey, wax 
.2 Silkworms 
.3 Cochineal 

639 Hunting, trapping, fish culture, etc. 

See also 799 for sporting side 

Hunting, trapping, game preservs, etc. 

Fox, skunk, etc. farms 

.2 Fishing as an occupation 

.3 Fish culture Pisciculture 

Including turtle, terrapin, frogs 

Oysters and other mollusks Shelfish 

Oyster, clam, mussel, snail, pearlfishing, scallop, quohog, cockle, winkle, periwinkle. 

. 5 Crustaceans 

Lobsters, crabs, crawfish, shrimps, prawns 

.6 Other sea food 

Sea urchin, echinus 

•7 

.8 Leeches 



DOMESTIC ECONOMY 



640 Domestic economy 



Public as well as private household administration covering work of housekeeper, 
matron, steward, janitor, etc. in hotels, clubs, apartments, boarding houses, 
schools, restaurants, factories, offis and other commercial bildings, churches, 
theaters, railway stations, ships and other public gathering places. 
For economics of consumption, including standards of living, see 339; for care of 
library bildings see 025.9. Numbers for allied subjects in army and navy will 
be provided under military and naval science. See also 331-83 Food, clothes 
and shelter of laboring classes 

SUMMARY 

641 Food, cookery 

642 Serving, entertaining 

643 Shelter, house, home 

644 Heat, light, ventilation 

645 Furniture, furnishings Decoration 

646 Clothing, toilet 

647 Administration, household management 

648 Sanitary precautions, cleaning 

649 Nursery, sickroom 

.1 Theories, utility, etc. .4 Essays 

.2 Compends .5 Periodicals 

.3 Dictionaries, cyclopedias .6 Societies 

.7 Study and teaching 

Schools of housekeeping, experiment stations. Investigations of home con- 
ditions. For cooking schools see 641 .07 

.71 Schools and experiment stations 

See 630.7 Agricultural schools, farmers institutes; 630.6 Farmers associa- 
tions, granges, etc; 371.42 Manual training courses; 371.6764 Labora- 
tory equipment for home economics courses; 375.64 Place in curriculum; 
educational values. 640.7 11-. 74 may be used for keeping all phases of 
the subject in 640 

.711 College and university courses and departments 

Schools of college grade 

.712 Secondary courses; high school 

.713 Elementary courses; below high school 

.714 Extension work 

Courses for special needs: women's clubs, farmers' wives, etc. 

.72 Research work: experiment stations, graduate courses 

For Sage foundation see 306 

,73 Normal courses, teachers institutes, etc. 

.74 Exhibits Museums 

.9 History 

641 Food Cookery 

For physiology of nutrition, see 612.39; for dietetics and dietary 
standards, 613.2; for food values, 641.1 

.01 Gastronomy Epicurism 

Plesures of eating, esthetics of cookery, epicures (gourmets). For 

gluttony, see 178.91 and 613.25 
.02 Compends 
.03 Dictionaries, cyclopedias 

.04 Essays, addresses, lectures 

.05 Periodicals 
.06 Societies 

.07 Study and teaching Cooking schools, classes and clubs 

.08 Polygrafy 

.09 History and description 

Divided like 930-999. Including foods characteristic of different peonies, 
but for preparation of specific dishes (i. e. recipes) peculiar to special 
countries see 641 . 59 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



641. i Food chemically considerd Food values Tables 

For methods of chemical analysis see 543.1; for adulterations see 614.3; for 
commercial preparation or manufacture see 664; for physiology of nutrition 
see 612.39; for dietetics see 613.2 

612.39 treats of physiologic effect of different kinds and quantities of foods 
from purely scientific point of view, without regard to benefit or injury 
613.2 treats of food requirements in special conditions of age or disease and of 
the beneficial or injurious effects of different kinds of foods 

641. 1 translates scientific facts into familiar terms for cook and housekeeper, 
treats of the required amount of the different constituents and their propor- 
tion as found in various foods 

. 1 1 Organic food constituents 

.12 Proteids or nitrogenous foods 

Meat, egs, nuts, legumes, etc. See also 612.398 

.13 Carbohydrates or nonnitrogenous foods 

Vegetables, cereals, fruits, sugar See also 612.396 

.14 Fats, oils 

See also 612.397 

.15 Inorganic food constituents 

. 1 6 Water 

.17 Salts, mineral or ash constituents 

.3 Animal and vegetable foods 

Class here also works dealing both with food material and its preparation 
Subdivided like 630 e.g. 641.33, Cereals, 641.34 Fruits 

.31 Prices Relativ cost 

Quality and other factors in buying for table 

.4 Food preservation Markets 

Subdivide like 664 (not yet completed) 

For commercial methods see Chemic technology 664 . 8- . 9; tor transportation 
see 656 (subdivision not completed) 

.5 Cookery Cook books 

General recipes, specific directions, in whatever form (books, cards, etc) for 
preparing food 

Distinction between 612.39, 613.2 and 641.5: in 641.5 class cook books and 
collections of recipes in which physiologic and hygienic effects of foods (if 
treated at all) are secondary; in 613 .2 class dietaries and selection and prepara- 
tion of food for special systemic conditions, with recipes subsidiary or with 
recipes and diet about evenly balanced; in 612.39 class the scientific study of 
physiologic effects of various foods, regardless of benefit or injury 
See also 641.59 Recipes peculiar to special countries; 641.6 Cookery of specific 
substances; 641.7 Cookery by specific processes; 641.8 Composit dishes, ices, 
confectionery, beverages 



.52 Brekfast 

.53 Luncheon, afternoon tea, supper 

.54 Dinner 

.55 Economic cookery 

.56 Special conditions 

Under limitations of age, helth, ethical or religious theories, etc 

.562 Children 

.563 Invalids and aged Hospital cookery 

.564 Ethical limitations 

.565 Religious limitations 

.566 Seasons and days : Lent, fast days, etc. 

.567 Cults : Jews, Buddhists, etc. 



DOMESTIC ECONOMY 



641.57 Special situations 

Adaptation to large numbers, large variety, and limitations of time, place 
or appliances 

.572 Hotel and restaurant cooking 
.573 Army and navy cooking 

See also 355 

.574 Shipboard cooking 

Exclusiv of navy 

•575 Camp and travel cooking 
.576 Railway dining and buffet cars 

.577 Itinerant companies; circuses, etc. 

Methods of feeding large numbers en route or in temporary shelters 

.578 Camp cooking 

.58 Special utensils or fuels 

.583 Cooking by oil 

Including oil and gas together 

.584 Cooking by gas 

.585 Cooking by alcohol Chafing dish recipes 

.586 Cooking by electricity 

.587 Cooking by apparatus heated by steam or hot water 

.588 Cooking by slowly applied heat 

Aladdin ovens, fireless cookers 

.59 Cookery of special countries 

Class here descriptions of national cookery or recipes for dishes character- 
istic of special countries or regions 

.591 Frigid zone and cold wether 
.592 Tropics and hot wether 

Divide farther like 930-999, using these numbers preferably only for 
reference and shelving books under 641.5-.578 

.6 Cookery; clast by material 

Subdivide like 641.3 

.7 Cookery ; clast by process 

.71 Baking, roasting 
.72 Braising 

.73 Boiling, simmering Soups 

.74 Stewing 

.75 Steaming 

.76 Broiling, grilling 

.77* Frying, sautering 

.8 Composit dishes 

Ices, confectionery, beverages, etc. See also 641.53 Luncheon, afternoon tea. 
supper 

.81 

.82 Entrees Made dishes 

.83 Salads 

.84 Sandwiches 

.85 Confectionery, candies, sweets, bonbons 
.86 Ices: ice cream, sherbet, water ices, etc. 
.87 Beverages Soft drinks 

See also 663 Manufacture of beverages; 663.8 Bartenders manuals mixing 
drinks; 613.3 Hygiene of beverages 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



642 Serving Table Entertaining 

See also 395 Etiquet 

.1 Home and family meals 

Brekfast, lunch, dinner, supper. Menus and servis 
For tables of chemic constituents and calories see 641 . 1 

.2 Refreshments 

Afternoon tea, sandwiches, ices, soft drinks 

.3 Camp, picnic and travel lunches 

Lists of supplies; suitable food and dishes; packing and accessories. For 
recipes see 641.53: for camp cookery see 641.578 

.4 Entertaining 

.41 Private entertainments 
.42 Small numbers 

Luncheons, dinners, etc. 

.43 Large numbers 

Receptions, balls, garden parties, etc. 

.45 Public entertainments 

Banquets, dinners, clambakes, etc. For history of banquets, dating, etc. 
see 394.1 under Public and social customs. For dining room see 643.4 

.48 Toasts Table anecdotes and conversation 

See also table talk in literary miscellany 

.5 Table systems for large numbers 

.51 Table d'hdte 

.52 American plan 

.53 European plan, a la carte 

.54 Club: choice of combinations 

.55 Harvard Memorial hall plan 

Harvard university plan of a fixt charge for essentials, and coupons 
(alimentary milage) for extras 

.56 Mixt plan 

Table d'hote and a la carte; table d'hote and club 

.57 Lunch counters Cafeteria 
.58 School lunch rooms 

Management, prices, rules for payment, suitable food, freedom of choice, etc 
See also 371.716 School meals 

.6 Serving Carving 

Directions for setting table, changing courses, etc. 

.7 Table furnishings 

Linen, china, glass, plate, etc. Preferably clast here, tho possible to be con- 
siderd part of 645.66 Dining room furnishings ^ 

.8 Table decoration 

Selection and effectiv arrangement of flowers, colors, lights, centerpieces etc. 



DOMESTIC ECONOMY 



643 Shelter: house, home 

For types of houses and plans see 725, 727 and 728; for materials and construction 
see 690; for heating and ventilation see 628.8, 644 and 697; for lighting, 628.9 and 
644.3; for plumbing and gasfitting see 696; for furnishing see 64s 

.1 Location, site 

Social and religious character of neighborhood; accessibility, railways, tramways, 
etc; nearness to churches, schools, markets, etc. Property increasing or decreas- 
ing in value 

For hygiene of soil and grounds (city, village or country) see 614.77; for Sanita- 
tion, water supply and drainage see 628 

.2 Plan 

Requirements of house for convenient and economic administration; relativ 
situation and intercommunication of rooms, amount and direction of light, etc. 
Special rooms: kitchen, dining room, baths, etc. For detacht rooms and bild- 
ings see 728.9; for furnishing see 645; for architectural aspect of structural parts 
of house (foundation, floors, walls, etc.) see 721; for wall finish see 729.31 

.3 Kitchen and its equipment 

.31 Plan: situation and arrangement 

Relation to rest of house. Housekeeper's requirements as guide to architect. 
Light. For plans see 728 Residences, and 728.93 Detacht kitchens 

.3 2 Ventilation 

Carrying off odors, etc. 

.33 Stoves, ranges, cookers, hot tables, fuels 

See also 641.58 Cooking by special utensils or fuels 

.331 Fireplaces, open fires: turnspit, crane, etc. 

.332 Coal and wood Stoves and ranges 

.333 Oil and oil stoves 

.334 Gas and gas stoves 

Including natural gas and acetylene 

.335 Alcohol and alcohol stoves Chafing dish 

.336 Electricity and electric stoves 

.337 Steam heated cooking appliances Steam tables 

.338 Slow and fireless cookers 

Aladdin oven, Norwegian haybox. See also 641 .588 

.34 Machinery and laborsavers 

.35 Utensils 

.36 Pastry room 

.37 Storeroom, larder Refrigerators 

.38 Care of kitchen and accessory rooms 
•39 

.4 Dining room and adjuncts 

.45 Serving room Butler's pantry 

.47 Other pantries 

.48 Cupboards 

.5 Other special rooms 

.52 Baths, lavatories, toilets 

.57 Sun rooms, solariums: sleeping balconies, etc. 

.58 Laundry 

Place in house; for equipment see 648. See also 728.93 Detacht laundries 

.6 Laborsavers 

General: bells, telefones, tubes, lifts, chutes, door openers and closers, etc. See 
also special subjects; e.g. 648.52 Vacuum cleaners 

.7 Repair 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



644 Heat Light Ventilation 

.1 Systems of heating 

Desiderata, relativ advantages for household 

For varieties of apparatus and installation see 607; for sanitary engineering 
see 628.8 

.15 Fireplaces Family harthstone 

Open fire as household institution; mental influence 
Sanitary advantages. See also 749 Artistic fireplaces 

,19 Portable heaters: bedwarmers, warming pans, footwarmers 

.2 Fuels 

Relativ cost; clenliness; labor involved, e.g. hauling and carrying wood or coal 
and removing ashes. Chimney sweeping 

.21 Wood 

. 2 2 Coal 

.23 Oil, gasoline, etc. 

.24 Gas 

.26 Electricity 

.3 Systems of lighting 

Fixtures, fittings, accessories. Class here general discussion covering fixtures 
and medium, their relativ advantages, etc. For medium alone see 644.31; for 
fixtures see 644.32 



•3* 


Lighting medium 




See also Chemic technology 665 


*« 


Candles 


.312 


Oil 


•313 


Gas 


.314 


Acetylene 


•315 


Electricity 




See also 621.32 Electric lighting 


•319 


Other 


•32 


Apparatus and accessories 




Subdivide each, if wisht, like 644.31 


.321 


Hand lamps Candlesticks 


.322 


Lanterns 


.323 


Table, banquet and piano lamps 


.324 


Standards 


•325 


Wall lamps Sconces 


.326 


Chandeliers Ceiling fixtures 


•5 


Ventilation 



Most material belongs elsewhere: hygienic influence of air and light 613. 1; 
sanitary engineering 628.8; ventilating apparatus 697.9. For advantages of 
fireplaces see 644. 15 



DOMESTIC ECONOMY 



Furniture, carpets, upholstery Decoration 

For plan and furnishing treated together see 643 

See also hygiene 613.59; architectural decoration 729; design 745; artistic furni- 
ture 749; manufactures of cotton, wool, etc. 677 

1 Floor coverings : carpets, rugs 

2 Wall coverings 

3 Window and door furnishings 

Screens, shades, awnings, draperies, wether strips 

4 General furniture 

See also 645.6 Furnishings for special rooms 

41 Chairs Footstools 

42 Couches Settees 

43 Tables 

44 Desks 

47 Cushions, pillows, etc. 

48 Linen 

Removable furniture covers, centerpieces, etc. See also 642.7 Table fur- 
nishings; 645.67 Bedroom furnishings 

49 Other 

5 Ornaments 

Clocks, vases, pictures, statuary, etc. See also 739 Bronzes, brasses bricabrac 

6 Special rooms 

For kitchen see 643 -3 ', for laundry see 648 

61 Hall and stairs 

Hatracks, umbrella stands, etc. 

62 Drawing room Reception room Parlor 

63 Library 

64 Study or offis 

65 Living room 

I Class here furnishings of room used as combined reception room, library and 

I living room 

66 Dining room 

For table equipment and decoration see 642. 7-. 8 

67 Bedrooms and nursery 

Sleeping balconies, open air bedrooms Beds and bedding, linen, etc. For 
nursery see also 649 

68 Bathrooms Lavatories Toilets 

Fittings and supplies. See also 646.7 Bathing 

69 Other rooms 

Music, billiard and ball rooms, picture gallery, servants rooms, cellar, attic 

8 Outdoor space 

Verandas, balconies, roof gardens 

For sleeping balconies see 645.67. See also 712 Private grounds; 717 Arbors, 
seats, outlooks 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



6 Clothing Toilet 

See also ethics of dress, display 177 .4; ecclesiastic costume 247.7; clothing as 
related to economics of laboring classes 33 1 . 83 ; bleaching and dyeing 667. 1- . 3; 
academic costume 378.29; history of costume 391; clothesmaking 687; hygiene of 
clothing 613.48; adulteration of textils 614.37; for uniforms and liveries see 
occupations to which they pertain 

.01 Psychology and economics of fashions 

Reasons for change of fashions; expense of fashionable dressing 

.02 Compends 

.03 Dictionaries, cyclopedias 

.04 Essays, lectures, addresses 

.05 Periodicals 

.06 Societies Dress reform societies 

.07 " Study and teaching 

.08 Polygrafy 

.09 Adaptation to climate or season 

.091 Clothing for cold wether and frigid zones 

.092 " " hot " " tropics 

.1 Materials Textils and fibers 

With reference to domestic use, or domestic use and hygiene combined. For 
hygiene of materials see 613.481; for general works on textils and fibers see 
677 Manufacture of textils 

1 1 Cotton 

.12 Linen Flax Hemp 

.13 Wool Mohair, alpaca, camel's hair, rabbit's hair, etc. 

. 1 4 Silk 

. 1 5 Lether 

.16 Fur 

.17 Other animal materials: fethers, hair, whalebone 

.18 Other vegetable materials 

.181 Rubber 

.182 Paper 

.183 Celluloid 

.184 

.185 Straw Raffia 
.186 Other fibers: jute 

.19 Other materials Tinsel, aluminum, asbestos, etc. 

.2 Sewing Knitting Crochet 

For fancywork see 746 

.21 Plain sewing 

Running, backstitching, hemming, overhanding, etc. 

.24 Mending Darning 

.26 Knitting and crochet Tatting 

For machineknit goods see 677 

.27 Crochet 

.3 Clothing divided by wearers 

Class here trade catalogs; e.g. Liliputian bazar catalog 646.36 
See also 391 Costume; 687 Clothesmaking as a trade 

.32 Clothing for men 
.34 " " women 

.36 " " children 



DOMESTIC ECONOMY 



646.4 Clothing divided by purpose 

Including directions to amateurs for cutting and making, economic use of 
material, suitability of material for purpose, adaptation of style to material 
and purpose, choice of color, etc. For limitation to special kinds of garments 
see subdivisions below; e.g. patterns or catalogs of underwear 646.42 
Subdivisions .42-. 48 may be farther divided by 2 Men, 4 Women, 6 Children 

.42 Underwear 

.43 Outer house garments 

Gowns or dresses, coats, trousers, etc. 

.45 Outdoor garments 

Cloaks, coats, overcoats, shawls, sweters, etc. See also 646.5 Hedgear, 
millinery; 646.48 Accessories: gloves, mufflers, etc. 

.46 Outer footwear 

For hose see 646.42 

.47 Garments for special purposes 

Negligee, lounging or smoking, yachting, bathing, hunting, riding, etc. 

.48 Accessories 

Neckties, collars, cuffs, belts, aprons, caps, handkerchiefs, gloves, mufflers, 
garnitures, etc. 

For outdoor hedgear see 646 . 5 

.5 Millinery Outdoor hedgear 

See 687 Millinery as a business 

.52 Hats, caps, etc. for men 

.54 Hats and bonnets for women 

.55 Other outdoor hedgear for women 

Hoods, scarfs, etc. 

.56 Hedgear for children 

.57 For boys 

.58 - girls 

.6 Cleaning Drycleaning 

For laundry see 648 . 1 

.7 Toilet Cosmetics Bathing 

Care of hair, nails, teeth, etc. 

For historic customs see 391 .5-. 6. See also hygiene, 613 .4 care of body 

647 Household organization and administration 

.1 Household accounts: finances, cost 

See also bookkeeping 657 

.2 Personnel 

Intelligence offis, employment bureau 

Class here regular employees or assistants; for occasional employees see 647.29. 
For ethical considerations, see 173 .8. See also political economy, 331 Labor 
and wages 

.21 Manager 

Superintendent, housekeeper, steward. See also 640.8 

.22 Male employees 
.23 Female " 
.24 Foren " 

Races and nationalities: orientals, negroes, etc. 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



Indoor servis 

Cook, butler, waitress, parlor maid, lady's maid, chambermaid, nurse, 
laundress, furnaceman, etc. For housekeeper, steward, etc. see 647.21; for 
outdoor servis see 647.3 

Other employees 

Emergency help, household registers 

Servis outside the house 

Coachman, gardener, laborers 

Wages Hours Duties 
Cooperativ and collectiv housekeeping 

Hotels, clubs, apartments, commercial bildings, churches and other public and 
semipublic establishments or rooms 

See also 692.9 Bilding laws; 728 Residence architecture 

Tenements 

See also 728.1 Tenement house architecture; 331.83 Housing of laboring 
classes, including tenement house laws; 613.53 Hygiene of tenements 

Apartments, flats 

See also 728.2 Apartment house architecture 

Cooperativ housekeeping 

See also 334.4 for economic aspect 

Hotels Clubs 

See also 728.4 Clubhouse architecture; 728.5 Hotel architecture 

Restaurants, tea rooms, etc. 

See also 642.5 Table systems for large numbers 

Public bildings Institutions 

General administration and care affecting helth and convenience of occu- 
pants and public; janitor's duties. May be subdivided if wisht like 725; 
e.g. 647.962 Administration of offis bildings, or 647.9623 if so close 
classification is preferd 

See also 362 Hospitals, asylums, etc; 365 Prisons 

Cottage systems 

Sanitary precautions: laundry, cleaning 

Laundry Washing 

Private, cooperativ, public. For other processes of clothes cleaning see 646.6 
Dry cleaning. For sanitary precautions see 648. 5-. 6; for pests see 648.7 

Administration Accounts 

Marking 
Equipment 

Collectiv; specifications and cost. Class specific appliances with processes 
to which they belong 

Hand equipment 
Power " 
Supplies 

Soap, starch, bluing, powders, reagents 

Washing 

Requirements of temperature, ingredients, etc. for different materials Wash- 
ing directions 

Washing by hand 

" machine 
Starching 
Bluing Tinting 



DOMESTIC ECONOMY 



648.3 Drying Driers Extractors Wringers 

Confined or open air Temperature Effect on dyes of freezing, etc. 

.4 Ironing 

.42 By hand Sad irons 

Electric and gas heated irons, etc. 

.43 By machine Collar and shirt machines, fluting irons, etc. 

.45 Power machinery Mangle 

.5 Cleaning and sanitation of house or bilding 

See for sanitary engineering 628; for plumbing 696; for dry cleaning 646.6; for 
chimney sweeping 644.2 

.52 Sweeping and dusting 

Floors, walls, moldings, furniture; implements, vacuum cleaners, etc. 

.54 Washing 

Porcelain, glass, windows, mirrors, paint, including table ware, bricabrac 
and fixtures. For washing textils see 648.2 

.55 Polishing 

Silver, knobs, scutcheons, pipes and other metals 

.6 Disinfecting 

Waste pipes, traps, etc. Household disinfectants. See also 649.8 Care o 
sickroom; and public helth, 614.48 Disinfecting apparatus 

.7 Pests; traps, poisons, insectifuges 

649 Nursery Sickroom 

This provides for persons requiring special adjustment of household administra- 
tion: children and invalids 

.1 Care of children 

See also 136 . 7 Child study; 1 73 . 5 Duties of parents 

.2 Rooms Nursery 
.3 Food 

See also 613.22 Diet of infants; 641.5 Cookery for children 

.4 Clothing and care of body 

See also 646.36 Children's clothing, outfit and making; 646 4 Clothing for 
various purposes; 613.4 Hygiene of bathing and clothing 

.5 Exercise Recreation 

See also 613.7 Hygiene of recreation; 790 Amusements 

.55 Amusements: toys, dolls games 

. .6 Manners Habits 

See also 173 .6 Duties of children 

•7 

.8 Care of invalids and the infirm Sickroom 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 

Communication Business 

.01 Theory .02 Compends .03 Dictionaries, cyclopedias .04 Essays, 
addresses .05 Periodicals .06 Societies, conventions .07 Study and 
teaching .08 Collections .09 History 

I Offis economy (tentativ scheme) 

The following table is publisht tentativly, with a view to its recieving further criti- 
cism before being finally incorporated in the Classification, and being therefore liable 
to considerable change it has not been indext 

In industries and mercantil business 651 represents the nonproductiv branch, overhed 
charges. See 658 for productiv branch alone of manufacturing or mercantil concern 

REFERENCES TO ALLIED SUBJECTS 

029 Literary methods and laborsavers 

613.6 Hygiene of employment 648.5 Cleaning 

.7 " recreation and sleep .6 Disinfecting 

628.6 Sanitation, house drainage .7 Pests 

.8 Ventilation and heating 696 Plumbing 

.9 Lighting 697 Heating and ventilation 

(construction) * 

SUMMARY 
Environment .1 Space 

Equipment 
Structure .3 Organization 
Function .4 Administration 

5 Records 

6 Special material 

7 Correspondence 

1 Offis bildings and rooms 

See also 72S Public bildings (architecture) 

I I Location 

Separate bildings; rooms in manufacturing bildings, in offis bildings, etc 

e 2 Site 

With reference to space, air, light, soil, slope of ground, etc. 

13 Provision for growth 

14 Arrangement 

For economy of time and space; floor space, wall space 

16 Special rooms 

Directors, trustees Typers 

Manager Lunch and conversation rooms 

Accountant Rest rooms 

Dictation Safety vaults, safes 

19 Safety 

See 614 8 

2 Equipment 

2 2 Fixtures 

Partitions, counters, ledges, gates, stationary shelv< 

2 3 Furniture 

231 Chairs, stools, settees 

232 Tables 
,233 Desks 

234 Revolving cases 

.236 File cabinets, vertical files 

See also 651.54 Storage methods 



OFFIS ECONOMY 



651.24 Furnishings and decoration 

Put here only material limited to offis. For other relations see Decoration 
in Relativ index 

.241 Floor coverings 

Subdivided like 022.96 

.242 Wall treatment: covering or finish, pictures 

.243 Window and door furnishings (shades, curtains, 

portieres) 
.26 Mecanical appliances 

For general or common use or belonging to a centralized sistem; nonindi- 
vidual; not limited to a special department 

See also 652 Typers, duplicators, addressing machines, telautografs; 
657 Protectografs, bookkeeping machines and machines f or checks, handling 
money, etc. 

.262 Oral communication: telefones (wall, desk, in booth) 

Offis requirements and accessories. Number, location 

See for telefone business 654.6; for telefone engineering 621.385 

5 Local sistems: interfones 

8 Speaking tubes 

.263 Dictating machines 

.264 Calculators, tabulators, statistical and adding machines 

See also 510.8 

If closer classification is needed ad heds below: 

I Adding machines 

II Listing 

Those devised primarily for adding, even tho capable of other pro 
cesses (multiplying, dividing, subtracting) by special manipulation 

12 Nonlisting 

13 Tally counters 

3 Approximate calculating devices 

Based on logarithmic scale: slide rules, etc. 

4 Exact calculating devices (mecanical) 

5 Grafic or area calculators Planimeters 

6 Statistical machines; e. g. sorting or tabulating: Hollerith 
8 Tables, charts, special coordinate papers 

.265 Numbering machines 

.266 Fastener, seal and other presses 

For multigraf and other duplicators see 652 

.267 Mail and shipping room devices 

Letter and merchandise scales; folders, wrappers, etc. 

.268 Lifts, carriers, pneumatic tubes, etc. 

Local, between desks or separate rooms of same offis 

See also Engineering 621.86 Hoisting and conveying machinery; 621.59 
for construction and 654.8 for operation and sistems of pneumatic tubes 

.269 Other mecanical devices 

.3 Organization 

See also 347.7 Commercial law, for legal rights and restrictions; 380 Commerce 
and communication, for relations of corporations to state and public; 658.1 for 
financial organization of a business enterprise 

.32 Work 

Branches, departments, divisions, sections, etc. 

.321 Planning department 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



651.34 Workers 

Offis alone and those common to both offis and productiv branch. See 658.4 
for those having to do with productiv branch alone. May, if desired, be farther 
divided like 658.434. Topics covcrd by 651.34 and also by 651.37 ar clast 
in 651.37 

.37 Grades ' Titles and duties 

.372 Oifisers: executiv, director 

Hed of enterprise 

.373 Staf : department, division and section heds 

5 Understudies, deputies 
.374 Employees, routine workers 

2 Bookkeepers 

3 Clerks, stenografers, typists 

4 Telefone operators, etc. 

6 Pages, messengers, runners 

7 Janitor force, laborers 

8 Apprentises, volunteers 

Not on payroll < 

.38 Pay: salar'es, wages, pensions 

Offis notes and discussions affecting the individual staf. For general dis- 
cussion see economics, 331.2 Remuneration for work 

If wisht, 651.38 may be subdivided like 33T.2; e. g. 651:. 382 Wa?e scales; 
651.3825 Extra pay: bonuses, bounties, etc.; 651.384 Profit sharing; 
651.385 Pensions (subdividing stil farther like 651.37 if necessary) 

.4 Administration 

Offis efficiency; i. e. ratio of work accomplisht to expenditure of time, effort, 
material (goods, money, space) 

.41 Time 

.412 Disposal of time 

By those above routine grades: offisers and staf 
Regular engagements: monthly, weekly, daily 

Public hours: for business callers, appointments; telefone vs personal 
interview. Private hours: interruptions only for urgency 

.42 Amount of servis 

Divide like 023.6 

.43 General requirements Staf rule^ 

.431 Conversation 

.432 Personal calls or work 

.433 Solicit'ng money, subscriptions, contributions 

.431 Respect and care for property 

.435 Personal appearance, dress, uniforms 

.436 Curtesy Indifference 

•437 

.438 Staf meetings Relations to hed 

.45 Methods of increasing effectivness 

Stimulation of effort 

_ 7 or motion study see 658.642; for organization of work see 651.32 

.451 Variety of work vs monotony 

.452 Labor savers 

Business view, advantage to employer; for personal view see 029.2. 
See also 651. 26 Mecanical appliances; 651.465 Fittings, and 651466 
Supplies 



OFFIS ECONOMY 



651.453 Methods, routines 

Principles; e. g. cart not to be put before horse. For general discussion 
of value of methods see 029.1. Clas routine for each kind of work under 
its number; but here may be put chief's reference file of routines, subdi- 
vided by clas number or alfabeted by subject 

.455 Training of new appointees 

.456 Information or 1 front ' desk ' Plant ' messenger servis 

Sntematic collection and distribution of intraplant communications and 
small articles. Discussion as administrate economies. For place n 
organization see 651.32 

.457 Mail and express routine 

Recieving. Distributing: opening and dating. Collecting. Sending 
For place of this section in the organization see 651.32 

.46 Material 

Fittings and supplies considerd together. Use of bargain catalogs 

.461 Quality 

Economies in adapting to purpose; e. g. extravagance of expensiv cloth 
envelops for cheap printed circulars 

.462 Quantity 

Quantity discounts, advantage of buying in bulk insted of in packages, etc. 

.463 Sizes 

See also 029.1 Standard sizes 

.464 Use, care of stock, stock closets or room 

Times (days and hours). Requisition routine 

.465 Fittings 

Distinguisht by capacity for repeated or long wear from supplies, which ar 
consumed in using; i. e. inkstands ar fittings; inks ar supplies 
History and discussion of writing materials is in 652. Enumeration below 
is for offis memoranda of source of supply, prices, kind and quantity to be 
kept on hand, etc. 

1 Cutting: shears, knives, pencil sharpeners, paper cutters, letter 
openers, punches 

2 Fastening, wrapping: clips, pins, rings, binders, mucilage 
bottles, etc. 

3 Writing: inkstands, penholders, fountain pens, rubber stamps, 
ink pads, steel erasers 

4 Drawing and mesuring: compasses, d'viders, rulers, straight- 
edges; scales, balances 

5 Calculating: tables, charts; interest, amortization, index num- 
bers, wage tables, etc. See also 510.8 

6 Holding: racks, coin trays, sponge cups, boxes 

8 Memoranda: ticklers, card trays, guides, spindle files, etc. 

9 Other: brushes, pliers, perpetual kalendars (wall or desk) etc. 
.466 Supplies 

Perishing with use; see note to 651.465 

2 Fastening: mucilage, glue, adhesiv clips, rubber bands 

3 Writing: paper, pencils, steel pens, ink, blotters, rubber 
erasers 

7 Labeling: tags, gumd labels, letters and figures 

8 Memoranda: kalendars, notebooks 

9 Other: blanks 
.47 Inventories 

.472 Frequency and times 

.473 Forms 

.474 Perpetual, automatic 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



.5 Records Files and filing 

Matter, form, treatment 

.51 Form 
.512 Book 
.513 Card sistem 

2 Cards 

5 Sheets, loose leaves Looseleaf books 

For publication in looseleaf form see 655.53 
8 Strips (clocks, adding machines, etc.^ 

.52 Mode of production 

.522 Hand written 

.523 Machine " 

.525 Automatic: e. g. clock records 

.53 Arrangement, classification 

.531 Bases: department, subject, function, person, priority, 

importance 
.533 Sistems 

2 Alfabetic: persons, places or subjects in a b c order; self 

indexing 

4 Numeric: 1 2 3 order; requiring index 

5 Cronologic: by dates 

6 Clast: numeric, alfabetic or mixt notation, requiring index 
651.54 Storage methods 

For file furniture see 651.236 

.542 Flat on side 

Cabinet, box and pigeonhole filing 

For roller shelving see 022.46; for cases for maps and drawings see 022.485 

.543 Rolled 

Horizontal: on shelvs, wall or in drawers 
On end: in closets or stalls 

.545 Erect, on shelvs 

Books, binders, file boxes 

.546 Vertical files 

. 5 5 Accessories 

For furniture see 651.23 

.552 Guides 

Ilight. Projections: advantages; width 
Material: paper, wood, metal, celluloid 
Reinforcement: label holders, celluloiding 

554 Labels 
.56 Permanent records 

Elements determining establishment; authorization 

.563 Statistics 

See also 311 

2 Data 
4 Tables 

6 Grafs (line, block and other charts) 

. 5 7 Temporary records and papers 

Engagements, memoranda and other desk miscellany 
Pigeonhole sistems Ticklers 



OFFIS ECONOMY 



1.6 Special material 

For accounting records see 657 
■ stock and sales records see 6s8.7-.8 

.62 Specifications 

.63 Estimates 

.64 Plans, drawings, maps 

.65 Printed matter (issued by offis) 

Order records and blanks. File of samples 

.66 Employes records 

Applications, recommendations, grading, time 

.67 Letter files 

See also 651.533 Arrangement 

.672 By correspondents 

Rules for determining ' correspondents ': writer or firm, offiser or insti- 
tution, etc. For numeric sistem see 651.5334 

.673 By subject 

.675 Removals: ' out ' indexes, markers, dummies 

.677 Copies of outgoing letters 

In books, separate from letters 

Carbond, on back of original or on separate sheet; roller copies; filed 
with letters 

.678 Transfer files (for storage) 

1.7 Correspondence, reports, etc. 

. 7 1 Stationery 

See also 659.1 Advertizing 

.712 Paper: size, quality, weight, tint, etc. 

For papermaking see 676; for history of writing material see 652 

.713 Letterheds 
.714 Memo heds 

.715 Bil heds 

.717 Postcards 
.718 Envelops 

.72 Blanks 

For saving letterwriting; e. g. forms for extracts from minutes. For other 
special purposes see topic 

.74 Style Business English 

Conciseness, spelling, capitalization, punctuation, margins, spacing 
See also 029.6 

.75 Letters 

.752 Definitness and accuracy; paragrafing and tabulating 

•753 Opening (address) and closing; postcard style 

.754 Inclosures Separate related matter 

.756 Form letters, automatic (answers by key numbers) 

.757 Follow-up 

.758 Interstaf notes 

Directness, breves. See also 653 2 Notehand abbreviations 

.76 Notises, calls for meetings 

.77 Minutes, committee business 

See also 651.72 

.78 Reports 

Organization of material; analisis 
Transmission and introduction 
Statistics Recommendations, etc. 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



Writing; material, typewriters, cipher 
Abbreviations Shorthand 

01 Theories Available material Shading Position Detacht vowels 

02 Practicability for general use Teaching in public schools 

For methods see 653 . 07 

03 Speed See also 653 . 046, Verbatim reporting 

04 Applications 

041 Personal notes and records 

042 Correspondence 

043 Amanuensis work 

044 Newspaper work 

045 Shorthand job offises 

046 Official reporting, court and legislativ 
047 

05 Periodicals If strictly limited to one system, class with that system 

.06 Societies « * « « 

07 Education Shorthand schools Teaching, privately or in classes 

08 

.09 History Divided by countries like 930-999 

i Abbreviations Omissions of silent letters, vowels, etc. 

Covers desirability, dangers, lists, and all general matter about use of recognized 
abbreviations. See also 421.4 Phonetic spelling; 421.8 Abbreviations 

.2 Abbreviation systems 

Brief longhand. Fonoscribing, etc. For telegrafic codes, see 652 
Covers only systems of quick writing with common characters. 

.3 Stenografies 

Includes both discussions and systems with arbitrary signs and new characters 

.31 Before 1837 

.32 Gurney 

.33 Gabelsberger 

.34 Stolze (Dettmann) 

.35 Taylor (Baker; Harding; Odell) 

.36 Cross 

.37 Scovil 

.38 Duploye" (Pernin, Sloan) 

.4 Phonetic shorthand Phonografies 

Limited to phonetic stenografy, i. e. brief sound writing. .5 and .6 include only 
systems using Izaac Pitman's consonants 

.41 Before Pitman (1837) 

.42 Bell 

.43 Jones 

.44 Williams 

.5 Pitman old vowel scale systems 

.51 Benn Pitman 

.52 Graham 

.53 Scott-Brown 

54 Marsh 

.55 Thornton 

.56 Haven 

.57 Allen 



SHORTHAND 



653.6 Pitman new vowel scale systems 

.61 Izaac Pitman 

.62 Munson 
.63 Longley 
.64 Burnz 

.7 Connected vowel systems 

.71 Lindsley's takigrafy 

.72 Everett 
.73 Barrows 
.74 Bishop 

•9 Foren Systems Divided by languages like 400 

The heds above are for English systems or (as in 653.3) foren systems adapted to 
and used for English. Other systems are groupt here by languages, but history 
of shorthand in special countries is in 653 . 09 

654 Telegraf Cables Signals 



Business aspects. For engineering see 621.38; for codes see 652 

.1 Telegrafic instruments 

.2 Duplex, quadruplex, multiplex telegrafs, etc. 

.3 Printing, perforating, dial telegrafs, etc. 

.4 Telegrafic construction; poles, wires, condits, etc. 

.5 Cables Submarine 

.6 Telefones 

.7 Alarms; burglar, fire Annunciators, bels 

.8 Speaking tubes Pneumatic tubes 

• 9 Signals Sae also 534 83 Navigation signals; 623.7 Military sisnais 

655 Printing Publishing Copyright 

.1 History of printing 

.11 Origin, invention 

.111 Claims of Gutenberg, Mainz 

.112 Claims of Coster, Haarlem 

.12 Celebrations, anniversaries 

.121 1640 

.122 1740 

.123 1823 

.124 1840 

.13-.19 Printing in special countries Divided like 030-0^ 

.2 Type and typesetting 

.21 Type founding Tools of the art 

.22 Electrotyping and stereotyping, etc. Patent blocks 

For Photoeleotrotyping, see 777 

.23 Patent types, logotypes, etc. 

.24 Faces, sizes, styles Specimen books 

.25 Typesetting: composition, proofreading, distribution 

Artistic composition: taste, display, job work 

.27 Imposition Locking up, etc. 

.28 Typesetting and distributing machines Linotype, 

monotype 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



Practical printing For Calico printing see 667 .3 

Printing presses 

Press work : making ready Color printing Cuts 

Cutting stock 

Drying: hydraulic pressing, etc. 
Stamps, stamping, etc. 

For stencils see 652 

Machines: paging, numbering, etc. 

See also 654.3 Printing telegrafs; 651.265 Hand numbering machines; 652 Type- 
writers,*addressing machines 

Nature printing ^ From plants, etc. 

Printing for blind See also 37i.9i Education of blind 

History of publishing and bookselling 

Divided by countries like 930-999 

Publishing and bookselling 

Selection of mss 

For freedom of press vs censorship, see 323; Morals of press 179. 1* 

Relations to authors 

Copyright payments, prices of mss bought 

Format 

Size, paper, type, illustrations, binding 

Cost of manufacture 

Retail prices and discounts to dealers 

Advertising, press copies and notices See 659.1 Advertising 

Retail bookselling Prices and discounts to buyers 

Subscription book publishing, canvassing 
Publishing societies 

Publishing by governments, institutions, etc. 
Copyright Literary property 

Perpetual or common law right 

Including ethics of copyright 

Copyright in other matter than books 

Music, mss. lectures, trademarks 

International copyright 

See also 341-5 International private law 

69 Copyright in special countries 

Divided like 940-999 

Transportation: railroading, etc. 

Running of trains, train and boat timetables, luggage and freight handling, lists of 
sailings: crews and shifts, disciplin, etc. 

For mechanical interrelations of track and rolling stock see^625 . 2 

For reports, government regulation, rate schedules, etc. see 38sJfor railroads,*386 for 

canal and 387 for river and^ocean transportation 

Bookkeeping Accounts 

Business methods Industrial management 

A tentativ skeme prepared for inclusion in this edition and set inftype has, on 
further conference with those specially interested, been withdrawn for more extended 
revision. Proof copies of this skeme, which is liabl to considerabl alteration, wil be 
sent on application to those willing to cooperate in perfecting it. When revision has 
reacht a point for general distribution, revized form wil be publisht as a separate at 
a nominal price 



USEFUL ARTS 



659 Other topics 

.1 Advertising 

660 Chemic technology 

.1 .2 Compends .3 Dictionaries, cyclopedias .4 Essays 

.5 Periodicals .6 Societies .7 Study and teaching .8 .9 History 

of ( hemic technology 

661 Chemicals 

.1 Chemic elements Divided like 546 

.2 Acids: sulfuric, nitric, etc. 

.3 Alkalies : potash, soda, ammonia 

.4 Salts For common salt see 664 . 4 

.5 Ammonia salts 

.6 Sulfates and nitrates 

. 7 Cyanids 

662 Pyrotechnics Explosivs, matches, etc. 

.1 Pyrotechnics 

.2 ExplosivS See 622.23 Blasting; 623.4 Ordnance 

.3 Gunpowder 

.4 Fuses, percussion caps 

.5 Matches 

.6 Fuel: coal, peat, natural gas, etc. 

.7 Charcoal, COke See also 644.22 Domestic economy 669.8 Metallurgy 

.8 Artificial fuel See also 644.2 Domestic economy 669.8 Metallurgy 

663 Beverages S:a also 178 Temperance 614.35 Adulterations 
.1 Fermented 

.2 Wine 

.3 Brewd 

.4 Beer 

.5 Distild 

.6 Artificial mineral waters : soda water 
•7 

.8 Mixing drinks Barkeepers manuals 

.9 Chocolate, coco Commercial mixing of teas, coffees, etc. 

664 Foods 

For Adulterations see 614.31 Public helth. See also 641 Domestic economy 

.1 Sugar, molasses, glucose, etc. 

.2 Starch, tapioca, sago, etc. 

.3 Artificial butter, oleomargarin Lard, compound lard 

For butter, milk, and cheese see 637 Dairy 

.4 Salt 

.5 Spices Condiments 

.6 Yeast Baking powder 

For bred see 641.631 Cookery 

•7 

.8 Methods of preservation: fruits and vegetables 

.0 Preservation of meat and fish 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



665 Oils Gases Candles Lamps 

.1 Candles Torches 

.2 Animal Oils and fatS Seealso 664.3 Foods 

.3 Vegetable oils and fats 

.4 Mineral oils : paraffin, ozocerite, asphaltum 

.5 Petroleum, kerosene 

.6 Lamps See also 644.32 Domestic economy 

.7 Illuminating gases Calcium light 

.8 Other gases 

•9 

666 Ceramics Glass, etc. 

.1 GlaSS See also 748 Staind glass 

.2 Enamel 

•3 Ceramics See also 733 Pottery, porcelain 

.4 Clay See also 553. 61 Economic geology 

. 5 Porcelain 

.6 Stoneware, earthenware, pottery 

• 7 Bricks TileS See also 651.4 Bilding materials; 695.3 Roofing 

.8 Artificial StOne See also 691.3 Bilding materials 

•9 Cements Limes Mortars See also 691.5 Bilding materials 

667 Bleaching, dyeing, etc. 

.1 Bleaching 

.2 Dyeing Artificial colors Silk and wool 

.3 Cotton dyeing and calico printing 

.4 Inks : writing inks, indelible inks 

.5 Printing inks 

.6 PaintS and pigments See also 698.1 House painting; 751 Fine art- 

.7 Varnishes Polish Lacker see also 698.3 varnishing 

.8 Japan Blacking 

•9 

668 Other organic chemic industries 

.1 Soap 

.2 Glycerin 

.3 Glue 

.4 Gums and resins 

.5 Essences, perfumery, essential oils and ethers, etc. 

See also 646.7 Toilet 

.6 Fertilizers See also 631.8 Agriculture 

.7 Distillation : coal tar, etc. 



USEFUL ARTS 



669 Metallurgy and assaying 

History of metals goas here, not in 553. 622, nor 671 

.1 Iron and steel 

.2 Gold and silver 

.3 Copper 

.4 Led 

.5 Zinc 

.6 Tin 

.7 Mercury and other metals 

.8 Fuels and furnaces Slags 

.9 Assaying 

670 Manufactures 

Specific topics go where of most interest. These heds are for the general subject of metal, 
wood, etc. manufactures, and for such specific manufactures as are not of more interest 
elsewhere. But an account of a specific manufacture is commonly most useful with its 
own subject; e. g. a steam engin is certainly made of metal, but its manufacture should 
go under 621 . 1, not 672. The character of the library often decides the place of greatest 
interest. An agricultural library would prefer the manufacture and everything about 
wood churns with the dairy, 637, while a manufacturing library might prefer it with 
other wood manufactures in 674. A general library will incline to the special subject, 
as a more minute classification is thus obtained, and references under 670 answer inquiries 
for all the library has on tjie subject of brass or rubber or paper manufactures. Whether 
groupt by use or material, if sought from the other standpoint, the references show the 
resources promptly. As a rule the use is the better classification, being more minute 
and oftener wanted. But if the uses are various the general hed is better; e. g. bells 
are for scores of distinct uses, but their manufacture is a unit; but all churns are for 
the dairy 

671 Articles made of metals 

672 Of iron and steel; stoves, cutlery, etc. 

673 Of brass and bronze ; bells, etc. See also 739 

674 Lumber and articles made of wood 

675 Lether " " " " lether 

676 Paper " " " " paper 

677 Cotton, wool, silk, linen, etc. 

678 Rubber and articles made of rubber 

679 Celluloid and other 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 

680 Mechanic trades Amateur man- 
uals 

681 Watch and instrument making 

Catalogs of miscellaneous instruments. Class special instruments with their subjects 

682 Blacksmithing 

See also Zootechny, 636.0834 Shoeing 

.1 Horseshoeing 

683 Lock and gun making 

684 Carriage and cabinet making 

Furniture. See also 740 Artistic furniture; 694.7 Fine joinery, interior finish. 
Highway vehicles for separate tractors, either animal or motor. For motor vehicles 
see 629.2 

685 Saddlery and shoemaking Trunks 

686 Bookbinding 

687 Clothesmaking Hats 
688 

689 Other trades 

IBllcLlIl^ ^ or Arcmtectural construction, see 721 

.1 Theories of construction .2 Compends, manuals .3 Dictionaries, cyclo- 
pedias .4 Essays, lectures .5 Periodicals .6 Societies, exhibitions 
.7 Education, study, training, apprentisship, tools and their use (for use 
of special tools see special trade) .8 Collections, patents, inventions 

.9 History of bilding construction 

691 • Material Processes Preservativs 

Waterproofing See also 620.1 Strength of materials 

.1 Wood Creosoting, etc. 

.2 Natural stone Paraffining, etc. 

.3 Artificial stone Concrete 

.4 Bricks Tiles Other ceramic product- 

.5 Lime Cement Plaster 

.6 Glass 

.7 Iron Steel Antirust processes 

.8 Other metals 

.9 Other materials 

692 Plans Specifications, etc. 

.1 General drawings 

.2 Detail drawings 

.3 Specifications 

.4 Contracts Agreements Bids Advertisements 

.5 Estimates Quantities Costs 

.6 Superintendence 

.7 Supervision of accounts 

.8 Professional servises Fees Commissions 

.9 Bilding laws Liabilities of architects, owners, and 
contractors 



USEFUL ARTS 



693 Masonry Plastering Fireproofing 

.1 Stone construction 

.11 Bonds of stone work 

.12 Cutting and dressing of stone 

S^e 515.8 Stereotomy; 736 Stone carving 

.2 Brick construction 

.21 Bonds of brick work 

.22 Adobe or sundried brick, etc. 

.3 Terra cotta construction Tile 

.4 Hollow tile and porous terra cotta construction 

.5 Concrete and beton construction 

.6 Plastering 

.61 External plastering and stucco 

.62 Internal plastering 

.63 Ornamental plaster work 

.64 Scagliola 

.65 Wooden lath 

.66 Metal lath (Wire, etc.) 

.67 Mineral wool linings, etc. 

•7 

.8 Fireproofing 
•9 

694 Carpentry: joinery, stairbilding 

.1 Wood construction ; general 

.2 Joints of woodwork Framing 

.3 Strengthend beams 

.4 PostS ColumS See also 721.31 

.5 Paneld and lattist construction 

.6 Joinery, general For Finishing, varnish, polish, etc. see 698 3 

.7 Ornamental joinery Cabinet work 

For cabinetmaki^ see 684 

.8 Stairbilding See also SIS. 83 Stereotomy 

.9 Other branches s ee also 721 87- 89 

ROOfing: Slating, tiling For roof construction see 721 .5 

.1 Wood: shingle 

.2 Slate 

.3 Tile 

.4 Metal: tin, copper, led, zinc 

.5 Iron 

.6 Asfalt Tar Concrete (Melted) 

.7 Felt Asbestos Paper (In rolls) 

.8 Textil : duck, canvas 

.9 Thatch and other coverings 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



696 Plumbing Gas and steam fitting, etc. 

.1 Plumbing For principles of sanitation see 628 

.2 Gasfitting 

.3 Steamfitting 

.4 Rivets and riveted joints 

.5 Screws and screw joints 

.6 Rust or calkt joints 

.7 Anchors Band irons 

.8 Other branches 

.9 Plumbing laWS See also 614 Public helth 

697 Heating and ventilation 

See also sanitary engineering, 628. 8; domestic economy, 64 j. For lighting see 628.9 

.1 Fireplaces 

.2 Stoves 

.3 Furnaces 

.4 Hot water, high and low pressure 

.5 Steam, high and low pressure 

For boilers, see 621.184; for power plants, see 621.19 

.6 Gas : coal gas, water gas, natural gas 

.7 Electric and other methods 

.8 Smoke flues and chimneys 

.9 Ventilation: air ducts, condits, fans 

698 Painting Glazing Paperhanging 

.1 Painting Oil 

.2 Distemper and fresco 

.3 Varnishing Polishing 

.4 Other modes of protection 

• 5 Glazing For Staind glass see 748 

.6 Paperhanging 

.7 Textil hangings: tapestry 

For tapestry design, see 74s 

.8 Relief work: lincrusta, stampt lether, etc. 

.9 Other branches 

69 Carbilding 

Railway and tramway cars, passenger and freight, with or without motors. For 
highway cars sea 629.2 



Fine Arts 



700 Fine arts 

701 Philosofy: theories, utility, esthetics 

702 Compends, outlines 

703 Dictionaries, cyclopedias 

704 Essays, lectures, addresses 

705 Periodicals, magazines, reviews 

706 Societies: transactions, reports, etc. 

707 Education: study and teaching of art 

708 Art galleries and museums 

.1 American: Corcoran, Metropolitan, Boston 

.2 English : National, Hampton Court, Windsor 

.3 German: Dresden, Munich, Berlin, Vienna 

.4 French: Louvre, Luxembourg 

.5 Italian : Vatican, Sistine, Pitti, Medici, Borbonico 

.6 Spanish: Madrid, Seville 

.7 Russian : St Petersburg, Hermitage 

.8 Scandinavian: Copenhagen 

.9 Other countries 

709 History of art in general Divided uke 930-990 

710 Landscape gardening 

Town and city planning For special cities see QI4-9I9 

711 Public parks 

712 Private grounds, lawns 

713 Walks Drives 

714 Water: fountains, lakes 

715 Trees Hedges Shrubs 

See also 634 9 Forestry; 582 Botany 

716 Plants Flowers 

.1 Plants .2 P1DW3TS .3 Conservatories .4 Window gardens .5 

717 Arbors Seats Outlooks 

718 Monuments Mausoleums 

719 Cemeteries s ee ai so 393.1 Earth t>uHai ; 614.61 Puwic bem» 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



Architecture 

.1 Theories, esthetics, architectonics .2 Compends, manuals .3 Dictionaries, 
cyclopedias .4 Essays, lectures .5 Periodicals .6 Societies .7 Education, 
study, training, schools of architecture .8 Polygrafy. collections .9 General 
history of architecture, divided geograficly like 940-999 

I Architectural construction 

.1 Foundations See also bridge engineering, 624.1 Foundations 

.11 Foundation bed Nature of soil Load on foundation 

Trial borings. Rock, sand, gravel, peat, quicksand 

.12 Excavation: timbering, shoring 

.13 Material for bilding foundations 

Divided like 620.1 

.132 Wood 

.133 Stone, cement, concrete 

2 Stone, dimension or rubble 

5 Cement 

6 Concrete 

.134 Brick 

.14 Pile foundations : general Material 

.141 Sand piles 

.142 Wood or timber piles 

.143 Concrete piles 

.147 Iron piles 

. 1 5 Pile foundations : method of sinking 

.151 Piledriver 

.152 Screw pile Boring anchor 

.153 Disk pile 

.154 Hydraulic pile 

.155 Pneumatic pile 

.16 Platform and other special foundations 

.162 Timber platforms or gratings: plank foundations 

.163 Concrete platforms 

.164 Iron and concrete: reinforced concrete platforms 

.165 Masonry platforms 

.166 Concrete legs or stilts 

.167 Cantilever foundations 

. 1 7 Subaqueous foundations 

.171 Cofferdams 

.172 Open crib or caisson Cylinder foundations 

.173 Pneumatic caisson 

.174 Freezing 

.175 Pneumatic forcing 

.176 Sunken wells: dredging thru wells 

.177 Sunken tubes 



FINE ARTS 



721.2 Walls 

.21 Wood and half timberd 

.22 Stone 

.23 Artificial stone, concrete, pise, etc. 

.24 Brick 

.25 Bases Water tables Belt courses 

.26 Arcades Colonnades 

.27 Cornises 

.28 Gables and pediments See also 721.58 Gable roofs 

.29 Other walls 

.3 Piers Colums 

.31 Wood See also Carpentry 694 • 4 

.32 Stone 

.33 Concrete, artificial stone 

.34 Brick, terra cotta 

.35 Iron, steel 

.36 Fireproof Protected 

.4 Archt constructions 

See 624.6 Archt bridges; and 729.33 and 729. 37 Elementary forms 

.41 Arches, circular 

.42 Arches, other forms 

.43 Vaults, cylindric 

.44 Vaults, groind 

.45 Vaults, other forms 

.46 Domes, circular 

.47 Domes, other forms 

.5 ROOfS See also 695 Roof coverings; 624*9 Engineering, roofs; 729. 35 Roof 
design 

.51 Wood 

.52 Masonry 

.53 Glass 

.54 Metallic 

.55 Windows Openings in roofs 

.56 Roof decoration: cresting, repousse work, colord tiles, etc. 

See also 695 . 3 

.57 Spires and domes 

.58 GableS See also 721.28 Gable walls 

.59 Other forms of roofs 

.6 Floors and flooring 

.61 Wood Construction and coverings 

.62 Stone 

.63 Brick and hollow tile a a 

.64 Metallic Compound " " 

.65 Composit * " 

.66 Parquetry Coverings only 

.67 Mosaics 

.68 Tiles See 69S.3 Roofing tile 

,69 Other coverings 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



,7 Ceilings 

For vaulted ceilings, see 721 .4 and 729.34 

7 1 Wood 

, 7 2 Stone 

73 Brick or tiles with iron 

74 Metallic 

7 5 Concrete Plaster 

,76 

77 

,78 

•79 

,8 Doors Gates Grilles Windows 

,81 Doors, wooden 

,82 Doors, metallic 

.83 Doors, sash, lattis, screen, etc. 

.84 Windows, external 

.85 Windows, internal 

.86 Inclosures of doors and windows 

Architraves Pilasters Jams Pediments Lintels, etc. 

.87 Shutters Blinds Screens Grilles 

.88 Fastenings Locks 

.89 Other details 

.9 Iron and composit structures 

For strength of materials, see Engineering, 620.11 

.91 Cast iron 

.92 Wrought iron 

.93 Steel 

.94 Composit 

.95 Iron and wood 

.96 Iron and stone 

.97 Iron and brick, tile, terra cotta Reinforced concrete 

.98 Iron and glass 

.99 Wood and glass 

Ancient and Oriental architecture (Pagan) 

See also 571.8 Prehistoric dwellings 

.1 Chinese Japanese 

.2 Egyptian 

.3 Phenician Tyrian Jewish Carthaginian Cypriote 

.4 Indian (Asiatic) 

Hindu, Buddhist, Jaina, Himalayan, Dravidian, Chalukyan, Indo-Aryan, Burmese, 

Siamese, Cambodian 

.5 Chaldean Assyrian Babylonian Ancient Persian 

Sassanian 
.6 Pelasgian Etruscan 

• 7 Roman See 729-32 for Roman orders 
.8 Grecian See 729-32 for Greek orders 

.9 Other: Aztec, Peruvian, Maya, Yucatan, etc. 



FINE ARTS 



723 Medieval Christian Mohammedan 

.1 Early Christian 

Byzantine Armenian Russian 

Mohammedan: Saracenic, Moorish, Persian, Turkish, 

Indian For Ancient Indian see 722.4 

.4 Romanesque 

.41 Scotch Irish 

.42 English Saxon Norman 

.43 German Austrian 

.44 French Provencal Norman Angevin 

,45 Italian Sicilian Norman 

,46 Spanish Portuguese 
•47 

.48 Danish Swedish Norwegian 

.49 Minor countries 

.5 Gothic or pointed Divided like 723 .4 

724 Modern 

All the subsections of 724 are subdivided geograficly like 940-999 

.1 Renaissance 

.19 Baroque Rococo 

.2 Grecian revival 

.3 Gothic revival 

.4 Victorian Gothic Tudor Elizabethan 

.5 Queen Anne 

.59 Georgian 

.6 Neo-Grec 

.7 Swiss Timber 

.8 Romanesque revival 

,9 Other styles 

725 Public bildings 

.1 Administrativ Governmental 

. 1 1 Capitols Houses of parliament 

.12 Ministries of war, state, etc. 

.13 City and town halls Bureaus Public offises 

.14 Custom houses Bonded warehouses Excise offises 

. 1 5 Court houses Record offises 

.16 Post offises, general and special 

. 1 7 Official residences Palaces of rulers 

.18 Barracks Armories Police stations 

See also 623.61 Military bildings 

.19 Engin houses Fire alarm stations 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



725.2 Business and commercial 

.21 Stores, wholesale and retail 

.22 Mixt store, offis, and apartment bildings 

.23 Offis Hidings: telegraf, insurance 

.24 Banks: safe deposit, savings 

.25 Exchanges Boards of trade 

.26 Markets 

.27 Cattle markets Stockyards 

.28 Abattoirs 

.29 Other business bildings 

.3 Transportation and storage 

.31 Railway passenger stations 

.311 Small (country) stations 

.312 Large (city) u 

.313 Union stations 

.314 Stations on 2 levels 

.315 
.316 

.317 Street-car stations 

.318 Elevated railway stations 

.319 Underground railway stations 

.32 Railway freight houses 

.33 Railway shops, roundhouses, car houses, tanks, stores 

.34 Dock bildings Wharf boats and houses 

.35 Warehouses Cold storage Safe deposit storage 

.36 Elevators, grain 

•37 

.38 Garages Livery stables 

For private stables and garages see 728.94 

.39 Other 

.4 Factories 

.41 Textil factories or mills: wool, cotton, silk 

.42 Breweries Malteries Distilleries 

.43 Foundries Machine shops Iron and steel works 

.44 Woodworking mills Furniture factories 

.45 Carriage and car factories 

.46 Paper mills 

.47 Mills for flour, meal, feed, etc. 

.48 Pottery, glass, terracotta, brick works 

.49 Other factories 



FINE ARTS 



725.5 Hospitals and asylums See also 725 6 Reformatories 

.51 Sick and wounded Eye and ear Incurables Lying-in 

.52 Insane 

.53 Idiotic Feebleminded 

.54 Blind Def and dum 

.55 Paupers Almshouses 

.56 Aged 

.57 Children Orphans 

.58 Foundling 

.59 Soldiers homes 

.6 Prisons and reformatories 

.61 State prisons Penitentiaries 

.62 Jails Cell houses 

.63 Reformatories for adults Houses of correction 

.64 Reform schools 

.65 Washing tonian homes Inebriate asylums 
.66 

.7 Refreshment Baths Parks 

. 7 1 Cafes Restaurants 

.72 Saloons 

.73 Baths: warm, medicated, turkish, russian 

.74 Swimming baths 

.75 Bildings for watering places, spas, etc. 

.76 Bildings for parks 

.8 Recreation 

.81 Music halls 

.82 Theaters Opera houses 

Grand stands, stadiums 

.83 Halls for lectures, readings, etc. 

.84 Bowling alleys Billiard saloons 

.85 Gymnasiums Turn halls 

.86 Skating rinks Bicycle rinks 

.87 Boat houses 

.88 Riding halls and schools 

.89 Shooting galleries 

.9 Other public bildings 

.91 Exhibition halls 

.92 Temporary halls Tabernacles Wigwams 

.93 Workingmen's clubs and institutes 

•94 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



726 Ecclesiastic and religious 

.1 Temples 

.2 Mosques 

.3 Synagogs 

.4 Chapels Sunday school bildings 

.5 Churches 

.6 Cathedrals 

.7 Monasteries Convents Abbeys 

.8 Mortuary: cemetery chapels, receiving vaults, tombs 

.9 Other: Y. M. C. A. etc. 

727 Educational and scientific 

.1 Schools 

Study and recitation rooms. Not including dormitory or boarding 

.2 Academies Seminaries Boarding schools 

.3 Colleges Universities 

.4 Professional and technical schools: law, theology, etc. 

.5 Laboratories: physical, chemic s ee 542.1 biologic, etc. 

Zoologic and botanic gardens see also 590.7 and 580.7 

.6 Museums Herbariums s ee 580.7 

.7 Art galleries Studios 

.8 Libraries See 022 Library bildings 

.9 Other: learned societies, etc. 

728 Residences 

.1 Tenement houses 

. 1 j. City homes of poor 

. 1 2 Country " 

.13 Cites ouvrieres 

.2 Apartment houses Flats Family hotels 

.3 City houses Mansions Palaces 

.3 1 Between party walls Stone 

.32 " " Brick 

.33 a " Partly wood 

.3 4 Semidetacht , including end houses in city blocks Stone 

.35 Brick 

.36 Partly wood 

.3 7 Detacht Stone 

.38 Brick 

.39 Partly wood 

.4 Club houses Bildincs for secret societies 

.5 Hotels Inns 

.51 City hotels 

.52 Summer resorts 

.53 Country inns 





FINE ARTS 




.6 


Village and country homes 




.6r 


Village dwellings; on small lots 




.62 


Stone 




.63 


Brick 




•64 


Concrete or stucco 




.65 


Part masonry, part wood 




.66 


All wood 




.67 


Farm houses 




.68 


Laborers cottages 




7 


Seaside and mountain cottages 


Chalets 


.8 


Country seats 




81 


Castles 




.82 


Chateaux 




.83 


Manor houses 




.84 


Villas 




•9 


Outbildings 




.91 


Porters lodges 




.92 


Servants quarters 




•93 


Kitchens and laundries 




•94 


Stables Carriage houses 


Garages 




See also 725-38 Public garages and livery stables 


•95 


Barns Granaries 




.96 


Dairies 




•97 


Ice houses 




.98 


Conservatories Greenhouses 


Graperie 


•99 


Other 





729 Architectural design and decoration 

For decorativ illumination see 74s 

.1 The elevation 

.11 Composition 

.12 Distribution 

.13 Proportion 

.14 Light and shade 

.15 Perspectiv effect 
16 

•17 
.18 

.19 

For projection of shadows and grafics of light and shadow see 515.63 and 515 7 

.2 The plan 

.21 Elements required 
.22 Distribution 
.23 Proportion 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



729.3 Elementary forms 

For construction of these forms see 721 

.31 Walls Moldings Cornises 

.32 Piers, colums, pilasters, pedestals and the orders Colonnades 

.33 Arches and arcades 

.34 Vaults and domes 

.35 Roofs Spires Dormers 

.36 Towers 

.37 Gables and pediments 

.38 Doors and windows Bays Oriels 

.39 Stairs and balustrades 

See also 515 83 Stereotomy; 694.8 Stairbildine 

.4 Painted decoration 

See also 729-7 Mosaic 

.41 Vegetable forms 

.42 Animal forms 

.43 Grotesque forms 

.44 Conventional and geometric forms 

.45 Painted moldings 

.46 Painted friezes and panels 

.47 Painted colums and pilasters 

.48 Painted ceilings and vaults 

.49 Painted walls 

.5 Decoration in relief 

For bas relief and figure carving see 730 

.51 Vegetable forms 

.52 Animal forms 

.53 Grotesque forms 

.54 Conventional and geometric forms 

.55 Carvd moldings 

.56 Carvd friezes and panels 

.57 Carvd colums and pilasters 

.58 Carvd ceilings and vaults 

.59 Other carvd ornament 

.6 Incrustation and veneering 

.61 Of external walls (in brick, stone, or marble, tiles, etc.) 

.62 Of interiors 

.63 Intarsia and inlay 

.64 Niellowork 

.65 Enamel decoration 
66 
.67 
.68 
69 



FINE ARTS 



)-7 


lVIOSctlC 


•7i 


Mosaic ceiling 


.72 


lvlUbdlC Weil Lb 


•73 


Mosaic floors 


•74 


WLIlcl IHUbdlL. Qcblgnb 


•75 




.76 




•77 




.78 




•79 




.8 


Staind glass design 




For technical processes see 666 . 1 ; for history see 748 


.01 


ueometric windows 


.82 


Medallion windows 




Canopy windows 


.84 


Figure windows 


Q m 
•85 


Mosaic windows 


.86 


Other kinds of stamd glass 


*. 
•87 





.00 




- 
89 




•9 


Architectural accessories and fixt furniture 


.91 


Altars 


.92 


Pulpits Tribunes 


•93 


Dais Thrones 


•94 


J_) Ullc Lb 


•95 


Mantels Overmantels 


.96 


Screens Rood screen Reredos 


•97 




.98 




•99 





730 Sculpture 

731 Materials and methods 

732 Ancient 

733 Greek and Roman 

734 Medieval 

735 Modern 

736 Carving Seals Dies Gems Cameos 

737 Numismatics Coins Medals 

Artistic and historic side See also 332. 4 Coins and coinage, as money 

738 Pottery Porcelain 

739 Bronzes Brasses Bricabrac 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



740 Drawing Decoration Design 

Arts and crafts 

741 Freehand Crayon Sketching from nature 
Caricatures Cartoons 

Collections on any subject go with that subject with reference from 741 

742 Perspectiv s ee a i so 5 i 5 .6 

743 Art anatomy Life school 

744 Mathematic and scientific drawing s ee S is 

Instructions' for architectural and other mathematical drawing, with demonstrations 
(if any) subsidiary. 

Textbooks with mathematical demonstrations in scientific order ar better in 515 

745 Ornamental design: woven fabrics, carpets, 
wall paper, etc. 

746 Art needlework Fancy work 

747 Interior decoration Distemper Fresco 
Polychrome 

748 Staind and iridescent glass For ledmg, «* 6 9 8. s 

749 Artistic furniture Fireplaces Frames, etc. 

750 Painting 

751 Materials and methods 

752 ColOr See also 535-6 Optics 

753 Epic Mythic Idealistic s ee 759.3 German S cho 01 

754 Genre See 7594 French; and 759-9 Belgian 

755 Religious, ecclesiastic s ee 759.5 Italian; and 759.6 Spanish 

See also 246 Ecclesiology 

756 Historical, battle scenes 

757 Portrait 

758 Landscape and marine Stil life 

Animals Flowers 

759 Various schools of painting 

.1 American 

.2 English 

.3 German 

.4 French 

.5 Italian 

.6 Spanish 

.7 Slavic 

.8 Scandinavian 

.9 Other schools 



FINE ARTS 



760 Engraving 

761 Wood 

762 Copper and steel 

763 Lithografy 

764 Chromolithografy 

765 Line and stipple 

766 Mezzotint and aquatint 

767 Etching Dry point 

768 Bank note and machine 

769 Collections of engravings 

770 Fotografy 

771 Materials Fotografic chemistry 

772 Processes 

Silver: daguerreotype, talbotype 
Collodion : ambrotype, etc. 
Dry plate 
Color fotografy 

773 Gelatin and pigment: woodburytype 
Carbon: lambertype, autotype, etc. 

774 Gelatin and printers ink 

Albertype, heliotype, artotype, etc. 

775 Fotolithografy, etc. 

776 Fotozincografy, etc. 

777 Fotoengraving and fotoelectrotyping 

778 Special applications 

Moving pictures. See also 522.63 Astronomy; 578 Microscopy 

779 Collections of fotografs 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 

780 Music 

.1 Philosofy and esthetics of music .2 Compends .3 Dictionaries .4 Essays 
.5 Periodicals .6 Societies .7 Education, conservatories .8 Polygrafy, 
libraries .9 History, divided by countries, like 930-999 

All heds include the music itself and everything about it: score, libretto, history, 
criticism, etc. 

781 Theory of music 

.1 Mathematic and physical 

.2 Elementary and general 

.3 Harmony Thorobass 

.4 Counterpoint 

.5 Musical form 

.6 Composition and instrumentation 

.7 Oriental theories and forms Russian music 

.8 Ancient Grecian theories, modes, and forms 

782 Dramatic music 

.1 Grand opera 

.2 Epic Wagnerian 

.3 Other German grand opera 

.4 French grand opera 

.5 Italian grand opera 

.6 Comic and satiric 

.7 Opera bouffe 

.8 Operettas and cantatas See 783.4 

.9 Pantomimes, masks, etc. 

783 Sacred music 

See 245 Hymnology, sacred poetry, for hymns alone; if with tunes they go in 783.9; 
786.8 Organ; 246.7-8 Evangelistic use and Eucharistic music; 264.2 Public worship 

.1 Organ and orchestral Accompaniment 

.2 Cathedral servises: masses, vespers, etc. 

.2i Mass Communion servises 

.22 Common of the mass: kyrie, gloria in excelsis, credo, 

benedictus, Agnus Dei 
.23 Proper of the season: offertory, sequence, gradual, tract 

.24 Choral servis : antiphonal, responsiv 

.25 Plain song 

.26 Litanies 

. 2 7 Lenten and penitential : Good Friday, reproaches 

.28 Festival: Christmas, Easter, etc. 

.29 Processional Recessional 



FINE ARTS 



783.3 Oratorio Passion music 

.4 Anthem Motet Sacred cantata 

Polyphonic school, Palestrina. 16th century 

.5 Chant: Gregorian, Anglican 

.6 Chorale Tune Carol 

.7 Evangelistic: mission, revival Sunday school 

.8 Choir: men and boys Quartet Chorus 

.9 Congregational singing Psalmody Hymnody 

784 Vocal music 

.1 Glee Madrigal Round Catch 

.2 Aria Cavatina Recitative e. g. in oratorio, mass, opera 

.3 Ballad and song 

Romantic, idyllic, sentimental; e. g. modern German 

.4 Popular ballads Volkslied; e. g. Irish, Scotch, etc. 

.5 Festival; e. g. sangerbund, eisteddfod Competitiv 

.6 College, society songs, and choruses 

.7 Negro minstrelsy, plantation songs 

.8 Collected songs 

.81 Solos 

.82 Duets 

.83 Trios 

.84 Quartets 

.85 Other part songs 

.86 Choruses 

.87 Collections for male voices 

.88 Collections for female voices 

.89 Other special collections 

.9 j Vocal hygiene, culture, development, and methods Tonic 
sol-fa 

785 Orchestral music 

For dramatic orchestral music, see 782; sacred, 783.1 

.1 Symphony 

Three or more movements; e. g. adagio, andante, allegro, allegretto, scherzo, 
finale, etc. 

.2 Dramatic, illustrativ, descriptiv, program, imitativ 

e. g. Mendelssohn's Midsummer night's dream 

.3 Romantic, idyllic 
•4 

.5 Overture: e. g. Beethoven's Leonores 

.6 Concerto: orchestral with solo instrument 

.7 Chamber music 

.8 Suite 

.9 Arrangements, transcriptions, potpourris 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



786 Piano and organ 

.1 Piano History 

.2 Manufacture Tuning Temperament 

.3 Instruction 

.4 Piano music General collections 

For piano concerto, see 785.6 

.41 Sonata Sonatina Rondo 

.42 Fantasia Arabesque 

.43 Nocturne Meditation Romantic Descriptiv 

Songs without words 

.44 March and march form Polonaise Polka Mazurka 

.45 Dance form: national, classic, idealized 

.46 Modern dance music Society, festiv 

.47 Etudes Artistic For etudes for instruction, see 786.3 

.48 Variations, transcriptions 

.49 Arrangements 

Four hands and more; e. g. orchestral music arranged for piano 

.5 Organ History 
.6 Bilding 
.7 Instruction 

.8 Organ mUSiC See also 783 Sacred music 

.81 Sonata 

.82 Fugue 

.83 Preludes 

.84 Interludes 

.85 Postludes 

.86 Offertories 

.87 Voluntaries Improvisations 

.88 Organ and piano 

.89 Organ, piano, and orchestra 

.9 Cabinet organ Melodeon 

787 Stringd instruments 

Including with each, history, manufacture, instruction, music, etc. Music for a 
instruments is put with the one most prominent in the composition 

Bowd 

.1 Violin 
.2 Viola 
.3 Violoncello 

.4 Double bass Contra bass 
Plectral 

.5 Harp 

.6 Guitar Lute Mandolin, etc. 
.7 Banjo 
.8 Zither 

.9 Other stringd instruments Harpsichord 



FINE ARTS 



788 Wind instruments 

Including with each, history, manufacture, instruction, music, etc. 

Brass 

.1 Trumpet: slide and valv 

.2 Trombone 

.3 Cornet 

.4 Horns and other brass wind instruments 

.41 French horn 

.42 Saxhorn 

.43 Saxophone 

.44 Euphonium 

.45 Ophicleide 

.46 Key bugle 

.47 Valv bugle 

.48 Bass Tuba and contrabass tuba Serpent 

.49 Other 

Wood: flute group 

.5 Flute Waldflute Piccolo Fife Flageolet 

Wood: reed group 

.6 Clarinet Bass clarinet Bassethorn 

.7 Oboe D'amore Da caccia Cor anglais 

.8 Bassoon Double bassoon Bombardon 

.9 Other reed wind instruments : bagpipe 

789 Percussion and mechanical instruments 

Percussion 

.1 Drum 
.2 Cymbals 
.3 Triangle 

.4 Tambourine Castanets Bones 

.5 Bells: chimes, carillon 

.6 Other percussion instruments: xylofone 

Mechanical 
.7 Orchestrion 
.8 Music box 

.9 Other mechanical instruments 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



790 Amusements p ° r cthics ° f ^$ 

791 Public entertainment 

Concert, panorama, circus, menagerie, summer resort, garden, rink, museum, 

fair, festival 

792 Theater Pantomime Opera 

Passion plays. Fotoplays. See also 782 Dramatic music 

793 Indoor amusements 

Private theatricals, tableaux, charades, dancing 

794 Games of skill 

Chess, checkers, billiards, bowling, bagatel 

795 Games of chance 

Cards, dice, backgammon, dominoes 

796 Outdoor sports 

Children's sports, athletic sports, coasting, skating, cycling, quoits, archery , 
croquet, lawn tennis, golf 

797 Boating and ball 

Rowing, yachting, baseball, football, cricket, polo. Matches, races 
See also 371. 74 and 37L75 

798 Horsemanship Motoring Racing 

799 Fishing, hunting, target shooting 



Literature 



The classification, of literature is by language, not 
country, except that North and South American 
are separated from other English. Canadian 
French goes with 840; Australian and Indian 
English with 820; South American Spanish with 
860, etc. Numbers assignd to individual authors 
include only their literary works of that section 



and complete works which can not be divided. 
Books on other subjects go with their proper 
subjects, unless a ' special library ' attracts all the 
authors' works, lives, etc. An author writing in 2 
periods has all his books put in the one where 
most of them belong. 



800 Literature: general works 

801 Philosofy Theories Literary esthetics 

802 Compends, outlines 

803 Dictionaries, cyclopedias 

804 Essays, lectures, addresses 

805 Periodicals, magazines, reviews 

806 Societies: transactions, reports, etc. 

807 Study and teaching of literature 

808 Rhetoric Treatises Collections 

Divided .1 Poetry .2 Drama .3 Fiction .4 Essays .5 Oratory, see also 
784.9 Vocal culture .6 Letters, epistolografy .7 Satire, humor .8 Collections 
too general to go with any one language, e. g. a book of quotations from many 
languages 

These heds, and the same under 809, include only works about poetry, etc. regard- 
less of language 

809 History of literature in general 

Including general histories of books and knowledge; e. g. Hallam's Literature of 
the middle ages 

Divided like 808 .1 Poetry .2 Drama .3 Fiction, etc. 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



American literature 

Includes Canadian English, which may be kept separate by prefixing C; e. g. C 811 

Canadian poetry 

.1 Philosofy .2 Compends .3 Dictionaries .4 Essays on American literature 
.5 Periodicals .6 Societies .7 Study and teaching .8 Collections .9 History of 
American literature 

American poetry 



.02 Dramatic .03 Romantic and epic .04 Lyric, ballads .05 Didactic 
.06 Descriptiv .07 Satiric and humorous .08 Collections .09 History of 
American poetry 

.1 Colonial 1 607-1 776 

.11 Sandys, George [577-1644 

.12 Bradstreet, Anne 1612-72 

.13 Wigglesworth, Michael 1 631-1705 

.14 Green, Joseph 1706-80 

.15 Livingston, William 1723-90 

.16 Ferguson, Elizabeth 1 739-1 801 

.2 Post-revolutionary 1776-1830 

.21 Trumbull, John 1 750-1 831 

.22 Dwight, Timothy 1 752-181 7 

.23 Barlow, Joel 1755-18 12 

.24 Freneau, Philip 1 752-1 832 

.25 Alsop, Richard 1761-1841 

.26 Pierpont, John 1785- 1866 

.27 Dana, Richard Henry 1 787-1 879 

.28 Sprague, Charles 1 791-1875 

.29 Minor poets 

.3 Middle 19th century 1830-61 

.31 Halleck, Fitz-Greene 1 790-1 867 

.32 Poe, Edgar Allan 1809-49 

.33 Bryant, William Cullen 1 794-1 878 

.34 Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth 1807-82 

.35 Read. Thomas Buchanan 1822-72 

36 Whittier, John Greenleaf 1807-92 

.37 Lowell, James Russell 1819-91 

.38 Whitman, Walt 1819-92 
•39 

4 Later 19th century 1861-1900 

.41 Stoddard, Richard Henry 1 825-1 903 

.42 Hayne, Paul Hamilton 1831-86 

.43 Stedman, Edmund Clarence 1 833-1908 

.44 Winter, William 1 836-1 91 8 

.45 Miller, Cincinnatus Hiner (Joaquin) 1 841- 191 3 

.46 Taylor, Bayard 1825-78 

•47 
.48 
49 

.5 Early 20th century 1901- 



LITERATURE 



8 12 American drama 

.1 Colonial 1 607-1 776 

.11 Warren, Mercy 1728-1814 

.12 Godfrey, Thomas 1736-63 
•13 

.2 Post-revolutionary 1776-1830 

.21 Tyler, Royall 1 757-1 826 

.22 Dunlap, William 1 766-1 839 

.23 Hillhouse, James Abraham 1 789-1 841 

.24 Ingersoll, Charles Jared 1782-1862 
•25 

.3 Middle 19th century 1830-61 

.31 Ritchie, Anna Cora Mowatt 1818-70 

.32 Mathews, Cornelius 1817-89 

.33 Boker, George Henry 1823-90 
•34 

.4 Later 19th century 1861-1900 
.41 

.5 Early 20th century 1901- 

813 American fiction 

^Ti Colonial 1 607-1 776 

.2 Post-revolutionary 1 776-1 830 

.21 Brackenridge, Hugh Henry 1 748-1816 

.22 Rowson, Susanna 1762- 1824 

.23 Brown, Charles Brockden 1771-1810 

.24 Cooper, James Fenimore 1789-1851 

.25 Ware, William 1 797-1 852 

.26 Neal, John 1 793-1876 

.27 
.28 

.29 

..3 Middle 19th century 1830-61 

.31 Thompson, Daniel Pierce 1 795-1 868 

.32 Kennedy, John Pendleton 1 795-1870 

.33 Hawthorne, Nathaniel 1804-64 

.34 Judd, Sylvester i8i3~53 

.35 Simms, William Gilmore 1806-70 

.36 Melville, Herman 1 819-91 

.37 Stowe, Harriet Beecher 1812-96 
.38 
•39 

.4 Later 19th century 1 861 -1900 

.41 Alcott, Louisa May 1832-88 

.42 Eggleston, Edward 1 837-1902 

.43 Howells, William Dean 1837- 1920 

.44 Aldrich, Thomas Bailey 1 836-1907 

.45 Harte, Francis Bret 1 839-1902 

.46 James, Henry 1 843-1 91 6 

.47 Hawthorne, Julian 1846- 

.48 Burnett, Frances Hodgson 1849- 

.49 Minor novelists 

.5 Early 20th century 1901- 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



814 American essays 

.1 Colonial 1607-1776 

.2 Post-revolutionary 1776-1830 

.21 Rush, Benjamin 1745-1813 

.22 Webster, Noah 1 758-1 843 

.23 Channing, William Ellery 1 780-1 842 

.3 Middle 19th century 1830-61 

.31 Ossoli, Margaret Fuller 1810-50 

.32 Giles, Henry 1809-82 

.33 Tuckerman, Henry Theodore 18 13-71 

.34 Holland, Josiah Gilbert 18 19-81 

.35 Whipple, Edwin Percy 1819-86 

.36 Emerson, Ralph Waldo 1803-82 See also 191.3 

.37 Curtis, George William 1824-92 

.4 Later 19th century 1 861 -1900 

.41 Burroughs, John 1837-1921 

.42 

43 

44 

.5 Early 20th century 1901- 

815 American oratory 

.1 Colonial 1607-1776 

.11 
.12 

.2 Post-revolutionary 1 776-1830 

.21 Hamilton, Alexander 1 757-1 804 

.22 Ames, Fisher 1 758-1 808 

.23 Wirt, William 1 772-1 834 

.24 Randolph, John 1 773-1833 

.25 Clay, Henry 1 777-1 852 

.26 Calhoun, John Caldwell 1 782-1 850 

.27 Webster, Daniel 1 782-1852 
.28 
.29 

.3 Middle 19th century 1830-61 

.31 Everett, Edward 1 794-1 865 

.32 Choate, Rufus 1 799-1 859 

.33 Sumner, Charles 181 1-74 

.34 Phillips, Wendell 181 1-84 

.35 Chapin, Edwin Hubbell 1814-80 

.36 Beecher, Henry Ward 1813-87 

.4 Later 19th century 1861-1900 
.41 
.42 

43 v*;\; 

.5 Early 20th century 1901- 

816 American letters 

Subdivided by periods, like 811 



LITERATURE 



817 American satire and humor 

.1 Colonial 1607-1776 

.11 Ward, Nathaniel 1570-1653 

.12 Alsop, George 1638- ? 

.13 Byles, Mather 1706-88 

.14 Hopkinson, Francis I737~9 l 

.15 Peters, Samuel Andrew 1735-1826 

.2 Post-revolutionary 1776-1830 

.21 Story, Isaac 1 774-1803 

.22 Fessenden, Thomas Green 1 771-1837 

.23 Paulding, James Kirke 1 779-1 860 

.24 Irving, Washington 1 783-1 859 

.25 Verplanck, Gulian Crommelin 1 786-1 870 
.26 
.27 

.3 Middle 19th century 1830-61 

.31 Neal, Joseph Clay 1807-47 

.32 Holmes, Oliver Wendell 1809-94 

.33 Shelton, Frederick William 18 14-81 

.34 Shillaber, B P (Mrs Partington) 1814-90 

.35 Saxe, John Godfrey 1816-87 

.36 Cozzens, Frederick Swartout 1818-69 

.37 Browne, C: F (Artemus Ward) 1834-67 

.38 Haliburton, Thomas Chandler 1 796-1 865 

.39 Minor satirists and humorists 

.4 Later 19th century 1861-1900 

.41 Warner, Charles Dudley 1 829-1900 

.42 Locke, David Ross (P V Nasby) 1833-88 

.43 Burdette, Robert J 1844-1914 

.44 Clemens, S: L (Mark Twain) 1835-1910 

.45 Carleton, William 1845-1912 

.46 Shaw, Henry W (Josh Billings) 1818-85 
•47 

.5 Early 20th century 1901- 

818 American miscellany 

.3 Middle 19th century 1830-61 

.31 Thoreau, Henry David 1817-62 

.32 Mitchell, Donald Grant (Ik Marvel) 1 822-1 908 

.4 Later 19th century 1861-1900 

.5 Early 20th century 1901- 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



820 English literature 

Canadian literature may be clast as British , if prefer d, but separated by prefixing C to 
820. See note to 810 

820.1 Philosofy .2 Compends .3 Dictionaries .4 Essays on English literature 
.5 Periodicals .6 Societies .7 Study and teaching .8 Collections .9 History 

821 English poetry 

.02 Dramatic .03 Romantic and epic .04 Lyric, ballads .05 Didactic 
.06 Descriptiv .07 Satiric and humorous .08 Collections .09 History of 
English poetry iJUifi-X aid * c-o-? 9- ? n p 4 o- 7 .— ' 



.1 


Early English 1 066-1400 


<%t\ < 


.11 


Layamon 


1 150-1207 


.12 


Ormin 


1 187-1237 


.13 


Robert of Gloucester 


1 245-1 307 


.14 


Minot, Lawrence 


1313-52 


.15 


Langland, William 


00 77 


.16 


Barbour, John 


I3I6-95 


17 


Chaucer, Geoffrey 


I 3 40- I 400 


.18 


Gower, John 


1325-1408 


.19 


Minor writers 




.2 


Pre-Elizabethan 1400-1558 




.21 


Lydgate, John 


1369-1461 


.22 


Skelton, John 


1 460- 1 529 


.2^ 



Dunbar, William 


1 460-1 520 


.24 


Douglas, Gavin 


1474-1522 


.2 5 


Hawes, Stephen 


1 483- 1 509 


.26 


Lyndsay, Sir David 


1 490-1 555 


.27 


Wyatt, Sir Thomas 


1503-42 


.28 


Surrey, Henry Howard, earl of 


1517-47 


.29 


Minor writers 




•3 


Elizabethan 1558-1625 




^1 


Spenser, Edmund 


* JOJ 77 




Sidney, Sir Philip 


1554-86 


00 


Daniel, Samuel 


1562-1619 


14 

OT 


Drayton, Michael 


1 563-1631 


'OJ 


Davies, John 


I 569-I 626 


.36 


Drummond, William 


I 585-I 649 


37 


Fletcher, Giles and Phineas 


1 585-1 650 


.38 


Herbert, George 


1593-1632 


•39 


Minor writers 




4 


Post-Elizabethan 1625-1702 




.41 


Suckling, Sir John 


1609-42 


.42 


Crashaw, Richard 


1616-50 


•43 


Herrick, Robert 


1591-1674 


■44 


Waller, Edmund 


1605-87 


•45 


Lovelace, Richard 


1618-58 


.46 


Cowley, Abraham 


1618-67 


•47 


Milton, John 


1608-74 


.48 


Dryden, John 


163I-17OO 


•49 


Minor writers 





LITERATURE 



821.5 Queen Anne Early 18th century I702 45 

.51 Prior, Matthew 1 664-1 721 

.52 Parnell, Thomas 1679-1717 

•53 Pope, Alexander 1688-1744 See also 827.55 

.54 Ramsay, Allan 1 686-1 758 

.55 Young, Edward 1 684-1 765 

.56 Thomson, James 1700-48 

.57 Collins, William 1721-59 

.58 Shenstone, William 1714-63 

.59 Minor writers 

.6 Later 18th century Pre-revoiutionary 1 745-1800 

.61 Gray, Thomas 17 16-71 

.62 Akenside, Mark 1721-70 

.63 Chatterton, Thomas 1752-70 

.64 Goldsmith, Oliver 1728-74 

See also 823.64 and 824.66 

.65 Cowper, William 1 731-1800 

.66 Macpherson, James 1738-96 

.67 Burns, Robert 1759-96 

.68 White, Henry Kirke 1 785-1 806 

.69 Minor writers 

.7 Early 19th century Post-revoiutionary 1800-37 

.71 Wordsworth, William 1 770-1 850 

.72 Coleridge, Samuel Taylor 1 772-1 834 

.73 Southey, Robert 1 774-1 843 

.74 Scott, Sir Walter 1771-1832 See also 823.73 

.75 Moore, Thomas 1 779-1 852 

.76 Byron, George Gordon Noel, 6th lord 1 788-1 824 

.77 Shelley, Percy Bysshe 1 792-1 822 

.78 Keats, John 1 795-1 821 

.79 Minor writers 

.8 Victorian period 1837-1900 

.81 Tennyson, Alfred, 1st baron 1809-92 

.82 Browning, Elizabeth Barrett 1809-61 

.83 Browning, Robert 1812-89 

.84 Rossetti, Dante Gabriel 1828-82 

.85 Morris, William 1834-96 

.86 Swinburne, Algernon Charles 1837-1909 
.87 
.88 

.89 Minor writers 

.91 Early 20th century 1901- 

822 English drama 

.1 Early English 1 066-1400 

.11 Chester plays 

.12 Coventry plays 

.13 Townley plays 





DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 




822.2 


Pre-Elizabethan 1400-1558 


.21 


XX - V W vj LK1 , jvJllll 


1 506-65 


.22 


TTflnll Nicholas 


1 5 5 - 64 


•23 


X>cllC, J (Jllll 


J 495 I5 G 3 


o 


jsiizaDetnan i55o~ 1025 






Greene, Robert 


1561-92 


w>- 


Marlowe, Christopher 


1564-93 


oo 


Shakespere, William 


1 564-161 6 


•34 


Jonson, Ben 


1 574-1637 


•35 


1R p 1 1 tyi nnt T^rcinptc 

j-> ta UlllUll I j J/lallOio 


T eft 4 lAlA 

i 504 1010 




or»H 171 a r Tnlrn 
a. 11 CI JT lClt/llCi j J Ullll 


1579 1025 


.^6 
■o u 


WpV><ifpr ToVin 

* T LUJlVl , 1 Willi 


T cfio T fxO 


•37 


Massinger, Philip 




•38 


Ford, John 




•39 


Minor writers 




.4 


T^/^cf" ITI170 nD'f noti T r\ ^\ t s\ *^ 

JrUbl-JillZd.UcLIld.n IU25 - 1/02, 




.41 


Davenant, Sir William 


I 605-68 


.42 


Etherege, Sir George 


I637-88 


•43 


Crowne, John 


1644-99 


•44 


^AT^rpriprKr AA7i11inm 
vv y Liici ly , vv iiiidui 


T A/1 r» T *7 T c 

1 04U 1/13 


-45 


Otway, Thomas 


tAct— «ir 


.46 


C^otiptpvp William 

VUll^f. ^ V VJ ^ VT .illctlil 


T (\lC\ — T IOCS 
x.\J 1 \J 1 / sZy 


•47 


\7p nhrncrVi Sir ToVin 
v ani^i miiii, wjii 1 vjnii 




.48 


Farcjuhar, George 


t678— T707 


.49 


A/Tmnr writpr^ 

XVJ.lllV-'l VVUltlg 




.5 


(J IIAAfi AntlQ "Por-ltr T O +1-1 r- i~\ n it i" t r THAI X 

\/Uccll rinntJ iariy i»tn century Iy02— 45 




.51 


Dennis, John 


1657-1734 


• S2 
•«j 


Southerne, Thomas 


1660— 1746 


•53 


Centhvre, Mrs Susannah (Freeman) 


1668-1723 


•54 


Cibber CoIIpv 


T 67 T — T 7 ^7 
iu/ 1 1/0/ 


•55 


T? riwp T\Ti r»1"i rV! a c 
i\U VVC , IN lCllUliAo 


T A -7/1 t 7 T ft 

l\J/i|. 1/10 


.56 


C\a\t TrYh n 


T688-T712 


•57 


T illn Crprircrp 


T6Q1— T71Q 


•58 






•59 


lVTi rnr writ^rc 
IVlilivJl WllLClb 




.6 


.L/aier ioin century i745~i°uo 




.61 


Garrick, David 


1716-79 • 


.62 


Foote, Samuel 


1721-77 


•6j 


Colman, George, the elder 


1732-94 


.64 


TTnmp TnVm 

llUllll^j I VJ1111 


T 72A— T 808 


•65 


PmnViprlQnrl T?ir»Viarr1 
V-'UUIUCI IclIlU., JXlClldl U. 


T 710-1 ft T T 
1 / lOll 


.66 


RhpriHiJn T?ir*TiflrH "Rrin cl PT7 
wjiici 1ua.11 j xviciiai u. jjiiiibicy 


T 7 C T — T Pif ft 

1/Q1 IOIU 


.67 
.68 
.69 


Inchbald, Mrs Elizabeth (Simpson) 


I753-I82I 


Minor writers 




•7 


Early 19th century 1800-1837 




•71 


Baillie, Joanna 


I 762-1 851 


•72 


Knowles, James Sheridan 


I 784-1 862 


.8 


Victorian period 183 7-1 900 




.91 


Early 20th century 1901- 





LITERATURE 



823 English fiction 



.1 


Early English 


1066-1400 






.2 


Pre-Elizabethan 

More's Utopia, 


1400-1558 






•j 
•O 


Elizabethan 

Lyly s Euphucs 








•4 


tr U b L — JuJJXtt Uc llla.il 








•4 1 


Harrington, James 




1611- 


-77 


A2 


Bunyan, John 




1628- 


-88 


•4«5 






1636-91 




Bphn Anhrn 




1640- 


-8q 


•5 


Queen Anne 


1702-45 






•51 


DeFoe, Daniel 




T T 

IOOI- 


-I73I 


.52 


Fielding, Henry 




1707- 


"54 


.6 


Later 18th century 


1745-1800 






.61 


Richardson, Samuel 




1689- 


-I76l 


.62 


Sterne, Laurence 




1713- 


-68 


•63 


Smollett, Tobias George 


1721- 


-71 


.64 


Goldsmith, Oliver 




1728- 


-74 




See also 821.64 and 824.66 






■05 


Mackenzie, Henry 




1745- 


-1831 


.00 


Arblay, Frances (Burney). madame d' 


1752- 


-1840 


.6, 










Aft 
.Oo 










.09 


Minor writers 








•7 


Early 19th century 


1800-37 






•71 


Lewis, Matthew Gregory 


I 775" 


-1818 


.72 


Edgeworth, Maria 




1767- 


-1849 


73 


Scott, Sir Walter 




I77I- 


-1832 See 


•74 


Austen, Jane 




1775- 


-1817 


•75 


Porter, Jane 




1776- 


-1850 


.76 


Peacock, Thomas Love 


1785- 


-1866 


•77 


Gait, John 




1779-1839 


- 


Marryat, Frederick 




1792- 


-1848 


•79 


Minor writers 









.8 


Victorian period 1 837-1900 






.01 


Bronte, Charlotte 




1816- 


-55 


.82 


Thackeray, William Makepeace 




1S11-63 


.83 


Dickens, Charles 






1812-70 


.84 


Lytton, Edward George Bulwer, 1st baron 




1803-73 


•85 


Kingsley, Charles 






1819-75 


.86 


Beaconsfield, Benjamin Disraeli, 1st earl of 


1805-81 


.87 


Trollope, Anthony 






1815-82 


.88 


Cross, Mary Ann (Evans) Lewes [George Eliot] 


1819-80 


•89 


Minor writers 








.91 


Early 20th century 


1901- 







DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



824 
•3 

•4 

•5 

.51 
•52 
53 
•54 
•55 
.56 
•57 
.58 
•59 

.6 

.61 
.62 
.63 
.64 
.65 

.66 

.67 

.68 

.69 

•7 

•71 

.72 

•73 
•74 
•75 
.76 

•77 
.78 

•79 
.8 

.81 
.82 
.83 
.84 
•85 

.86 
.87 
.88 
.89 
.QI 



English essays 

Elizabethan 1558-1625 

Francis Bacon 1561-1626 

Post-Elizabethan 1625-1702 

John Locke 1632-1704 

Queen Anne 1702-45 

Shaftsbury, Anthony Ashley Cooper, 3d earl of 1671-1713 

Addison, Joseph 1672-17 19 

Steele, Sir Richard 1671-1729 

Budgell, Eustace 1686-1737 



Later 18th century 1745-1800 

Moore, Edward 1712-57 

Kames, Henry Home, lord 1 696-1 782 

Johnson, Samuel 1709-84 

Hume, David 171 1-76 See also 192.4 

Hawkesworth, John 1715-73 

Goldsmith, Oliver 1728-74 

See also 821.64 and 823.64 

Gibbon, Edward I737~94 

Minor writers 
Early 19th century 1800-37 

Mackintosh, Sir James 1 765-1 832 

Smith, Sydney 1 771-1845 

Jeffrey, Francis, lord 1 773-1850 

Brougham, Henry, 1st baron 1778-1868 

Lamb, Charles 1775-1834 

Hazlitt, William 1 778-1 830 

Hunt, Leigh 1 784-1 859 

Minor writers 
Victorian period 183 7- 1900 

De Quincey, Thomas 1 785-1 859 

Carlyle, Thomas 1 795-1 881 
Macaulay, Thomas Babington, 1st baron * 1800-59 

Helps, Sir Arthur 1817-75 

Arnold, Matthew 1822-88 

Ruskin, John 1819-1900 



Minor writers 

Early 20th century 1901- 



LITERATURE 



825 Ellglish OratOry For 'speakers' see 808.5 

Subdivided by periods like 821 

.6 Later 18th century 1745-1800 

.61 Chatham, William Pitt, 1st earl of 1708-78 

.62 Burke, Edmund 1729-97 

.63 Fox, Charles James 1 749-1 806 

.64 Sheridan, Richard Brinsley 1751-1816 See also 822.66 

.65 Grattan, Henry 1 750-1 820 

.66 Pitt, William 1 759-1806 

826 English letters 

Subdivided by periods like 821 

.2 Pre-Elizabethan 1400-1558 

Paston letters 

.5 Queen Anne 1702-45 

.51 Montagu, Lady Mary (Pierrepont) Wortley 1690-1762 

.52 Chesterfield, Philip Dormer Stanhope, 4th earl of 1694-1773 
•53 

.6 Later 18th century 1 745-1 800 

.61 Orford, Horace Walpole, 4th earl of 1717-97 

.62 Montagu, Mrs Elizabeth (Robinson) 1 720-1 800 

827 English satire and humor 

.2 Pre-Elizabethan 1400-1558 

.21 Barclay, Alexander 1 475-1 552 

.3 Elizabethan 1558-1625 

.31 Gascoigne, George I537~77 

.32 Harington, Sir John 1561-1612 

.33 Hall, Joseph 1 574-1 656 

.34 Marston, John 1 575-1 634 

.35 Donne, John 1573-1631 

•36 

•37 

.38 

•39 

.4 Post-Elizabethan 1625-1702 

.41 Wither, George 1 588-1667 

.42 Butler, Samuel 1612-80 

.43 Marvell, Andrew 1620-78 

.44 D'Urfey, Thomas 1625-1723 

.45 Oldham, John 1653-83 

.46 Brown, Thomas 1 663-1 704 

.47 King, William 1 663-1712 

.48 Garth, Sir Samuel 1665-17 19 

.49 Minor writers 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



827.5 

•51 
•52 
•53 
•54 
•55 
.56 
•57 
.58 

.6 

.61 
.62 
.63 
.64 
.65 

.66 
.67 
.68 

•7 

.71 
.72 

•73 
•74 
•75 
.76 

.8 

.81 
.82 
•83 
.84 
.85 
.86 

.QI 

828 



829 

.1 
.2 
•3 
•4 
•5 

.6 

•7 
.8 

•9 



Queen Anne 1702-45 

Ward, Edward 1 667-1 731 

Swift Jonathan 1 667-1 745 

Mandeville, Bernard de 1 670-1 733 

Arbuthnot, John 1 675-1 735 

Pope, Alexander 1 688-1 744 See also 821.53 



Later 18th century 1 745-1800 

Churchill, Charles I733~65 

Amory, Thomas 1 691 -1788 

Whitehead, Paul 1710-74 

Junius pseud. 1679-1772 

Wolcott, John [Peter Pindar] 1738-18 19 



Early 19th century 1800-37 

Gifford, William 1 757-1 826 

Hood, Thomas 1 798-1 845 



Victorian 183 7-1 900 

Jerrold, Douglas 1803-57 



Early 20th century 1901- 

English miscellany 

Anecdotes, ana, epigrams, quotations, etc. if illustrativ of any special subject (e. g- 
biografy, history, science, art), prg_wit.h that ^ihjpH-. If general they go in 828; if 
limited to any period, they take the same divisions as 821. For riddles, see 39?-6; 
Proverbs, see 398.9. The same rule applies to other languages in 838, 848, etc. 

Anglo-Saxon literature 

Poetry 

Caedmon 

Beowulf 

Cynewuh* 
Homilies and religious 

iElfric 
Alfred the Great 
Miscellaneous 
Historic and biografic 



LITERATURE 

German literature 

830.1 Philosofy .2 Compends .3 Dictionaries .4 Essays, lectures and addresses 
on German literature .5 Periodicals .6 Societies .7 Study and teaching .8 Col- 
lections .9 History 

I German poetry 



.02 Dramatic .03 Romantic and epic .04 Lyric, ballads .05 Didactic 
.06 Descriptiv .07 Satiric and humorous .08 Collections .09 History of 
German poetry 



.1 


Before the Crusades — 1150 




.11 


Hildebrandslied 




.12 


Otfried 




•13 


Ludwigslied 




.14 


Muspilli 




.2 


Middle high 1 150-1300 




.21 


Nibelungenlied 




.22 


Gtidrun, and minor folk epics 




•23 


Heinrich von Veldeke 


—I200 See also 839.3112 


.24 


Wolfram von Eschenbach 




.25 


Gottfried von Strassburg 




.26 


Hartmann von Aue 


I I 70-1 220 


.27 


Walther von der Vogelweide 


I I7O-I23O 


.28 


Ulrich von Lichtenstein 


I I99-I276 


.29 


Minor writers 




•3 


Period of decline 1300-1517 




.31 


Horneck, Ottokar von 




•32 


Hadamar von Laber 




•33 


Hermann von Sachsenheim 


-I458 


•34 


Biiheler, Hans Die sieben weisen meister 


I414- 


•35 


Kaspar von der Rohn Das heldenbuch 




•36 


Theuerdank 




•37 


Die Haimonskinder 




•38 


Mastersingers 




•39 


Minor writers 




■4 


Reformation; new high 15 17-1625 




.41 


Agricola, Martin 


I486-1556 


.42 


Waldis, Burkard 


I49O-I558 


•43 


Alberus, Erasmus 


1500-53 


•44 


Sachs, Hans 


1494-1576 


•45 


Ringwaldt, Bartholomaus 


1530-99 


.46 


Rollenhagen, Georg 


1542-1609 


•47 


Andrea, Johann Valentin 


I586-1654 


•5 


Period of imitation 1 625-1 750 

The Silesian schools 




•51 


Opitz von Boberfeld, Martin 


1597-1639 


.52 


Flemming, Paul 


1609-4O 


•53 


Logau, Friedrich von 


1604-55 


•54 


Gerhardt, Paul 


1607-76 


•55 


Hofmannswaldau, Christian Hofmann von 


1618-79 


•56 


Zesen, Philipp von 


1619-89 


•57 


Brockes, Barthold Heinrich 


I680-I 747 


•58 


Bodmer, Johann Jakob 


1698-1783 


•59 


Minor writers 







DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 




O3I.O 












■ Ul 


Gellert, Christian Furchtegott 


T 7 T ^— (SO 


.62 


Klopstock, Friedrich Gottlieb 




•°3 


Burger, Gottfried August 




64 


Herder} Johann Gottfried von 


T7AA— l8oi 


• u o 


Voss, Johann Heinrich 


1751-1826 




TCnrnpr TCar! TVipnHnr 

ivui n^i 1 xvai x x iiLUUvi 


T 7fiT— T8 T 7 

i/yi 1013 


.67 


Holderlin, Johann Christian Friedrich 


I 770-1 843 


.68 


Platen Hallermunde, August, graf von 


I 796-1 835 


.69 


Minor writers 




.7 


Postclassic period 1830-56 




7T 


Arndt Ernst Moritz 


t 760— t86o 


.72 
•/ * 


Eichendorff, Joseph, freiherr von 


i788-i8 f ;7 


•/o 


Uhland, Johann Ludwig 


1787-1862 


.74. 


Riickert, Friedrich 


1 789-1 866 




Heine, Heinrich 


1 799-1 856 


.76 


Niembsch von Strehlenau, Nikolaus 


1802-50 


.77 


Auersperg, Anton Alexander, graf von [Anastasius 




Grun] 


1806-81 


.78 


Freiligrath, Ferdinand 


1810-76 


•79 


Minor writers 




.8 


Later 19th century 1 856-1 900 




.81 


ScVipfpr T ,pr>r»r»1 d 

VJV^IICICI , l^/K^\J^JKJl\Ji 


T 78/f— T862 


.82 


TCinlfpl ToViatrn Oottfripd 


181 5-82 


81 


C^-piKpI Ti^rnfi n iip1 

VJCIUCI, X-/ 11 Id 11 UC1 


T 8 T 8/1 


.84 


Bodenstedt, Friedrich Martin 


l8lQ— Q2 


85 






.86 






.87 






.88 






.09 


Minor writers 




.01 

y 


Early 20th century 1901- 






German drama 






Period of imitation 1 625-1 750 




•O 1 


Gryphius, Andreas 


I616-64 


.52 


Lohenstein, Daniel Casper 


1635-83 


•53 


Weise, Christian 


I 642-I 708 


•54 


Gottsched, Johann Christoph 


1700-76 


•55 


Gottsched, Luise Adelgunde Victorie (Culmus) 


1713-62 


.6 


Classic period 1750-1830 




.61 


Lessing, Gotthold Ephraim 


I729-8I 


.62 


Gbthe, Johann Wolfgang von 


i 749-1 832 




Schiller, Johann Christoph Friedrich 


1 759-1 805 


.64 


Klinger, Friedrich Maximilian 


1 753-1 83 1 


65 


Iffland, August Wilhelm 


1759-1814 


.66 


Kotzebue, August Friedrich Ferdinand von 


1761-1819 


.67 


Werner, Friedrich Ludwig Zacharias 


1768-1823 


.68 


Kleist, Heinrich Bernt Wilhelm von 


1777-1811 


.69 


Minor writers 





LITERATURE 



832.7 Postclassic period 1830-56 

.71 Grabbe, Christian Dietrich 1801-36 

.72 Griepenkerl, Wolfgang Robert 1810-36 

.73 Grillparzer, Franz 1 791-1872 

.74 Birch-Pfeiffer, Charlotte 1800-68 

.75 Munch- Bellinghausen, Eligius Franz Joseph 

[Friedrich Halm] 1806-66 

.76 Laube, Heinrich 1806-84 

.77 Hebbel, Friedrich 1815-63 

.78 Gutzkow, Karl Ferdinand 181 1-78 

.79 Minor writers 

.8 Later 19th century 1856-1900 

.81 Benedix, Julius Roderich 181 1-73 

.82 Mosenthal, Salomon Hermann 1821-77 

.83 Brachvogel, Albert Emil 1824-78 

.84 Gottschall, Karl Rudolph 1 823-1 909 

.85 Lindau, Paul 1839- 

.89 Minor writers 

.91 Early 20th century 1901- 

833 German fiction 

.5 Period of imitation 1 625-1 750 

.51 Buchholtz, Andrew Heinrich 1607-71 

.52 Grimmelshausen, Hans Jakob Christoffel von 1625-76 

.53 Anselm, Heinrich 1653-97 

.54 Robinsonaden 

•55 Der Neue Amadis 

.6 Classic period 1 750-1 830 

.61 Wieland, Christoph Martin 1 733-1813 

.62 Richter, Jean Paul Friedrich 1 763-1 825 

.63 Hardenberg, Friedrich von [Novalis] 1 772-1801 

.64 Hoffmann, Ernst Theodor Wilhelm 1776-1822 

.65 La Motte Fouque\ Friedrich H; C; 1 777-1 843 

.66 Arnim, Ludwig Achim von 1 781-183 1 

.67 Hauff, Wilhelm 1802-27 

.68 Chamisso, Adelbert von . 1 781-1838 

.69 Minor writers 

.7 Postclassic period 1830-56 

.71 Zschokke, Johann Heinrich Daniel 1 771-1848 

.72 Brentano, Clemens 1 778-1 842 

.73 Tieck, Ludwig I773"i853 

.74 Postl, Karl [Charles Sealsfield] 1 793-1 864 

.75 Haring, Wilhelm [Wilibald Alexis] 1 798-1 871 

.76 Hahn-Hahn, Ida, grafin von 1805-80 

.77 Gerstacker, Friedrich 1816-72 

.78 Hacklander, Friedrich Wilhelm 1816-77 

.79 Minor writers 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



833.8 Later 19th century 1856-1900 

.81 Auerbach, Berthold 1815-82 

.82 Freytag, Gustav 1816-95 

.83 Scheffel, Joseph Viktor von 1826-96 

.84 Spielhagen, Friedrich 1829-1911 

.85 Hey se, Paul Johann Ludwig 1830-1914 

.86 Ebers, Georg 1837-98 

6 .89 Minor writers 

.91 Early 20th century 1901- 

834 German essays subdivided by periods uke g 3 i 

835 German oratory 

836 German letters 

837 German satire and humor 

.2 Middle high : minnesingers 1 150-1300 

.21 [Strieker, Der] Der Pfaffe Amis und Beispiele 

.22 Salomon und Morolf 

.3 Period of decline 1300-1517 

.31 Reineke Vos See also 839-371 

.32 Brant, Sebastian 1 458-1 521 

.4 Reformation : new high 15 17-1625 

.41 Murner, Thomas [Tyll Eulenspiegel] I475~i537 

.42 Fischart, Johann 1550-89 

.5 Period of imitation 1 625-1 750 

.51 Moscherosch, Johann Michael 1601-69 

.52 Rachel, Joachim 1618-69 

•53 Wernicke, Christian 1 660-1 720 

.54 Liscow, Christian Ludwig. 1701-60 

.6 Classic period 1 750-1 830 

.61 • Rabener, Gottlieb Wilhelm 1714-71 

.62- Blumauer, Aloys I755~98 

838 German miscellany 

See' 828. note 



LITERATURE 



839 Minor Teutonic literatures 

Subdivided by form, poetry, drama, etc. like 830 

.1 Low German 

.2 Frisian Old Saxon 

.3 Dutch literature Flemish 

.31 Dutch poetry 

.311 Middle ages 1200-1450 

1 Jacob van Maerlant 1235-91 (2 Heinrije van Veldeke 1200, see 
831-23) 3 Jan van Brabant 1250-94 4 Melis Stoke 1310 5 Dire 
Potter 1428 

.312 Chambers of rhetoric 1450-1600 

1 Antonius de Rovere 1482 2 Anna Bijns 1500 3 Matthijs de Caste- 
lein 1488-1548 4 Cornelis Everaert 1550 5 Jan Baptist Houwaert 
1533-99 6 Dirk Volkerszoon Coornhert 1522-90 7 Philipp 

Marnix 1538-98 8 Cornelis van Ghistele 1600 9 Minor writers 

.313 Period of the Republic 1600-1700 

1 Jacob Cats, 1577-1660 2 Joost van der Vondel 1587-1679 3 Marie 
Tesselschade Visscher 1594-1649 4 Constantijn Huygens 1596-1687 
5 Reyer Anslo 1626-69 6 Geraert Brandt 1626-85 7 Jan 

Antoniszoon van der Goes (Antonides) 1647-84 9 Minor writers 

.314 Poetic societies 1700-1800 

1 Lucas Rotgans 1654-17 10 2 Hubert Corneliszoon Poot 1689-1733 
3 Arnold Hoogvliet 1687-1763 4 Sybrand Feitama 1694-1758 
5 Willem van Haren 1710-68 6 Jacob Bellamy 1757-86 

7 Hieronymus van Alphen 1 746-1 803 9 Minor writers 

.315 Modern period 1800- 

1 Willem Bilderdijk 1 756-1 831 2 Jan Frederik Helmers 1767-18 13 
3 Cornelis Loots 1 765-1 834 4 Hendrik Tollens 1 780-1 856 5 Isaac 
da Costa 1798-1860 6 Jan Jacob Lodewijk ten Kate 1819-89 

9 Minor writers 

.32 Dutch drama 

.323 Period of the Republic 1600-1700 

1 Gerbrand Adriaenszoon Bredero 1585-1618 2 Corneliszoon Hooft 

1581-1647 3 Samuel Costa 1580-1650 4 Jan Vos 1620-67 

5 Guillelmus Ogier 1619-89 6 Joachim Oudaan 1628-92 9 Other 

.324 Poetic societies 1700-1800 

1 Pieter Langendijk 1 683-1 756 2 Andries Pels 3 Balthasar Huyde- 
coper 1695-1778 4 Onno Zwier van Haren I7i3~79 5 Jan Nomsz 
1738-1803 9 Minor writers 

.325 Modern period 1800- 

1 Samuel Iperuszoon Wiselius 1769-1845 2 Helvetius van den Bergh 
1795-1865 3 Hendrik Jan Schimmel 1825-1906 

.33 Dutch fiction 

.334 Poetic societies 1 700-1 800 

1 Elisabeth Bekker Wolff 1738-1804 2 Agatha Deken 1741-1804 
3 Rhijnvis Feith 1753-1824 

.335 Modern period 1800- 

1 Adriaan Loosjes 1761-1818 2 Jacob Vosmaer 1783-1834 3 Jan 
Frederik Oltmans 1800-54 4 Jacob van Lennep 1802-68 
5 Hendrik Conscience 1812-83 6 Anna Louisa Geertruida Bosboom- 
Toussaint 1812-86 

.34 Dutch essays 

.344 Poetic societies 1700-1800 

Justus van Effen 1684-173S 
•345 Modern period 1800- 

1 Johannes Henricus van der Palm 1 763-1 840 2 Reinier Cornelis 
Bakhuizen van den Brink 1810-65 3 Everhardus Johannes Potgieter 
1808-75 4 Nicolaas Beets 1814-1903 5 Coenraad Busken Huet 
1826-86 

.37 Dutch satire and humor 

.371 Middle ages 1200- 1450 

Reinaert (van den vos Reinaerde) see 837.31 
Poetic societies 1700- 1800 

Arend Simonszoon Fokke 1755-1812 



•374 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



839.38 Dutch miscellany 

The subdivisions of 8 show the leading writers in other branches of knowledge 
In classification, books are placed with their subjects, theology, history, etc. 
,381 Middle ages 1200-1450 

Jan van Boendale (Jan de Clerc) Chronicles, 1280-1365 
.384 Poetic societies 1 700-1 800 

Simon Stijl, History, 1 731-1804; Jan Wagenaar, History, 1709-73 

.4 Piatt Deutsch 
.5 Scandinavian 

.6 Old Norse Icelandic Faroese 
.7 Swedish literature 

.71 Swedish poetry 

.711 Middle ages 1200-15 20 

1 Nicolaus Hermanni 1391 2 Bishop Tomas 1443 3 Ericus Olai 
i486 4 Ballads (Folkvisor) 

.712 , Reformation 1520-1640 

1 Olaus Petri 1496-1552 2 Laurentius Petri 1499-1573 

.713 Age of Stjernhjelm 1640-1740 

1 Georg Stjernhjelm 1598-1672 2 Lars Johansson (Lucidor) 1640-74 
3 Haquin Spegel 1645- 1714 4 Israel Holmstrom 1660-1708 5 Gunno 
Eurelius Dahlstjerna 1661-1709 6 Johan Runius 1679-1713 7 Jacob 
Frese 1691-1729 8 Samuel von Triewald 1688-1 743 9 Minor writers 

.714 Age of Dalin 1740-80 

1 Olof Carelius 1758 2 Olof von Dalin 170S-63 3 Hedvig Charlotta 
Nordenflycht 1718-63 4 Anders Odel 1718-73 5 Gustaf Filip 

Creutz 1729-85 6 Gustaf Fredrik Gyllenborg 1731-1808 7 Olof 
Bergklint 1733-1805 9 Minor writers 
.715 Age of Gustavus 1 780-1 800 

1 Karl Mikael Bellman 1 740-1 795 2 Johan Henrik Kellgren 1 751-95 
3 Bengt Lidner 1757-93 4 Johan Gabriel Oxenstjerna 1750-1818 
5 Tomas Thorild 1759-1808 6 Anna Maria Lenngren 1754-18 17 
7 Karl Gustaf af Leopold 1756-1829 8 Frans Mikael Fraz6n 1772-1847 
9 Minor writers 

.716 Modern period 1800- 

1 Per Henrik Ling 1776-1839 2 Johan Olof Wallin 1779-1839 3 Esaias 
Tegner 1782-1846 4 Erik Johan Stagnelius 1793-1823 5 Per Daniel 
Amadeus Atterbom 1 790-1 855 6 Karl Jonas Ludwig Almqvist 1793- 
1866 7 Johan Ludwig Runeberg 1804-77 8 Karl Vilhelm Bottiger 
1807-79 9 Minor writers 

.72 Swedish drama 

.722 Reformation 1 520-1640 

1 Johan Messenius 1579-1637 2 Magnus Olai Asteropherus -1647 
3 Andreas Johannis Prytz 1 590-1655 

.723 ' Age of Stjernhjelm 1 640-1 740 

Isak Bork -1701 

.725 Age of Gustavus 1780-1800 

1 Karl Israel Hallman 1732-1800 2 Gustaf 3 (king) 1746-92 
3 Olof Kex61 1748-96 4 Karl Evallsson 1756-1806 

.726 Modern period 1800- 

1 Johan Borjesson 1790-1866 2 Bernhard von Beskow 1796-1868 
3 August Teodor Blanche 181 1-68 4 Johan Kristofer John 1818-84 

5 Frans Hedberg 1828-1908 6 Per Johan Edvard Backstrom 
1841-86 

.73 Swedish fiction 

.734 Age of Dalin 1 740-1 780 

1 Jakob Henrik Mork 1714-63 2 Jakob Vallenberg 1746-78 
36 Modern period 1800- 

1 Sofia Margareta von Knorring 1 797-1 848 2 Magnus Jakob Cru- 
senstolpe 1 795-1865 3 Fredrika Bremer 1801-65 4 Karl Anton Wet- 
terbergh (Onkel Adam) 1804-89 5 Emilie Flygare Carlen 1807-92 

6 Zakris Topelius 1818-98 7 Viktor Rydberg 1829-95 9 Minor 
writers 



LITERATURE 



839.74 vSwedish essays 

.746 Modern period 1800- 

1 Benjamin Karl Henrik Hoijer 1767-1812 2 Lorenzo Hammarskold 
1785-1827 3 Bernhard Elis Malmstrdm 1816-65 4 Karl Julius 
Lenstrom 181 1-93 5 Gustaf Hakan Jordan Ljunggren 1823-1905 
6 Karl Rupert Nyblom 1832- 1907 
.77 Swedish satire and humor 

.776 Modern period 1800- 

1 Johan Anders Wadman 1777-1837 2 Erik Sjoberg (Vitalis) 1794- 
1828 3 Kristian Erik Fahlcrantz 1790-1866 4 Vilhelm August 
Detlof von Braun 1813-60 5 Gunnar Wennerberg 1817-1901 
.78 Swedish miscellany 

The subdivisions of 8 show the leading writers in other branches of knowl- 
edge. In classification, books are placed with their subjects, theology, 
history, etc. 

.781 Middle ages 1200-1520 

Canon Mattias, Bible translation, -1350; Peder Mansson, Encyclopedia, 
-1534 

.782 Reformation 1520-1640 

1 Peder Andersson Svart, History, -1562 2 Erik Goransson Tegel, 
History, 1580-1636 3 ^Egidius Girs, History, 1580-1639 4 Gustavus 
Adolphus (king), History, 1594-1632 

.783 Age of Stjernhjelm 1640-1740 

1 Olof Rudbeck, Medicin, 1630-1702 2 Urban Hjarne 1641-1724 
3 Johan Peringskjold, History, 1654-1720 4 Anders Rydelius, Philosofy 
1671-1738 5 Anders Celsius, Astronomy, 1701-44 6 Emanuel 
Svedenborg, Theology, 1688-1772 

.784 Age of Dalin 1740-1780 

1 Karl Gustaf Tessin, History, 1695-1770 2 Karl von Linn6, Botany 
1707-78 3 Johan Ihre, Philology, 1707-80 4 Sven Lagerbring 
History, 1707-87 5 Anders Johan von Hopken, History, 1712-89, 
6 Olof Celsius, History, 1716-94 7 Anders af Botin, History, 1724- 
90 8 Torbern Olof Bergman, Chemistry, 1735-84 Karl Vilhelm 
Scheele, Chemistry, 1742-86 

.786 Modern period 1800- 

1 Erik Gustaf Geijer, History, 1783-1847 2 Anders Magnus Strinnholm, 
History, 1786-1862 3 Anders Fryxell, History, 1795-1881 4 Frederik 
Ferdinand Carlson, History, 181 1-87 

.8 Danish and Norwegian literature 

.81 Danish and Norwegian poetry 

.811 Middle ages 1 100-1500 

1 Anders Sunesen 2 Ballads (Kjampeviser) 

.8x2 Reformation 1500-1560 

Hans Tavsen 1494-1561 

.813 Learned period 1560-1700 

1 Anders Arrebo 1587-1637 2 Anders Bording 1619-77 3 Peder 
Syv 1631-1702 4 Thomas Kingo 1634-1703 5 Peder Dass 1647- 
1708 6 Dorthe Engelbrektsdatter 1635-1716 7 Soren Terkelsen 
1661 8 Jacob Vorm 1642-93 

.814 Age of Holberg 1700-1750 

1 Jorgen Sorterup 1662-1723 2 Toger Reenberg 1656 — 1742 3 Kristian 
Falster 1690-1752 4 Hans Adolph Brorson 1694-1764 5 Ambrosius 
Stub 1705-58 6 Kristian Frederik Wadskjser 1712-79 

.815 Period of enlightenment 1750-1800 

1 Kristian Braunmann Tullin 1728-65 2 Johannes Evald 1 743-8 1 

3 Johan Herman Vessel 1742-85 4 Edvard Storm I749~94 

5 Kristen Henriksen Pram 1756-1821 6 Jens Baggesen 1764- 
1826 7 Knud Lyne Rahbek 1 760-1830 8 Malte Konrad Bruun 1775- 
1826 9 Minor writers 

.816 Modern period 1800- 

1 Adam Gottlob Oehlenschlager 1779-1850 2 Bernhard Severin Inge- 
mann 1 789-1 862 3 Nicolai Frederik Severin Grundtvig 1783-187 2 

4 Johannes Carsten Hauch 1790-1871 5 Henrik Wergeland 1808-45 

6 Ludvig Bodtcher 1793-1874 7 Frederik Paludan-Miiller 1809-76 
8 Carl Ploug 1813-94 9 Minor writers 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



839.82 Danish and Norwegian drama 

.823 Learned period 1560-1700 

1 Hieronimus Justesen Rauch 1539-1607 2 Hans Kristensen Sthen 
1544-1603 3 Peder Jensen Hegelund 1542-1614 4 Hans Thomsen 
Stege -1628 5 Jens Lonberg 1663-1700 

.824 Age of Holberg 1700-1750 

1 Ludvig Holberg 1684-1754 

.825 Period of enlightenment 1 750-1 800 

1 Charlotte Dorothea Biehl 1731-88 2 Johan Nordal Bruun 1745- 
18 16 3 Ole Johan Samsoe 1759-96 4 Enevold Falsen 1 755-1 808 
5 Thomas Thaarup 1749-1821 6 Kristian Levin Sander 1756-1819 
7 Olaf Kristian Olufsen 1764-1827 8 Peter Andreas Heiberg 1758- 
1841 9 Minor writers 

.826 Modern period 1800- 

1 Casper Johannes Boye 1791-1853 2 Johan Ludvig Heiberg 1791- 
1860 3 Henrik Hertz 1798-1870 4 Thomas Overskou 1798-1873 
5 Christian Knud Frederik Molbech 1821-88* 6 Henrik Ibsen 1828- 
1906 

.83 Danish and Norwegian fiction 

.836 Modern period 1800- 

1 Thomasine Christine Gyllembourg-Ehrensvard 1773-1856, 2 Steen 
Steensen Blicher 1782-1848 3 Christian Winther 1796-1876 4 Hans 
Christian Andersen 1805-75 5 Meyer Aaron Goldschmidt 18 10- 
87 6 Holger Drachmann 1846-1908 7 BjSrnstjerne BjOrnson 
1832-1910 

.84 Danish and Norwegian essays 

.845 Period of enlightment , 1 750-1 800 

Rasmus Nyerup 1759-1829 
.846 Modern period 1800- 

1 Niels Mathias Petersen 1781-1862 2 Soren Aaby Kierkegaard 1813- 
55 3 Rudolph Keyser 1803-64 4 Peter Andreas Munch 1810- 
63 5 Johan Sebastian Cammermeyer Welhaven 1807-73 6 Georg 
Morris Cohen Brandes 1842- 

.87 Danish and Norwegian satire and humor 

.875 Period of enlightenment 1 750-1 800 

1 Peder Magnus Trojel 1743-96 2 Peder Kofoed Trojel 1754-84 

3 Thomas Kristoffer Bruun 1 750-1834 

.88 Danish and Norwegian miscellany 

The subdivisions of 8 show the leading writers in other branches of knowledge. 
In classification, books are placed with their subjects, theology, history, etc. 
.881 Middle ages 1100-1500 

1 Saxo (Longus) Grammaticus, History, -1208 2 Svend Aagesen, History 
.882 Reformation 1500-1560 

r Kristiern Pedersen (Father of Danish literature) 1480-1554 2 Povel 
Eliesen, Sermons, 1480- 3 Hans Mikkelsen, Bible translation, -1532 

4 Peder Plade (Palladius) 1503-60 5 Henrik Smith, Medicin, -1563 
.883 Learned period 1560-1700 

History: Hans Svaning 1508-1584 Anders S6rensen Vedel 1542-1616 
Peder Klausen 1545-1614 Arild Hvitfeld 1549-1609 Klaus Lyskander 
1558-1623 Ole Worm 1588-1654 Peder Resen 1625-88 
Theology: Niels Hemmingsen 1513-1600 Holger Rosenkranz 1574- 
1642 Jesper Brochmand 1585-1652 

Science: Tyge Brahe, Astronomy, 1546-1601 Kaspar Bartholin, 
Medicin, 1585-1629 Thomas Bartholin, Anatomy, 1616-80 Ole 
Borch, Medicin, 1626-90 Niels Stensen, Anatomy, 1638-86 Ole 
Romer, Astronomy, 1644-1710 
.884 Age of Holberg 1700-1750 

1 Erik Pontoppidan, History, 1698-1764 2 Jacob Langebek, History, 
1710-75 3 Frederik Kristian Eilschov, , 1725-50 

4 Gerhard Schoning, History, 1722-80 5 Peder Frederik Suhm, 
History, 1728-98 

.a Gothic 



LITERATURE 

French literature 

840.1 Philosofy .2 Compends .3 Dictionaries .4 Essays, lectures, and 

addresses on French literature .5 Periodicals .6 Societies .7 Study and teaching 
.8 Collections .9 History 



I French poetry 

.02 Dramatic .03 Romantic and epic .04 Lyric, ballads .05 Didactic 
.06 Descriptiv .07 Satiric and humorous .08 Collections .09 History of 
French poetry 

.1 Early French 842-1400 

.11 Chanson de Roland Chanson de geste 

.12 Wace, Robert 

.13 Marie de France 

.14 Chrestien de Troyes -1191 

.15 Quesnes de Bethune -1228 

.16 Thibaut 4, comte de Champagne 1201-53 

.17 Rutebeuf 1230- 
.18 . Roman de la rose 

Guillaume de Loris, 1195-1260 Jean de Meung, 1280-1320 

.19 Minor poets 

.2 Transition period 1400-1500 

.21 Chartier, Alain 1386-1458 

.22 Orleans, Charles due d' 1 391-1465 

.23 Coquillart, Guillaume 1421-1510 

.24 Baude, Henri 1430-95 

.25 Villon, Francois 1431-85 
.26 
.27 
.28 

.29 Minor poets 

.3 Renaissance 1 500-1 600 

.31 Daurat, Jean 1510-88 

.32 Du Bellay, Joachim 1524-60 

.33 Belleau, Remy 1528-77 

.34 Ronsard, Pierre de 1524-85 

.35 Thiard, Pontus de 1521-1605 

.36 Balf, Jean Antonie de 1532-89 

.37 Saluste du Bartas, Guillaume de 1544-90 

.38 Desportes, Philippe 1 546-1606 

.39 Minor poets 

.4 Classic period 1600-1715 

.41 Malherbe, Francois de 1 555-1 628 

.42 Maynard, Francois 1 582-1646 

.43 Racan, Honorat de Bueil, marquis de 1589-1670 

.44 Chapelain, Jean 1595-1674 

.45 La Fontaine, Jean de 1621-95 

46 Deshoulieres, Antoinette (du Ligier de la Garde), 

Madame 1637-94 

.47 Chaulieu, Guillaume Amfrye de 1639-1720 
.48 

49 Minor poets 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



1-5 18th century 1715-89 

.51 Rousseau, Jean Baptiste 1 670-1 741 

.52 Racine, Louis 1 692-1 763 

.53 Pompignan, Jean Jacques de Franc, marquis de 1709-84 

.54 Delille, Jacques 1 738-1813 

.55 Roucher, Jean Antoine 1745-94 

.56 Ch^nier, Andr6 Marie de 1762-94 

.57 Parny, Evariste Desire* Desforges, vicomte de 1753-1814 
.58 

.59 Minor poets 

.6 Revolution and empire 1789-1815 

.61 Lebrun, Ponce Denis tScouchard 1 729-1 807 

.62 Fontanes, Louis, marquis de 1 757-1 821 

.63 Parseval Grandmaison, Francois Auguste 1 759-1 834 

.64 Luce de Lancival, Jean Charles Julien 1764-18 10 

.65 D6saugiers, Marc Antoine Madeleine 1 772-1 827 

.66 Campenon, Francois Nicolas Vincent 1 772-1 843 

.67 Millevoye, Charles Hubert 1782-1I816 
.68 

.69 Minor poets 

.7 Constitutional monarchy 1815-48 

.71 Beranger, Pierre Jean de 1 780-1 857 

.72 Delavigne, Jean Francois Casimir 1 793-1 843 See 842.7a 

.73 Deschamps, fimile 1791-1871 

.74 Lamartine, Alphonse Marie Louis de Prat de 1 792-1869 

.75 Reboul, Jean 1 796-1 864 

.76 Vigny, Alfred Victor, comte de 1 799-1 863 See 842.7s 

.77 Musset, Louis Charles Alfred de 1810-57 See 842.76 

.78 Hugo, Victor Marie, comte 1802-85 

See also 842.78 and 843.78 

.79 Minor poets 

.8 Later 19th century 1848-1900 

.81 Laprade, Pierre Marin Victor Richard de 1812-83 

.82 Dupont. Pierre 1821-70 

.83 Banville, Theodore Faullain de 1820-91 

.84 Sully-Prudhomme, Rene Francois Armand 1839-1907 

.85 Copp6e, Francis fidouard Joachim 1 842-1908 See 842.88 

.86 Deroulede, Paul 1846-19 14 

.87 

.88 

.89 Minor poets 

.91 Early 20th century 190 1- 

French drama 

.1 Early French 842-1400 

.11 Mysteries and miracles 

.12 Adam de la Halle 1240-86 

.13 Bodel, Jean 

.14 

•15 
.16 

.17 
.18 

.19 Minor dramatists 



LITERATURE 



842.2 
.21 

.22 
•23 

25 
.26 

•27 
.28 

■29 

•3 

•31 
•32 

•33 
•34 
•35 
•36 
•37 
.38 
•39 

•4 

.41 
•42 
•43 
•44 
•45 
.46 

•47 
.48 
•49 

•5 

•51 

•52 

•53 

•54 

•55 

•56 

•57 

.58 

•59 

.6 

.61 

.62 

•63 

.64 

.65 

.66 
.67 
.68 
.69 



Transition period 

Gresban, Araoul 
Michel, Jean 
Gringoire, Pierre 



1400-1500 



-1493 
480-1544 



Minor dramatists 

Renaissance 1500-1600 

Le Coq. Thomas 
Baif, Lazare de 
La Peruse, Jean Bastier de 
Jodelle, Etienne 
Gr£vin, Jacques 
La Taille, Jean de 
Gamier, Robert 
Larivey, Pierre de 
Minor dramatists 

Classic period 1600-1715 
Corneille, Pierre 

Moliere, Jean Baptiste Poquelin, called 
Corneille, Thomas 
Boursault, Edme 
Racine, Jean 

Brueys, David Augustin de 
Dufresny, Charles Riviere 
Baron, Michel Boyron, called 
Minor dramatists 

1 8th century 1715-89 

La Motte, Antoine Houdart de 
Crebillon, Prosper Jolyot de 
Destouches, Philippe Nericault 
Marivaux, Pierre Carlet de Chamblain de 
Piron. Alexis 

Voltaire, Francois Marie Arouet de 

S^daine, Michel Jean 

Beaumarchais. Pierre Augustin Caron de 

Minor dramatists 

Revolution and empire 1789-1815 

Ducis, Jean Francois 

Collin-Harleville, Jean Francois 

La Harpe, Jean Francois de 

Fabre d'Eglan'ine. Philippe Francois Xazaire 

Andrieux, Francois Guillaume Jean Stanislas 

Chenier, Marie Joseph 

Picard. Louis Benoit 

Lemercier. Louis Jean Xepomucene 

Minor dramatists 



I530-55 
1532-73 
1538-70 
1 540-1 608 
I 545-I 60 1 
1550-1612 



1606-84 
1622-73 
1 62 5- 1 709 

1638- 1701 

1639- 99 

1640- 1723 
1 648-1 724 
1653-1729 



1672-1731 

I 674-1 762 

I 680-1 754 

16SS-I763 See 843.53 

I 689-I 773 

1 694-I 778 See 843-54 

1719-97 

1732-99 



I733-I8I6 

I 735-1 806 

1 739-1 803 See 844.6 1 

1755-94 

1759-1833 

[764-I8I 1 

1769-1828 

I 77I-I84O 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



2.7 Constitutional monarchy 1815-48 

.71 Soumet, Alexandre 1 788-1 845 

.72 Delavigne, Jean Francois Casimir 1 793-1 843 See 841.72 

.73 Scribe, Augustin Eugene , 1791-186J 

.74 Ancelot, Jacques Arsene Francois Polycarpe 1 794-1 864 

•75 Vigny, Alfred Victor, comte de 1799-1863 See 841.76 

.76 Musset, Louis Charles Alfred de 1810-57 See 841.77 

.77 Dumas, Alexandre, the elder 1806-70 See 843.76 

.78 Hugo, Victor Marie, comte 1802-85 

See also 841.78 and 843.78 

.79 Minor dramatists 

.8 Later 19th century 1848-1900 

.81 Labiche, Eugene Marin 1815-88 

.82 Ponsard, Francois 1824-67 

.83 Augier, Guillaume Victor Emile 1822-89 

.84 Dumas, Alexandre, fils 1824-95 

.85 Bornier, Henri de 1825-1901 

.86 Sardou, Victorien 1 831-1908 

.87 Pailleron, ^douard 1834-99 

.88 Copp6e, Francis Edouard Joachim 1842-1908 See 841.85 

.89 Minor dramatists 

.91 Early 20th century 1901- 

3 French fiction 

.2 Transition period 1400- 1500 

.21 Christine de Pisan 1 363-1 431 

.22 Jean de Tuim 

.23 La Sale, Antoine de 1 398-1462 

.24 Chastelain, Georges 1403-75 

.25 
.26 
.27 
.28 

.29 Minor writers 

.3 Renaissance 1500-1600 

.31 Marguerite de Navarre 1 492-1 549 

.32 Desperriers, Bonaventure 1500-44 

.33 Herberay. Nicolas d' -1552 

.34 . Du Fail, Noel -1585 

.35 Bouchet, Guillaume 1 526-1 606 

.36 Beroalde de Verville, Francois 1 558-161 2 
•37 
•38 

.39 Minor writers 

.4 Classic period 1 600-1 71 5 

.41 Urfe, Honore d' 1568-162 5 

.42 Gomberville, Marin Le Roy de 1600-47 

.43 La Calprenede, Gauthier de Costes de 1602-63 

.44 Scudery, Georges de 1601-67 

.45 Scudery. Madeleine de 1 607-1 701 

.46 Cyrano de Bergerac, Savinien 1620-55 

.47 Perrault, Charles 1 628-1 703 

.48 Lafayette, Marie Madeleine Pioche de la Vergne, comtesse de 1634-93 

.49 Minor writers 



LITERATURE 



843.5 18th century 1715-89 

.51 Le Sage, Alain Rene 1 668-1 747 

.52 Marivaux, Pierre Carlet de Chamblain de 1 688-1 763 See 842.54 

.53 PreVost d'Exiles, Antoine Francois 1 697-1 763 

.54 Voltaire, Francois Marie Arouet de 1694-1778 See 84a 56 

.55 Crebillon, Claude Prosper Jolyot de, fils 1707-77 

.56 Rousseau, Jean Jacques 1712-78 

57 Restif de la Bretonne, Nicolas Edme 1 734-1 806 

.58 Florian, Jean Pierre Claris de I755~94 

.59 Minor writers 

.6 Revolution and empire 1 789-1815 

.61 St Pierre, Jacques Henri Bernardin de 1737-1814 

62 Stael Holstein, Anne Louise Germaine (Necker), 

baronne de 1 766-1 81 7 

.03 Constant de Rebecque, Henri Benjamin 1 767-1 830 

.64 Maistre, Xavier de 1 763-1 852 

.65 Chateaubriand, Francois Auguste Rene, vicomte de 1 768-1 848 
.66 
.67 
.68 

.69 Minor writers 

.7 Constitutional monarchy 1815-48 

.71 Beyle, Marie Henri [de Stendhal] 1 783-1 842 

.72 Nodier. Charles 1 790-1 844 

•73 Balzac, Honore de 1 799-1 850 

.74 Sue, Marie Joseph, called Eugene 1804-57 

.75 Souvestre, Emile 1806-54 

.76 Dumas, Alexandre, the elder 1806-70 See 842.77 

.77 Gautier, Theophile 181 1-72 

.78 Hugo, Victor Marie, comte 1802-85 

See also 841.78 and 842.78 

.79 Minor writers 

.8 Later 19th century 1848-1900 

.81 M£rimee, Prosper 1803-70 

.82 Dudevant, Amantine Lucile Aurore Dupin 

[George Sand] 1804-76 

.83 Feuillet, Octave 1822-90 

.84 Flaubert, Gustave 1821-81 

Q „ -r. , ~, . . / Erckmann, Emile 1822-99 

.85 Erckmann-Chatrian s , . A1 , n , ■ 

{ Chatrian, Alexandre 1826-90 

.86 About, Edmond Francois Valentin 1828-85 

.87 Cherbuliez, Victor 1829-99 

.88 Daudet, Alphonse 1840-97 

.89 Minor writers 

.91 Early 20th century 190 1- 

844 French essays 

.3 Renaissance 1 500-1 600 

.31 Montaigne, Michel Eyquem de 1533-92 

.4 Classic period 1600-1715 

.41 Du Vair, Guillaume 1556-1621 
.42 Saint-Evremond, Charles de Marguetel de Saint- 
Denis de 1 61 3-1 703 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



844.5 18th century 1715-89 

.51 Fontenelle, Bernard le Bovier de 1 657-1 757 

.52 Montesquieu, Charles le Secondat, baron de 1689-1755 

.53 Alembert, Jean le Rond d' 1717-83 

.6 Revolution and empire 1789-1815 

.61 La Harpe, Jean Francois de 1 739-1803 See 842.63 

.62 Joubert, Joseph 1 754-1 824 

.63 Courier de M£re\ Paul Louis 1772-1825 

.64 Senancour, fitienne Pivert de 1 770-1846 

.7 Constitutional monarchy 1815-48 

.71 La Mennais, Hugues Felicite" Robert de 1 782-1 854 

.72 Villemain, Abel Francois 1 790-1 870 

.73 Planche, Jean Baptiste Gustave 1808-57 

.74 Sainte Beuve, Charles Augustin 1804-69 

.75 Saint-Marc Girardin 1801-73 

.76 Janin, Jules Gabriel 1804-74 

.77 Nisard, Jean Marie Napol6on Desire" 1806-88 

.8 Later 19th century 1 848-1 900 

.81 Quinet, Edgar 1803-75 

.82 Renan, Ernest 1823-92 

.83 Taine, Hippolyte Adolphe 1828-93 

.91 Early 20 th century 1901- 

845 French oratory subdivided by periods like 8 4x 

846 French letterS Subdivided by periods like 841 

847 French satire and humor 

.1 Early French 842-1400 

.11 Guyot de Provins 

.12 Roman du Renard See 837.31 and 839. 371 

.13 Deschamps, Eustache 1 320-1400 

.3 Renaissance 1500-1600 

.31 Marot, Clement 1495-1544 

.32 Rabelais, Francois I495~i553 

.33 La Satyr e Menippee 1594 

.34 Aubigne, Theodore Agrippa d' 1 550-1630 

•35 Regnier, Mathurin 1573-1613 

.4 Classic period 1600-1715 

.41 Viau, Theophile de 1 590-1 626 

.42 Saint Amant, Marc Antoine Gerard 1594-1 661 

.43 Scarron, Paul 1610-60 

.44 Benserade, Isaac de 1612-91 

.45 Furetiere, Antoine 1620-88 

.46 Boileau Despreaux, Nicolas 1636-1711 

.47 Regnard, Jean Francois 1 655-1 709 

•5 1 8th century 1715-89 

.51 Gresset, Jean Baptiste Louis 1709-77 

.52 Gilbert, Nicolas Joseph Laurent 1751-80 

.7 Constitutional monarchy 1815-48 

.71 Barthelemy, August Marseille 1 796-1 867 

.72 Barbier, Henri Auguste 1805-82 

848 French miscellany subdivided by periods uke s 4 i 



LITERATURE 



Provengal literature 



c Provencal poetry 

,11 i st period 900-1100 

Poetry in hands of clergy. No folk poetry preserved. Form mainly epic. 
Language not yet fixt. Country under rule of counts, nominally subject to 
emperor, really independent till i486, then reunited to France 

1 1 1 Epic poetry 

Boethius 

112 Lyric poetry 

1 1 9 Minor poetry Didactic 

12 Golden age 1100-1300 

Poets mainly knights, but after 1250 almost exclusivly burghers. Lyric most 
important 

121 Romances of chivalry 

Girart de Rossilho 

122 Historical poetry 

Croisade contre les Albigeois 

123 Romans d'a ventures 

Flamenca 

124 Lyric poetry 

125 Bernart de Ventadorn, flourisht about 1140-95 

126 Born, Bertran de 1180-95 

127 Arnaut, Daniel 11 80-1 200 

128 Borneill, Guiraut de 1175-1220 

129 Minor poetry 

Nearly 500 poets named beside anonymous poems. Form prevails over 
content; great variety of poetic forms. These lyric poets are the real 
Troubadours 

13 Aftermath 1 300-1 500 

Downfall of language and literature owing to lack of content and to political 
and social causes, specially the crusade against the Albigenses 

T31 Poets of school of Toulouse 

Arnaut Vidal, first recipient of the Golden Violet, 1324. Poetry artificial, a 
craft. Las Leys d'Amors is the code of poetic laws, by Guillem Molinier, 
chancellor of ' Consistory de la gaya sciensa ' establisht at Toulouse 1324. 
First prize a golden violet. When in danger of perishing, consistory revived 
in 1484 and poetic exercises styled 'Jeux floraux ' 

132 La Noble Leyczon 

Religious poetry of Waldenses 
139 Minor poetry 

14 Decadence 1500- 

Provencal sinks to position of a dialect despite fitful attempts to revive it, the 
most recent, that connected with publication of Li Provencalo 1852 

141 Goudouli, Pierre de 15 79-1 649 

142 Despourrins, Cyprien 1 698-1 755 

143 Jasmin, Jacques 1 798-1864 

144 Roumanille, Joseph 181 8-91 

14 5 Aubanel, Jos. Marie J. Baptiste Theodore 1829-86 

14 6 Mistral, Fr£d£ric 1830-1914 
1 4 q Minor poetry 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



849.9 Catalan literature 

.91 Catalan poetry 

.911 1st period 1200-1350 

Catalonia before 1137 ruled by French counts, then united to Aragon. 
Language is closely allied to Provencal, in which first poets wrote. Mss 
scatterd; few as yet printed. Literature begins with James 1 (1213-76) 
who made Catalan the state language 

For Ramon Muntaner see 849.9813 • 
1 Raimon Lull 1225-1315 2 Febler 1250 9 Minor poets 

.912 2d period 1350-1450 

Imitation of Neo Provencal, French and Italian, specially of Dante, Pe- 
trarch and Boccaccio. Some flashes of originality. Fra Rocaberti. Imita- 
tion of Dante 

.913 Age of perfection 1450- 

From 16th century, Catalan literature merged in Spanish, tho some writers 
still employ idiom, e. g. ' Balaguer ' 

1 March, Ausias -1460, greatest of Catalan poets 2 Fenolla, Bernard 
3 Jacme Roig (satiric) 4 Farrer 5 Serafi 6 Pujol 7 Garcia 
9 Minor poets 

.93 Catalan fiction 

.933 Age of perfection «45o- 

Joanet Martorel -1400. Tirant lo Blanch, a chivalric romance 

.98 Miscellany 

.981 1st period 1200-1350 

Prose superior to poetry. Chronicles of great importance, culminating in 
Muntaner 

1 James 1 (The Conqueror) 1213-76 2 Desclot, Bernardo 3 Mun- 
taner, Ramon 1265-1340 4 Ximenes 9 Minor authors 
.98:. 2d period 1350-1450 

Prose resists foren influences better than poetry. Many philosofic and 
theologic writings beside historical works 
1 Tomich 2 Turell 9 Minor writers 



LITERATURE 

Italian literature 

850.1 Philosofy .2 Compends .3 Dictionaries .4 Essays, lectures and 

addresses on Italian literature .5 Periodicals .6 Societies .7 Study and 
teaching .8 Collections .9 History 

Italian poetry 

.02 Dramatic .03 Romantic and epic .04 Lyric, ballads .05 Didactic 

.06 Descriptiv .07 Satiric and humorous .08 Collections .09 History 
of Italian poetry 

1 Early Italian Age of Dante -1375 

To deth of Boccaccio, 1375 

11 Protonotario, Stefano -1250 

12 Arezzo, Guittone d' -1294 

13 Guincelli, Guido -1276 

14 Cavalcanti, Guido 1260-1300 

15 Alighieri, Dante 1265-132 1 

16 Pistoia, Cino da 12 70-1336 

17 Uberti, Fazio degli -1369 

18 Petrarca, Francesco 1304-74 

19 Minor poets 

2 Period of classic learning 1375-1492 

From deth of Boccaccio, 1375, to deth of Lorenzo il Magnifico, 1492 

21 Frezzi, Federigo -1416 

22 Bojardo, Matteo 1430-94 

23 Medici, Lorenzo dei (II Magnifico) 1448-92 

24 Poliziano, Angelo I454~94 

25 Benivieni, Girolamo 1453-1542 See 852.22 

26 Sannazzaro, Jacopo 1458-1530 
29 Minor poets 

3 Age of Leo the Tenth 1492-1542 

From deth of Lorenzo il Magnifico, 1492, to convocation of council of Trent, 1542 

31 Bembo, Pietro 1 470-1 547 

32 Ariosto, Lodovico I474-I533 

33 Rucellai, Giovanni 1 475-1 526 

34 Molza, Francesco 1483-1544 See 853.33 

35 Tasso, Bernardo 1 493-1 569 

36 Alamanni, Luigi 1 49 5-1556 

37 Guidiccioni, Giovanni 1500-41 

38 Casa, Giovanni della 1503-56 

39 Minor poets 

4 Later 16th century 1542-85 

From convocation of council of Trent, 1542, to pontificate of Sixtus 5, 1585 

41 Costanzo, Angelo di 1507-91 

42 Rota, Bernardino 1509-75 

43 Tansillo, Luigi 1510-68 

44 Magno, Celio 1 536-1602 

45 Guarini, Giovambattista 1 537-1612 

46 Tasso, Torquato 1544-95 

47 Baldi, Bernardino 1553-1617 
49 Minor poets 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



.5 


Period of decline 1585-1748 






From pontificate of Sixtus 5, 1585-90, to peace 0? Aix-la-Chapelle, 1748 


•51 


Chiabrera, Gabriello 


1552-1637 


52 


Marini, Giovambattista 


1 569- 1 62 5 


.53 


ICS LI, .TU.1VHJ 


x 593 1040 


•54 


Filicaja, Vincenzo 


I 642-I 707 


■55 


Guidi, Alessandro 


1650-1712 


•5 6 


Manfredi, Eustachio 


I 674-I 738 


•57 


Frugoni, Carlo Innocenzo 


1692-1768 


.58 


Algarotti, Francesco 


1712-64 


•59 


Minor poets 




.6 


Period of renovation 1 748-1814 






From peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, 1748, to congress of Vienna, 18 14 


.01 


ro nici A ar#"\c^"i n r\ 


1730-03 


.02 


TVTtJ cr*Vi PfAfll T PkT"AT1 7A 


t «7 cr\ t ftnr» 

1 /3U loUU 


•63 


Pindemonte, Ippolito 


17^^-1828 


.04 


ivionti, v mcenzo 


1754 Io20 


6* 


Cassi, Francesco 


I77° — I84O 


.00 


jj J Foscolo, Ugo 


1779-1827 


.67 


Arici, Cesare 


1702— 1030 


.08 


OcsLUll, Dal HJUJillillL-U 


1/9 2 1022 


.09 


J.V11I1UI pUclb 




•7 


Early 19th century 1814-59 






From congress of Vienna, 1814, to war of Independence, 


, 1859 


•7 1 


Berchet, Giovanni 


I783-I85I 


.72 


XvUbbCbtlj VJaUl IC11\J 


T «7ft-?_T ft C A 

i7°3 I8 54 


•73 


Manzoni, Alessandro 


1 785-1 873 See 853.73 


•74 


Marchetti, Giovanni 


I 790-1 852 


'/ O 


Leopardi, Giacomo 


I7q8-l8^7 


.76 


Carrer, Luigi 


1801-50 


•77 


Regal di, Giuseppe 


1809-83 


.78 


Prati, Giovanni 


I8I5-84 


•79 


Minor poets 





.0 


Later 19th century 1859- 1900 






From war of Independence, 1859, to 1900 




0. 
.01 


Aleardi, Aleardo 


1810-78 


.82 


Zanella, Giacomo 


1820-88 


.83 


Gnoli, Domenico 


1838- 


.»4 


Carducci, Giosue 


1835-1907 


•85 


Fogazzaro, Antonio 


I842-I9II 


.86 


Rapisardi, Mario 


1844- 


.87 
.88 


Guerrini, Olindo 


1845- 


•89 


Minor poets 




.91 


Early 20th century 1901- 




> 


Italian drama 




.1 


Early Italian Age of Dante -1375 




.2 


Period of classic learning 1375-1492 




.21 


Belcari, Feo 1410-84 




.22 


Poliziano, Angelo 1454-94 


See 851 24 


.29 


Minor dramatists 





LITERATURE 



.3 Age of Leo the Tenth 1492-1542 



•31 


Machiavelli, Niccol6 


1 469-1 527 


•32 


Dovizi, Bernardo (Cardinal Bibbiena) 


1470-1520 


•33 


Trissino, Gian Giorgio 


1478-1550 


•34 


Aretino, Pietro 


1 492-1 556 


•35 


Ambra, Francesco d' 


_ _ _ 
-1558 


•39 


Minor dramatists 




•4 


Later 16th century 1542-85 




.41 


Speroni, Sperone 


1500-88 


•42 


Ljiraiai, Lr. r>. i^inzio 


1504-73 


•43 


Cecchi, Giovanni Maria 


1517-87 


•44 


Asinari, Federigo 


1527-76 


•45 


Porta, Giovambattista della 


1538-1615 


•49 


Minor dramatists 




•5 


Period of decline 1 585-1 748 




•51 


Buonarroti, Michelangiolo jr 


1 564-1 646 


•52 


Rinuccini, Ottavio 


1 565-1 622 


•53 


Andreini, Giovambattista 


1578-1650 


•54 


Gigli, Girolamo 


1660-1722 


•55 


Zeno, Apostolo 


1 669-1 750 


•56 


Maffei, Scipione 


1675-1755 


•57 


Trapassi, Pietro (Metastasio) 


1 698-1 782 


•59 


Minor dramatists 




.6 


Period of renovation 1748-18 14 




For Manzoni, see 851.73 and 853.72 




.61 


Goldoni, Carlo 


1707-73 


.62 


Gozzi, Carlo 


1 722-1 806 


<* 
•03 


Capacelli Albergati, Francesco 


1 728-1 804 


64 


Alfieri, Vittorio 


1 749-1 803 


•65 


Nota, Alberto 


1 775-1 847 


.66 


Biondi, Luigi 


1 776-1 839 


.67 


Benedetti, Francesco 


1785-1821 


.69 


Minor dramatists 




•7 


Early 19th century 1814-59 




•71 


Niccolini, Giovambattista 


1782-1861 


72 


Pellico, Silvio 


1788-1854 


•73 


Giacometti, Paolo 


1816-81 


•74 


Gherardi del Testa, Tommaso 


1818-82 


•75 


Ferrari, Paolo 


1822-89 


•79 


Minor dramatists 




.8 


Later 19th century 1859-1900 




.81 


Bersezio, Vittorio 


1 8 30- 1 900 


.82 


Cossa, Pietro 


1833-82 


.83 


Carrera, Valentino 


1834-95 


.84 


Marenco, Leopoldo 


1831-99 


.85 


Cavallotti, Felice 


1842-98 


86 


Torelli, Achille 


1844- 


.87 






.88 
.89 


Minor dramatists 




.QI 


Early 20th century 1901- 





DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



853 Italian fiction 



.1 Early Italian Age of Dante -1375 

.11 " Cento Novelle Antiche " (Gualteruzzi's collection) 

.12 Barberino, Francesco da 1264-1348 

.13 Pisa, Guido da -135° 
.14 Gubbio, Bosone da 

.15 Boccaccio, Giovanni 1313-75 
.19 Minor writers 

.2 Period of classic learning 1375-1492 

.21 Sacchetti, Franco -1400 
.22 Fiorentino, Ser Giovanni 

.23 Manetti, Antonio 1423-97 
.24 Mangabotti, Andrea dei 
.25 Prato, Giovanni da 
.29 Minor writers 

.3 Age of Leo the Tenth 1492-1542 

.31 Salernitano, Masuccio 

.32 Bandello, Matteo 1 480-1 561 

.33 Molza, Francesco 1483-1544 See also 851.34 

.34 Firenzuola, Agnolo 1 493-1 548 

.39 Minor writers 

.4 Later 16th century 1542-85 

.41 Grazzini, Antonfrancesco (Lasca) 1503-83 

.42 Doni, Antonfrancesco 1513-74 

.43 Erizzo, Sebastiano 1525-85 

.44 Giraldi, G. B. Cinzio 1504-73 See also 852.42 

.45 Parabosco, Girolamo -1560 

.49 Minor writers 

.5 Period of decline 1 585-1 748 

.6 Period of renovation 1748-18 14 

.7 Early 19th century 1814-59 

.71 Rosini, Giovanni 1 776-1 855 

.72 Manzoni, Alessandro 1 785-1 873 See also 851 7.1 

.73 Grossi, Tommaso 1791-1853 

.74 Guerrazzi, Francesco Domenico 1804-73 

.75 Bresciani, Antonio 1 798-1 862 

.76 Cantu, Cesare 1807-95 

.77 Carcano, Giulio 1812-83 

.78 Azeglio, Massimo d' 1800-66 

.79 Minor writers 

.8 Later 19th century 1 859-1 900 

.81 Castellazzo, Luigi 1827-90 

.82 Barrili, Anton Giulio 1 836-1 908 

.83 Capuana, Luigi 1 839-1917 

.84 Verga, Giovanni 1840- 

.85 Faldella, Giovanni 1846- 

.86 Farina, Salvatore 1846- 

.87 Giovagnoli, Raffaele 1838- 

.88 Serao, Matilde 1856- 

.89 Minor writers 

.91 Early 20th century 1901- 



LITERATURE 



854 Italian essays 



.1 


Early Italian Age of Dante 


-1375 


.11 


Cavalca, Fra Domenico 


-1342 


.12 


Passavanti, Fra Jacopo 


-1357 


.2 


Period of classic learning 1375-1492 


.21 


Alberti, Leone Battista 


14.04.— 72 


.22 


Palmieri, Matteo 


I AO ^—7 5 


.23 


Bisticci, Vespasiano da 


I42 I— 98 


.24 


Collenuccio, Pandolfo 


— I S04 


•25 


Vinci, Leonardo da 


I452-I5I9 


.29 


Minor essayists 




• 3 


Age of Leo the Tenth 1492- 


1^42 


•31 


Machiavelli, Niccolo 


I<±6q— I S27 


.32 


Nardi, Jacopo 


1476— I sss 


•33 


Castiglione, Baldassare 


IA78— T ^20 


•34 


Guicciardini, Francesco 


1482— I SAO 


•35 


Giannotti, Donato 




.36 


Giambullari, Pier Francesco 


I4.QS— I sss 


•37 


Gelli, Giovambattista 


1498-1563 


.38 


Varchi, Benedetto 


1503-66 


•39 


Minor essayists 




•4 


Later 16th century 1542-85 




.41 


Castelvetro, Ludovico 


I SO 5-7 1 


.42 


Piccolomini, Alessandro 


I S08-78 


43 


Borghini, Vincenzo 


1 si s— 80 


.44 


Davanzati, Bernardo 


1529— 1606 


•45 


Salviati, Leonardo 


I sao— 80 


.46 


Ammirato, Scipione 


1 s^i— 1601 

1 JO* * w x 


•47 


Paruta, Paolo 


1 sao— q8 


.48 


Botero, Giovanni 


i 540-1 61 7 


.49 


Minor essayists 




•5 


Period of decline 1 585-1 748 




•5i 


Sarpi, Paolo 


1 550-1 623 


.52 


Galilei, Galileo 


1 564-1 642 


•53 


Bartoli, Daniele 


1608-85 


•54 


Dati, Carlo 


1619-75 


•55 


Gravina, Giovanni Vincenzo 


1664-1718 


•56 


Muratori, Ludovico Antonio 


1672-1750 


•57 


Giannone, Pietro 


1 676-1 748 


•58 


Zanotti, Francesco Maria 


1692-1777 


•59 


Minor essayists 




.6 


Period of renovation 1748-1814 


.61 


Bettinelli, Saverio 


1718-1808 


.62 


Denina, Carlo 


1 730-1 8 13 


•63 


Tiraboschi, Girolamo 


1731-94 


.64 


Lanzi, Luigi 


1732-1810 


•65 


Beccaria, Cesare 


1735-93 


.66 


Filangeri, Gaetano 


1752-88 


■67 


Cesari, Antonio 


1 760-1 828 


.68 


Perticari, Giulio 


1779-1822 


.69 


Minor essayists 





DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



°54-7 


H/aiiy 19111 cemuiy 


1014 59 




•71 


Costa, Paolo 




1771-1836 


.72 


Giordani, Pietro 




I 774-I 848 


•73 


Troy a, Carlo 




1785-1859 


•74 


Balbo, Cesare 




1 789-1 853 


•75 


Capponi, Gino 




T7Q2— T878 


.70 


Mamiani della Rovere, Terenzio 


1800-85 


77 
•/ / 


VjlODcrLl, V lliCcIlAO 




1801—53 


78 
.70 


Tommas6o, Niccol6 




1802—74 


70 
•/ y 


Minor essayists 






Q 
•O 


Later 19th century 


1859-I9OO 




» 
• Ol 


Sanctis, Francesco de 




.Q.Q Q _ 
IOIO-O3 


.82 


Bonghi, Ruggiero 




1827-95 


Q 1 
•*>3 


Conti, Augusto 




l822— 1905 


.84 


Villari, Pasquale 




1827-1917 


.8 s 


Ardigo, Roberto 




1828- 


86 


Compare tti, Domenico 




1835- 


•87 


Zumbini, Bonaventura 




1840- 


.88 


Panzacchi, Enrico 




1841-1904 


.89 


Minor essayists 






.91 


Early 20th century 


I90I- 





855 Italian oratory 

856 Italian letters 

857 Italian satire and humor 



.1 


Early Italian Age of Dante 


-1375 


.11 


Gemignano, Folgore da San 




.12 


Chitarra, Cene dalla 




.13 


Angiulieri, Cecco 




.14 


Pucci, Antonio 


-1377 


•19 


Minor writers- 




.2 


Period of classic learning 13 75-1492 


.21 


Burchiello, Domenico 


1 395-1 448 


.22 


Pulci, Luigi 


1432-84 


•23 


Vinciguerra, Antonio 




•29 


Minor writers 




•3 


Age of Leo the Tenth 1492- 


1542 


•31 


Folengo, Teofilo (Merlin Cocai) 


1491-1544 


•32 


Berni, Francesco 


1 496-1 535 


•39 


Minor writers 




•4 


Later 16th century 1542-85 




.41 


Nelli, Pietro 




.42 


Beccuti, Francesco 


1509-53 


•43 


Caporali, Cesare 


1531-1601 


49 


Minor writers 





LITERATURE 



°57'i> 


Period of decline 






•5 1 


Tqcci^tii A 1 pcca nrl irk 




I 5°5 I0 35 


•5 2 


UI ctUClUlllll, J. 1 ctllCCaUVJ 




T T A A C 

I5OO IO45 


•53 


L/dlll, VJ1U V dill Ud L Lib Ld 




1572 1037 


•54 


ivippi, JL/Orcnzo 




I OOQ—04 




Rosa, Salvatore 




1615-73 


.56 


Menzini, Benedetto 




I 646-1 704 


•«j/ 


Sergardi, Ludovico 




I 660-1 726 


• S8 

\j 


Fortiguerri, Niccol6 




1674-1735 


•59 


Minor writers 






.6 


Period of renovation 


1748-1814 


•VII 


\J\jt1C1ly vJctopdHJ 




1713-86 


.62 


"PaQCprnni Cxi an f'nrln 

-L aooCl will) VJlclll V^ctl L\J 




1 71 3-1 803 


•°3 


v-'cisi/i, vjiovaniUciitista 




1721-1803 


.64 


Parini, Giuseppe 




1739-99 


.65 


Baretti, Giuseppe 




1716-89 


.66 


Elci, Angelo Maria d' 




1 754-1 824 


.67 


Pananti, Filippo 




1 766-1 837 


• t>9 


Minor writers 






•7 


Early 19th century 


1814-59 




•71 


Giusti, Giuseppe 




1809-50 


Q 
.O 


Later 19th century 


1859-1900 






Early 20th century 


1901- 






Italian miscellany 




.8 


Later 19th century 


1859-1900 




.81 


Gubernatis, Angelo de 




1840- 


.82 


Amicis, Edmondo de 




1 846-1908 



859 Wallachian literature 

.1 Poetry .a Drama .3 Fiction .4 Essays .5 Oratory .6 Letters 
.7 Satire and humor .8 Miscellany 

.9 Romansh literature 

Subdivided like 859 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



860 Spanish literature 



860.1 Philosofy .2 Compends .3 Dictionaries .4 Essays .5 Periodicals 
.6 Societies .7 Study and teaching .8 Collections .9 History 



861 Spanish poetry 



.02 Dramatic .03 Romantic and epic .04 Lyric, ballads .05 Didactic 
.06 Descriptiv .07 Satiric and humorous .08 Collections .09 History 

of Spanish poetry 

.1 Early Spanish -1369 

In 711 the Visigothic kingdom, founded in the 5th century, was overthrown by 
Arabs; 711-1492 Arabic period or Age of reconquest 

Literature began in first half of 12th century. Earliest poetry, epic; subjects 
national, themes war and religion (861 . 11-12). These were followd by an erudite 
tendency toward classic tradition neglecting national themes (861.13 and .14) 
which were however revived toward the close of the period (861 . 15) by continued 
victories over Moors under Alfonso nth, 1312-50, thereafter reaction again 
toward didactic (861 . 16). Under Alfonso the Wise, 1252-84, a general intellectual 
awakening, but leading to greater results in prose than in poetry. Thru him 
(1) Provencal (and Galician) and (2) Oriental influences were introduced. In 
Provengal literature chief attention was given to perfection of poetic form. The 
Oriental was didactic in content, symbolic in form. 

.11 Primitiv monuments 
.12 Poema de mio Cid 

.13 Berceo, Gonzalo de 1 196-1266 

.14 Segura de Astorga, Juan Lorenzo 1250 

.15 Yanez Ruy (Cronica del Rey Alfonso Onceno) 

.16 Sem Tob, Rabbi 1350 

.19 Minor poets 

.2 Age of imitation 1369-15 16 

Henry 2d to Carlos 1st, Charles 5th of Germany. 1479, Union of Castile and 
Arragon. Under Ferdinand and Isabella all Spain was brought under one scepter. 
Provengal and didactic tendencies continue; a third element was Italian influence. 
There were 3 distinct schools: 

1 Provengal, specially influential at court 

2 Italian (Dante) or Allegoric, introduced by Francisco Imperial, a Genoese. (Mena, 
861.22) 

3 Didactic. A protest against the Italian school in behalf of national literary 
traditions. (Ayala, 861 . 21) 

.21 Lopez de Ayala. Pedro 1 332-1 407 

.22 Mena, Juan de 141 1-56 

.23 Mendoza, Inigo Lopez de, Marques de 

Santillana 1 398-1 458 

.24 Manrique, Jorge 1440-79 

.25 Los Cancioneros I ~ „ ,. , 

r t "d Collections of poetry 

.26 Los Romances j 

.27 Romancero del Cid 

'Romances ' popular poetry, peculiar to Spain, and generally anonymous 
period of production, from earliest times to 18th century. Golden Age 
during reign of Ferdinand and Isabella, a grand reawakening coming with 
the fall of Granada, 1492 

.29 Minor poets 



LITERATURE 



861.3 Golden age 1516-1700 

Rule of House of Austria. Painting culminates in this period: Morales 1509-86 ; 
Coello 1515-90; Joanes 1523-79; The Herrera — 16th century; Ribera 1588-1656; 
Zurbaran 1598-1662; Velazquez 1509-1660; Cano 1601-67; Murillo 1618-82, etc. 
Fierce opposition to the Reformation intensified religious sentiment and produced 
a school of mystics. The sentiment of nationality became a dream of universal 
monarchy. The chivalric cult of woman was replaced by an exaggerated con- 
ception of female honor, the least suspicion of frailty being visited with deth 
Great number of poets. Nothing notable in epic; lyric very prominent; at first 
Italian influences more intensified, Petrarch the model. This movement, begun 
by Juan Boscan I500(?)-I543, culminated in Garcilaso (861.31). The protest 
against this in favor of national traditions is best represented by Castillejo 
(861.32). Mendoza (861.36) represents a conciliation. A fusion of 2 schools 
follows in which the Italian wins the major influence. Thereafter appear 2 new 
schools : 

1 Classic, opposed to the fusion and represented by Leon (861 .33) and the Argensolas 
(861.34) and 

2 Sicilian or Oriental (inspired specially by the Bible) of which Herrera (861.35) 
is standard bearer. First manifestations of ' bad taste 1 appear (founder of school, 
Alonso de Ledesma 1552-1623) represented by Gongora (861.37) which despite 
opposition (Rioja 861 .38) produces rapid decadence. Bad taste consisted in 
artificialities, exaggerations, obscurities, etc. 



.31 


Vega, Garcilaso de la 


1503-36 


.32 


Castillejo, Crist6bal de 


1 494-1 596 


•33 


Leon, Luis Ponce de 


1528-91 




Leon is equally important in prose 




•34 


Los Argensolas: Lupercio 


1 563-16 13 




Bartolome" Leonardo 


1 564-1 63 1 


•35 


■ Herrera, Fernando de 


1534-97 


.36 


Mendoza, Diego Hurtado de 


1503-75 


•37 


G6ngora y Argote, Luis de 


1561-1627 


•38 


Rioja, Francisco de 


1600-59 


•39 


Minor poets 




•4 


1 8th century 1 700-1 800 





At deth of Carlos 2d (1700) war of succession resulted in firm establishment of 
house of Bourbon, which, with brief interruptions, has continued to rule. Spanish 
political importance lost. At opening of century complete decadence, ' bad 
taste ' every where dominant. Attempts made to regenerate Spanish letters 
according to principles of French classicism. Little advance, however, till close 
of century, despite foundation of academies (Spanish academy, 17 14) and doctrinal 
reform in French sense, proclaimd by Luzan (1702-54) in La poetica, etc. 
Thereafter a kind of revival. 3 schools formed: 

1 Classic French. Moratin the elder (861.41); Cadalso (861.42); Yriarte (861.45) 
and Samaniego (861.44) 

2 Antique national, protesting against introduction of French taste. Huerta 
(861.43) 

3 Salamanca school, an attempt to reconcile the first 2, avoiding their extravagances 
and conserving what was good in each. Vald6s (861.46); Iglesias (861.47); 
Cienfuegos (861.48); Moratin the younger (862.42) and Jovellanos (868.42). 
' Prosaism ' production of exaggerated opposition to Gongorism or ' bad taste 
also characterizes period. Influence of French encyclopedism also manifest. 
Development of science checkt by religious (Inquisition) and political despotism. 
Rich development of fables and apologs in verse. Samaniego (861 .44) and Yriarte 





(861.45). In epic, complete poverty 




.41 


Moratin (the Elder), Nicolas Fernandez de 1737-80 


.42 


Cadalso, Jose de 


1741-82 


.43 


Huerta, Vicente Antonio Garcia de la 


1734-87 


•44 


Samaniego, Felix Maria de 


1 745-1 801 


•45 


Yriarte, Tomas de 


1750-91 


.46 


Valdes, Juan Melendez 


1754-1817 


•47 


Iglesias de la Casa, Jose 


1748-91 


.48 


Cienfuegos, Nicasio Alvarez de 


1 764-1 809 


•49 


Minor poets 





DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



861.5 19th century 1800-1900 

Abdication of Carlos 4th, 1808; Joseph 1st (Bonaparte) 1808-13. Ferdinand 7th 
restored. Salic law abrogated, opening succession to daughter Isabella. Carlist 
insurrections (upholding Salic law) queld. Isabella driven from throne by 
revolution 1868; 1870-73 Amadeo (Savoy house), 1873, Amadeo abdicates and 
republic proclaimd; monarchy restored with Alfonso 12th in 1875 
Age, till close of Ferdinand's reign, very unfavorable to letters. Under Carlos 4th 
(1788-1808) despotism reintroduced and revolution followd. Policy of Ferdinand 
7th, after restoration (1813-33), retrograde. An interregnum in letters. First 
real awakening with Espronceda (861.52). Same fluctuations as in previous 
period. Romantic school introduced by Zorrilla (861.53) 

.51 Quintana, Manuel ]os6 1772-1857 

.52 Espronceda, Jose* de 1810-42 

.53 Zorrilla y Moral, Jose* 1817-90 

.54 Gutierrez, Antonio Garcfa 1812-84 

.55 Gil y Zarate, Antonio 1 792-1 861 

.56 Hartzembusch, Juan Eugenio 1806-80 

.59 Minor poets 

.6 Early 20th century 1901- 

862 Spanish drama 

.2 Age of imitation 1369 -15 16 

Evidences of existence of ' mysteries ' but no remains 

.21 Enzina, Juan del (7)1468-1534 

22 Vicente, Gil (?)i450-i536 

.3 Golden age 15 16-1700 

Drama of this period is chief glory of Spanish letters; writers show a phenomenal 
fecundity (at 70 ' Lope ' had written 1500 dramas), 30,000 dramas composed by 
beginning of 18th century. At opening of period Church tried to check develop- 
ment of profane drama, placing nearly all in the Index. Torres Naharro (works 
pub. 1517) and Lope de Rueda (d. 1567) form transition from preceding period. 
Latter, reputed father of national theater. Lope de Vega (862.31) real founder. 
Drama culminates in Calderon (862 35) ; thereafter decadence 

.31 Vega Carpio, Lope Felix de 1 562-1 635 

.32 Castro y Belvis, Guillen de 1 567-1 621 

.33 Tellez, Gabriel (Tirso de Molina, pseud.) (?)i 570-1 648 

.34 Alarcon y Mendoza, Juan Ruiz de (?)i 580-1639 

.35 Calderon de la Barca, Pedro 1 600-81 

.36 Rojas y Zorrilla, Francisco de 1607- 

.37 Moreto y Cabana, Agustin 1618-69 

.39 Minor dramatists 

.4 1 8th century 1 700-1 800 

Complete decadence of drama in last years of old monarchy. Revival in 18th 
century, following French classic drama. Culminates in Moratin the younger 
(862.42). Opposition of National school voiced in Huerta (86 1 .43). Discussions 
provoke abundant productions, fecundity rather than merit characterizing mass 
of writers, Cornelia (862 .41) — Period of unrest; old ideas can not be recstablisht, 
new can not be naturalized. For Moratin the elder, see 861.41; Huerta, 861.43 

.41 Cornelia, Luciano Francisco 1716-79 

.42 Moratin, Leandro Fernandez de 1 760-1 828 

.43 Cruz, Ramon de la (Light comedies) 1 73 1-95 

.49 Minor dramatists 

.5 19th century 1800-1900 

Zorrilla (861.53), Gutierrez (861.54), and Rubi (862.52) represent ' romantic ' 
movement in Spanish drama. For Gil y Zarate, see 861.55; Hartzembusch, 
861.56 

.51 Martinez de la Rosa, Francisco 1789-1862 

.52 Rodriguez Rubi, Tomas 1817-90 

.53 Breton de los Herreros, Manuel 1 796-1 873 
.59 Minor dramatists 

.6 Early 20th century 1901- 



LITERATURE 



863 Spanish fiction 

.2 Age of imitation 1369-15 16 

Immense vogue of books of chivalry despite legislation till publication of Don 
Quijote; thereafter only one written. [First part of Quijote printed 1605] 

,21 Books of chivalry 

.22 Amadis de Gaula 

.23 Celestina 

.3 Golden age 1516-1700 

Real novel replaces old books of chivalry about 1500. ' Picaresca,' or ' rogue 1 
novel characteristic of this period; a result of the state of society following wars 
of Charles 1st and Philip 2d, e. g. Mendoza's Lazarillo de Tormts. For Mendoza, 
see 861 .36 

.31 Montemayor, Jorge de 1520-61 

.32 Cervantes Saavedra, Miguel de 1 547-1 61 6 

.39 Minor novelists 

.4 18th century 1700-1800 
.5 19th century 1800-1900 

For Bret6n de los Herrerds, see 862.53; and Rodriguez Rubi, 862.52 

.51 Larra, Mariano Jos6 de [Figaro] 1809-37 

.52 Mesonero y Romanos, Ram6n de 1803-82 

.53 Arrom, Cecilia Boehl de [Fernan Caballero] 1 797-1 877 

.59 Minor writers 

.6 Early 20th century 1901- 

864 Spanish essays 

865 Spanish oratory 

Hardly any forensic and little sacred eloquence. When language and culture 
advanced, privileges of Cortes restraind. Sacred eloquence less employd by Spanish 
church than by French or English. Gongorism or 1 bad taste 1 conquers here as 
elsewhere 

.1 Early Spanish -1369 

.2 Age of imitation 1369-1516 

.3 Golden age 15 16-1700 

For Luis de Leon, see 861.33; and Luis de Granada, 868.32 

.4 1 8th century 1 700-1 800 

For Jovellanos, see 868.42; and Vald6s, 861.46 

.5 19th century 1800-1900 

.51 Olozaga, Salustiano de 1803-73 

.52 Castelar, Emilio 1832-99 

.6 Early 20th century 1901- 

866 Spanish letters 

.3 Golden age 1516-1700 

Naturalness of old times changed with majeatlc court and rigid etiquet of Charles 
5th. For Santa Teresa, see 868 . 33 

.31 A vila, Juan de 1502-69 

.32 Perez, Antonio 1540-1611 

.39 Minor writers 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



867 Spanish satire 

.1 Early Spanish -1369 

Ruiz, Juan (Arcipreste de Hita) 1350 
.2 Age of imitation 1369-15 16 

Coplas de Mingo Revulgo 

.3 Golden age 1516-1700 

Quevedo Villegas, Francisco Gomez de 1 580-1 645 
.4 18th century 1700-1800 

For Cadalso, see 861.42; and Moratin the younger, 862.42 

.41 Jorge Pitillas (a pseudonym) 

.42 Isla, Jose Francisco de (el Padre) 1703-81 

868 Spanish miscellany 

.1 Early Spanish -1369 

.11 Alfonso io f el Sabio 1221-84 

.12 Sancho el Bravo (4th of Castile) 1258-95 

.13 Manuel, Juan 1282-1347 

.14 Alfonso 11 1310-50 

.19 Minor writers 

.2 Age of imitation 1369-15 16 

General and special histories, books of travel, works cald forth by Boccaccio's 
Corvaccio, etc. 

.3 Golden age 15 16-1700 

Didactic prose. Considerable development, tho less than poetry, owing in great 
mesure to political and religious restraints. ' Bad taste ' manifests itself here as 
elsewhere. Luis de Granada, Santa Teresa, San Juan de la Cruz, Pedro de Riva- 
deneyra and Luis de Leon, representativs of Mystic school 
For Luis de Leon, see 861.33; and Quevedo y Villegas, 867.3 

.31 Mariana, Juan de, founder of Spanish history 1536-1623 

.32 Granada, Luis de 1504-88 

.33 Teresa de Jesus, Santa 1513-82 

.34 Cruz, San Juan de la 1542-91 

.35 Rivadeneyra, Pedro de 1527-1611 

.36 Saavedra Fajardo, Diego de 1 584-1648 

.39 Minor writers 

.4 1 8th century 1 700-1 800 

Under Carlos 3d (i7S9~88) scientific studies took a fresh start, due largely to 
Feij6o, who attempted intellectual emancipation of Spain. Prose advances undet 
French influence, Gallicisms introduced 

.41 Feij6o y Montenegro, Benito Jer6nimo 1676-1764 

.42 Jovellanos, Gaspar Melchor de 1 744-181 1 

.49 Minor writers 

.5 19th century 1800-1900 

For Hartzembusch, J E, see 861.56 

.51 Gayangos, Pascual de 1809-97 

.52 Rios, Jose Amador de los 1818-78 

.53 Mila y Fontanals, Manuel 1818-84 

.59 Minor writers 

.6 Early 20th century 1901- 

869 Portuguese literature 

.1 Poetry .2 Drama .3 Fiction .4 Essays .5 Oratory .6 Letters 
.7 Satire and humor .8 Miscellany 



LITERATURE 



870 Latin literature 



.1 Philosofy .2 Compends .3 Dictionaries, cyclopedias .4 Essays 

.5 Periodicals .6 Societies .7 Study and teaching .8 Collections .9 History 

of Latin literature 

871 Latin poetry in general 

See Dramatic, Epic and Lyric below 

.1 Lucretius Cams, Titus 

.2 Ovid (Publius Ovidius Naso) 

.3 Hyginus, Caius Julius 

.4 Faliscus, Gratius 

.5 Manilius, Marcus 

.6 Phaedrus 

.7 Lucilius Junior Mtna 

.8 

872 Latin drama 

.1 Andronicus, Livius 

.2 Naevius, Cnaeus 

.3 Plautus, Titus Maccius 

.4 Ennius 

.5 Terence (Publius Terentius Afer) 

.6 Seneca, Lucius Annaeus see also 878.5 
•7 

873 Latin epic poetry 

.1 Virgil (Publius Virgilius Maro) 

.2 Lucanus, Marcus Annaeus 

.3 Flaccus, Caius Valerius 

.4 Silius Italicus, Caius 

.5 Statius, Publius Papinius 

.6 

874 Latin lyric poetry 

.1 Catullus, Tibullus and Propertius 

.2 Catullus, Valerius 

.3 Tibullus, Albius 

.4 Propertius, Sextus Aurelius 

.5 Horace (Quintus Horatius Flaccus) see also 877.3 

.6 Calpurnius Siculus 

•7 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



875 Latin oratory 

.1 Cicero, Marcus Tullius: complete works 

For Cicero's letters see 876.1 

. 2 Orations 

.3 Rhetorical works 

.4 PhiloSOflC WOrks See also 186.3 

.5 Messala Corvinus, Marcus Valerius 

.6 Quintilian (Marcus Fabius Quintilianus) 

•7 

876 Latin letters 

.i Cicero, Marcus Tullius For his other works see 875 . 1-875 . 4 

.2 Pliny (Caius Plinius Caecilius Secundus) 

.3 Fronto, Marcus Cornelius 
•4 

877 Latin satire and humor 

.1 Lucilius, Caius 

.2 Cato, Valerius 

.3 Horace see 874.5 

.4 Persius Flaccus, Aulus 

.5 Petronius Arbiter, Caius 

.6 Martial (Marcus Valerius Martialis) 

.7 Juvenal (Decimus Junius Juvenalis) 

878 Latin miscellany 

.1 Caesar, Caius Julius 

.2 Sallust (Caius Sallustius Crispus) 

.3 Nepos, Cornelius 

.4 Livy (Titus Livius Patavinus) 

.5 Seneca, Lucius Annaeus s ee also 872 . 6 and 188 . 6 

.6 Tacitus, Caius Cornelius 

.7 Suetonius Tranquillus, Caius 

.8 Curtius Rufus, Quintus 

.9 Minor writers 

879 Medieval and modern Latin 

Subdivided like 820. .1 Poetry .2 Drama .3 Fiction .4 Essays .5 Oratory 
.6 Letters .7 Satire and humor .8 Miscellany 



LITERATURE 



880 Greek literature 

Classic literature 

.1 Philosofy .2 Compends .3 Dictionaries .4 Essays on Greek literature 
.5 Periodicals .6 Societies .7 Study and teaching .8 Collections .9 History 
of Greek literature 

881 Greek poetry in general 

See Dramatic, Epic, and Lyric, below 

.1 Theognis 

.2 Aratus 

.3 Lycophron 

.4 Babrius 

882 Greek dramatic poetry 

.1 ^Eschylus 

.2 Sophocles 

.3 Euripides 

.4 Aristophanes 

.5 Epicharmus 

.6 Menander 

883 Greek epic poetry 

.1 Homer 

.2 Hesiod 

.3 Apollonius Rhodius 

.4 Oppian 

.5 Orphic poems 

884 Greek lyric poetry 



.1 


Tyrtaeus 


.2 


Sappho 


•3 


Anacreon 


•4 


Simonides of Ceos 


•5 


Pindar 


.6 


Theocritus 


•7 


Bion 


.8 


Callimachus 


•9 


Minor Greek lyric poets 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



885 Greek oratory 



.1 


Andocides 


.2 


i_v y oias 


•3 


isaeus 


•4 


Tf 1 Apt* O ffiC 


•5 


^schines 


.6 


Demosthenes 


•7 


Hyperides 


.8 


Lycurgus 


•9 


Minor Greek orators 



886 Greek letters 

.1 Themistocles 
.2 Alciphron 
.3 Phalaris 

887 Greek satire and humor 

For comedies of Aristophanes see 882.4 

.1 Archilochus 

.2 Simonides of Samos 

.3 Hipponax 

888 Greek miscellany 

.1 Herodotus 
.2 Thucydides 
.3 Xenophon 

•4 PlatO See also 184.1 Platonic philosofy 

.5 Aristotle See also 185. 1 Aristotelian philosofy 

Or if preferd, the works of Plato and Aristotle maybe put in 184. 1 and 185,1 

.6 >Esop 
.7 Lucian 

.8 Plutarch See also 186.2 

.9 Minor writers 

889 Medieval and modern Greek 

.1 Poetry .2 Drama .3 Fiction .4 Essays .5 Oratory .6 Letter s 
.7 Satire and humor .8 Miscellany 

890 Literature of minor languages 

Subdivided like 490, Philology of minor languages. If wisht 1 Poetry; 3 
Drama, etc., can be used after the language number; e. g. Russian drama is 
891.72, Hebrew poetry 892.41, Bengali poetry 891.441 



History 



900 History in general 



901-909 all have History in general as their subject, but it is treated in these various 
forms. A periodical on English history goes with 942, not 905, which is only for 
periodicals on history in general. Naught (0) in any class number in any part of 
the classification shows the subject to be general, not specific 

901 Philosofy, theories, etc. History of civiliza- 

tion 

902 Compands, chronologies, charts, outlines 

For chronology as a science, see 529 

903 Dictionaries, cyclopedias, etc. 

904 Essays, lectures, addresses 

905 Periodicals, historical magazines 

906 Societies, transactions, etc. 

907 Education, methods of teaching, writing, etc. 

See also 371.3 

908 Polygrafy, collected works, extracts, etc. 

909 Universal and general modern histories 

For general Ancient histories, see 930 oji^sj^oJU 1\a>vXo- , m» 

.1 A. D. 476 — 1199 .5 1500 — 1599 .81 1800 — 99 * 

.2 1200 — 1299 .6 1600 — 1699 .82 1900 — 99 

•3 1300 — 1399 .7 1700 — 1799 

.4 1400 — 1499 .8 1800 — 



910 Geografy and travels 



Including topografy, maps, antiquities, descriptions, etc. 

For map projection, see 526.9. See also 310 Statistics, 390 Customs and costumes 
For directories, guidebooks, gazetteers, etc. of special countries or geografic sections 
see under those sections, 914-919 

.1 

.2 Traveler's manuals, guidebooks 
.3 Dictionaries, gazetteers 

.4 Circumnavigations, ocean travel, shipwrecks and disasters, 

piratic adventures 
.5 - Periodicals 
.6 Societies 

.7 Study and teaching of geografy : school map drawing 

For primary teaching of geografy see 372.89 

.8 Collections of travels, etc. 

.9 History of geografy, travels, explorations, etc. 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



Historic Growth and changes in political 
divisions, etc. subdivided uke 930-999 

Maps, atlases, plans of cities, etc. 

Subdivided like 930-999 

Antiquities, archeology, of special countries 

See also 220.93 Biblical antiquities; 340.3 Legal antiquities; 571 Prehistoric arche- 
ology; 930 Ancient history; 390 Special customs 

Antiquities of ancient countries 

Subdivided like 930, e.g. 913 -32 Egyptian antiquities. Antiquities of countries 
having both ancient and modern history numbers should be clast in 913.3 

.9 Antiquities of modern countries 

Subdivided like 940-999. e. g. 913.42 English antiquities. See aiso note under 913.3 

914-919 is subdivided like 940-999. Whenever these 
main geografic hedings occur they may be subdivided 
exactly like History. The full list of subheds is 
printed only under 94«~999. In assigning numbers 
to travels, use the history tables, insert 1 after the 
initial 9, and move the decimal point; e. g. Guide 
to N.Y.city is 917.471, for N.Y. city in history tables 
is 974-71 

Oceania and Polar regions 

Biografy 

Including autobiografy, diaries, personal narrativs, eulogies, biografic dictionaries, 
etc. All biografy is here groupt together under the main classes, and subdivided 
in the same way with the variations indicated below for Philosofy, Theology, and 
Sociology, i. e. the biografy of science is divided like science itself, see 500-599. Lives 
of chemists are 925.4; of botanists, 925.8; of sailors, 926.56; of actors, 927.92; of 
the inventor of hard rubber, 926.78, etc. The rule is to give each life the number of 
the subject it illustrates most, or to the student of which it will be most useful. 
Another plan is to scatter biografy with the other books, leaving 920-928 blank, or 
using them only for general works, cross references, etc. This simply omits the first 
2 figures 92, and the life of a botanist is 580 insted of 925-8, and goes with botanic 
books. This plan may be carried out more specifically where 9 has been used for the 
history of a subject, by adding for biografy the figure 2, making the life of a botanist 
580.92 

Lives which will not go under any hed without ' forcing ' are best put in a single 
alfabet under the 3 figures 920 for men and under 920.7 for women 

General and collectiv by localities 

Including only collected lives too general to go under any subject heding 

1 Universal 

2 Partial collections not limited to any special country or subject 

3 Ancient 

4 Of Europe 

5 " Asia 

6 " Africa 

7 " North America 

8 "South America 

9 " Oceania 



Europe 

Asia 

Africa 

North America 
South America 



BIOGRAFY 



920 Individual and collectiv by subjects 

.1 Bibliografers 

.2 Librarians 

.3 Encyclopedists 

.4 Publishers Booksellers 

.5 Journalists 

.6 Academicians 

• 7 Women Collected, and individual lives not clearly going with any subject 

.8 Eccentrics, cranks, fools, insane, etc. see also 132. 1 insanity 

.9 Other special classes not included in 921-028, e. g. phrenol- 
ogists, somnambulists, mindreaders, magicians, etc. 

921 Of philosofy 

.1 American 

.2 English Scotch 

.3 German 

.4 French 

.5 Italian 

.6 Spanish 

.7 Slavic 

.8 Scandinavian and other modern 

.9 Ancient Oriental Patristic Scholastic see 1 80-189 

922 Of religion: clergy, missionaries, preachers 

922.1-922.88 may be subdivided for nationality like 930-999 

.1 Primitiv apostles, fathers, etc. oriental, Greek, Russian 

See 225.92 New Testament biografy 

.2 Roman catholic : popes, cardinals, etc. 

.21 Lives of popes 

.3 Anglican and protestant episcopal 

.4 Continental protestant : Lutheran, Huguenot 

.5 Presbyterian and congregational 

.6 Baptist Immersionist 

.7 Methodist 

.8 Unitarian, universalist and other 

.81 Unitarian Universalist 

.84 New church or Swedenborgian 

.85 Christian science 

.86 Quaker 

.87 Mennonite 

.88 Shaker 

.89 Other minor Christian sects 



1 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



922.9 

.91 
.92 

■93 
■94 
•95 
.96 

■97 
.98 
.99 



923 



.1 
.2 

•3 

4 

41 

•5 

.6 

•7 
.8 



924 

925 
926 

927 

928 



Ethnic and other 

Atheists 



Brahman Buddhist 

Parsee 

Jews 

Mohammedan 
Mormon 

Minor nonchristian religions 

Of sociology 

923.1-923.8 may be subdivided for nationality, as in 930-999; e. g. the life of an 
English king is 923.142; of a Russian czar, 923.147; of a Chinese general, 923. 55 1 

Chief rulers : kings, queens, emperors, presidents 

Political science: legislativ dep't, governors, politicians, 

Statesmen, nobles, etC. For slaves, see 326.92 

Political economy: bankers, capitalists, financiers 
Law: judiciary dep't, lawyers, judges 

Criminals 

Administration : army and navy, civil servis 
Associations and institutions Philanthropists, etc. 
Education: teachers, school offisers, educators 
Commerce and communication: railway officials, merchants, 
etc. 

Manners and customs : society, travelers, discovery 



Of philology 
" science 
" useful arts 
" fine arts 
" literature 



See note under 920 about subdividing. It is seldom 
wise to use more than 4 figures, unless in a large special 
collection; e. g. in a music library, lives of pianists may 
be separated as 927.86. Professors known as special- 
ists go with the subject taught rather than with teach- 
ers; e. g. a professor of geology 925.5; but if more 
prominent as an educator than as a geologist he goes 
in 923.7 



In adding figures for the subdivisions of literature, as in 810-899, class historians 
with miscellaneous authors as 8; i. e. Gibbon's life is 928.28; 928.31 is life of a Ger- 
man poet, and 928.691 is life of a Portuguese poet 



ANCIENT HISTORY 



929 Genealogy and heraldry 

.1 Genealogies 

. 2 Families 

.3 Registers of births, baptisms, marriages, deths 

.4 Names of persons and places 

.5 Epitafs 

.6 Heraldry 

.7 Peerage, precedence, titles of honor Royal houses 

.71 Orders ef Knighthood 

.711 St John of Jerusalem 

.712 Templars 

.713 Teutonic knights 

.714 ' Garter 

.715 Golden Fleece 

.716 Holy Ghost 

.717 

.718 

.719 

.72 Great Britain and Ireland 

.721 Peerage Royal houses 

.722 Baronetage 

.723 Knightage 

.724 Dignities, precedence 

.725 Landed gentry 

.726 Visitations Alfabeted by counties 

.73 Germany 



Divided like 929.72 



.74 France 
.75 Italy 
.76 Spain 
.77 Russia 
.78 Scandinavia 
.79 Minor countries 

Divided like 949; minor countries outside Europe are put together in 929.799 

.8 Coats of arms, crests 

.9 Flags 

93° Ancient history ^ - 

931 China 

932 Egypt 

933 Judea 
934' India 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



935 Medo-Persia * 

.1 Chaldea 

.2 Assyria Nineveh 

.3 Media 

.4 Babylonia 

.5 Persia 

.6 Parthia 

.7 New Persian or Sassanian 

.8 Mesopotamia 

.9 Susiana 

936 Kelts 

937 Rome Italy 

Period divisions 

.01 Kings 753-509 B. C. 

.02 Republic 509- 31 " 

.03 Conquest of Italy 509-264 ■ 

.04 Punic wars . 264-146 " 

.05 Civil strife 146- 31 " 

.06 Empire 31 B. C.-476 A. D. 

.07 Constitutional 31 " -284 " 

Augustus — Illyrian emperors 

.08 Absolute 284-476 " 

.09 Division of empire 395~476 " 

Barbarian conquests and fall of western empire 

Geografic divisions 

.1 Liguria 

.2 Gallia Cisalpina 

.3 Venetia Istria 

.4 Umbria Picenum Sabini, etc. 

.5 Etruria 

.6 Latium, Rome 

.7 Southern Italy: Campania, Samnium, Apulia, etc. 

.8 Sicily, Syracuse 

.9 Sardinia Corsica 

938 Greece 

Period divisions 

.01 Mythical age -776 B. C. 

.02 Growth of states 775-500 * 

.03 Persian wars Union of Greece 500-479 " 

.04 Athenian supremacy 479-431 " 

.05 Peloponnesian war 431-404 " 

.06 Spartan and Theban supremacy 404-362 " 

.07 Macedonian supremacy 362-323 " 

.08 Roman conquest of Greece 323-146 " 

.09 Greek subjection 146 B. C.-323 A. D. 

Byzantine empire is clast 949.5 



ANCIENT HISTORY 



Geografic divisions of Greece 

938.1 Macedonia 

.2 Thessaly Epirus 

.3 Acarnania jEtolia Locris Doris Phocis Ithaca 

.4 Boeotia Megaris Euboea 

.5 Attica 

6 Peloponnesus 

.7 Corinthia Achaia 

.8 Elis Arcadia Argolis 

.9 Messenia Laconia Sparta 

939 Minor countries 

.1 Grecian archipelago 

.11 Northern ilands: Thasos, Lemnos, etc. .12 Lesbos .13 Chios, 
etc. .14 Samos, etc. .15 Cyclades .16 Rhodes, etc. 
.17 Carpathos .18 Crete 

.2 Western Asia Minor 

.21 Mysia, Troas .22 Lydia .23 Ionia .24 Caria 
.25 Bithynia .26 Phrygia .27 Pisidia .28 Lycia 
.29 Pamphylia 

.3 Eastern Asia Minor 

.31 Paphlagonia .32 Galatia .33 Pontus .34 Cappadocia 
.35 Cilicia .36 Commagene .37 Cyprus 

.4 Syria 

.41 Upper Syria .42 Coele Syria .43 Palmyra .44 Phenicia, 
Tyre .45 Palestine: Hittites, Philistines, etc. .46 Edom, 
Moab, Bashan, etc. .47 Arabia .48 Arabia Petraea, Sinai 
.5 Northwestern Asia 

.51 Scythia .52 Sarmatia Asiatica .53 Colchis .54 Iberia 
.55 Armenia .56 Albania 

.6 South Central Asia 

.61 Sogdiana .62 Hyrcania .63 Margiana .64 Bactriana 
.65 Ariana 
Minor African countries 

.71 Mauritania .72 Numidia .73 Africa Propria, Carthage 
.74 Syrtica Regio .75 Cyrenaica .76 Marmarica .77 Libya, 
Gaetulia .78 Ethiopia 
.8 Southeastern Europe 

.81 Sarmatia Europa .82 Dacia .83 Vindelicia .84 Rhaetia 
.85 Noricum .86 Pannonia .87 Illyria ,88 Moesia 
.89 Thracia 



Modern 



940 Europe 



From fall of the Western empire (Rome) A. D. 476 

.1 Medieval Europe 476-1453 

For Byzantine empire see 949.5 

.11 Rise of new nations 476- 800 
.14 Age of feudalism 800-1100 

See also 321.3 Feudalism (Political science) 
Charlemagne 768-814 
Norman conquests 
.i 1 / Age of chivalry 1 100-1453 

To fall of Eastern empire (Constantinople) 1453 

.18 Crusades 1 096-1 270 

See also church history, 270.4-.5 

.181 1st crusade 1096 (Peter the Hermit) 

.182 2d " 1 1 47 (St Bernard) 

.183 3d " 1 1 90 (Richard Coeur de Lion) 

.184 4th " 1202 (Baldwin of Flanders) 

.185 5th " 1 2 12 (Children's crusade) 

.186 6th " 12 1 7 (Capture of Jerusalem) 

.187 7th " 1228 

.188 8th " 1248 (St Louis) 

.189 9th " 1270 " 

.2 Modern Europe i453~ 
.21 Renaissance period 1453-15 17 

Discoveries and inventions 

.22 Age of the reformation 15 17-1789 

•23 

.24 30 years war 1618-48 

•25 
.26 

.27 Napoleonic period 1789-1815 

.28 19th century 1815-1914 

•29 

.3 Great war 19 14-19 

.31 Political history 

.311 Causes 

.312 Efforts to preserv peace 

See also 940.32 Diplomatic history 

•313 

.314 Results: terms of peace 



MODERN HISTORY 



940.315 Relations of special classes 

Subdivided like the classification, using 9 for refugees, divided like 
940-999 by country of origin. For classes not thus provided for see 
940.316 

2 Clergy Church 

Subdivide .3152-28 like 280, but use .315289 for sects in 289; e. g. 
.31521 Greek catholic church 

22 Roman " " Pope 

2895 Christian scientists 
Use .31529 like 290; e. g. 
.315296 Jews 

297 Mohammedans Holy war 

.316 Other special classes 

1 Noncombatants 

2 Pacifists 

3 Enemy sympathizers 

•317 

.318 Relations of special interests Aspects 

Divided generally like the classification 

.32 Diplomatic history 

See also 940.3 1-.3 14 Political history 

.33 Groups of countries: allies and neutrals 

As a body; for individual countries see 940.34~-39 

.332 Entente 

.334 Teuton allies, Central powers 

.335 Neutrals 

.3 4-. 3 9 Individual countries 

Divided like 940-999 

Under each country farther subdivision may be made with the following 
numbers, if its part in this war is clast here insted of with the rest of its 
history: 

01 Political history Causes 

02 Diplomatic " 

03 Local (states, counties, provinces, cities) 

04 Military organization 

Class operations in 940.4 

05 Aspects: economic and other 

06 Celebrations 

07 Prisons, etc. 

08 Personal narrativ 

09 Illustrativ 

.4 Military history 

.405 Frightfulness, atrocities 

As military expedient. For other relations see Atrocities in Relativ 
index. But, since the avowd policy of one group of belligerents 
was ' frightfulness ', it pervades all literature of this war. 

.41 Land operations 

•42-.43 Special campains and battles 

.44 Air warfare 

.45 Naval history 

.46 Celebrations, commemorations 

Usually better clast with event commemorated. For American patriotic 
societies of this war, see 369.186 

.461 War meetings 
.462 

.463 Flag presentations 

.464 Decorations: presentation 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



940.465 Monuments, memorials 

General, of the war or a country's part in it; but class memorials of a 
special event with that event 
4-9 By country Divided 1 ke ' 40-909 

.467 Rolls of honor -Lists of ded 

.468 

.47 Prisons, hospitals, charities 

47i 

472 Prisons 

Divided like 940-999 and including internment camps 

473 Exchange of prisoners 
474 

475 Medical department, surgeons, nurses 

See also 616 and 617 

4-9 By country maintaining Divided like 940-999 

.476 Hospitals, hospital sketches 

34-39 By country in which located Divided like 940-999 

4-9 By country maintaining 

.477 Welfare work 

1 Red Cross 

2 Salvation Army 

3 YMC A 

4 YWC A 

5 Knights of Columbus 

6 Young Men's Hebrew ass'n 

7 Other: college units, etc. 

8 By country conducting Divided like 940-999 

9 By country in which conducted Divided like 940-999 
478 Religious life, chaplains, etc. 

48 Personal narrativs, secret servis 

When relating to some special battle 01 event, class with subject 

481 Entente allies 

482 Central powers 

483 Army life, Entente allies 

484 Central powers 

485 Secret servis, spies 
486 

487 German secret servis 

488 
489 

49 Illustrativ material 

Subdivided like 973-79 

For special collections; but most material should be clast with its subject: 
poetry, drama, etc. with the literatures to which they belong 

5 Later 20th century 

Including works on 20th century as a whole 



HISTORY 



941 



.01 
.02 

.03 
.04 

05 
.06 
.07 
.08 
.09 



.2 
•3 
4 



Scotland 

Period divisions 

Gaelic period -1097 

English period 1097-1314 

Struggle for national freedom 

Independent kingdom 13 14-1424 

The Jameses 1424-1557 

Reformation 1 557-1603 

Union of crowns and parliaments 1 603-1 707 

Hanover 1 707-1 837 

Later Hanoverian 1837- 



Geograflc divisions 
Northern Scotland 

.11 Shetland .12 Orkney 

.15 Cromarty .16 Ross 
North central Scotland 

.21 Inverness .22 Nairn 

deen .26 Kincardine 
South central Scotland 

.31 Forfar .32 Perth 

mannan .36 Sterling 
Southern Scotland 

.41 Renfrew .42 Ayr 

burgh .45 

.47 Roxburgh 



.13 Caithness 
17 Hebrides 



14 Sutherland 



.23 Elgin .24 Banff .25 Aber- 



.33 Fife .34 Kinross 
37 Dumbarton .38 Argyll 



.43 Lanark 



.35 Clack- 
.39 Bute 



.44 Linlithgow, Edin- 
Haddington, Berwick .46 Peebles, Selkirk 
.48 Dumfries .49 Kirkcudbright, Wigton 



941.5 Ireland 



Period divisions 

.51 Early history -1086 

.52 Separate kingdoms 1086-1172 

Conquest by Henry 2 

.53 Plantagenet 1 172-1399 

.54 Lancaster and York 1 399-1 485 

.55 Tudors 1485-1603 

.56 Stuarts 1603-91 

Closing with treaty of Limerick 

.57 Hanover 1691-1801 

Closing with the union 

.58 19th century 1801-1900 
,591 Early 20th century 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



Geografic divisions of Ireland 

941.6 Ulster 

.61 Antrim .62 Londonderry .63 Donegal .64 Tyrone 
.65 Down .66 Armagh .67 Monaghan .68 Fermanagh 
.69 Cavan 

.7 Connaught 

.71 Lei trim .72 Sligo .73 Mayo .74 Gal way .75 Ros- 
common 

.8 Leinster 

.81 Longford, West Meath .82 Meath, Louth .83 Dublin 
.84 Wicklow .85 Kildare .86 King's co. .87 Queen's co. 
.88 Carlow, Wexford .89 Kilkenny 

.9 Munster 

.91 Waterford .92 Tipperary .93 Clare .94 Limerick 
.95 Cork .96 Kerry 

942 England 

Including works on Great Britain 

Period divisions 

For specially minute work the 6th figure printed for each soveren may be used; e. g. 
Henry 7 is 942.051 

.01 Anglo-Saxon B. C. 55-A. D. 1066 

Prehistoric, Roman, British, Danish 

.02 Norman 1066-1154 
1 William 1 1066-87 2 William 2 1087-1100 3 Henry 1 
1100-35 4 Stephen H35S4 

.03 Plantagenet 1 154-1399 

1 Henry 2 1154-80 2 Richard 1 1189-99 3 John 1190-1216 
4 Henry 3 1216-72 5 Edward 1 1272-1307 6 Edward 2 
1307-27 7 Edward 3 1327-77 8 Richard 2 I377~99 

.04 Lancaster and York 1400-85 

Wars of the roses 1455-85 (Lancaster, red; York, white) 

i Henry 4 1399-1413 2 Henry 5 1413-22 3 Henry 6 
1422-61 4 Edward 4 1461-83 5 Edward 5 1483 6 Rich- 
ard 3 1483-85 

.05 Tudor 1485-1603 

1 Henry 7 1485-1509 2 Henry 8 1509-47 3 Edward 6 
1 547S3 4 Mary 1553-58 See also 272.6 5 Elizabeth 15 58-1603 
See also 272.7 

.06 Stuart 1603-1714 

1 James 1 1603-25 2 Charles 1 1625-49 3 Commonwelth 
1649-53 4 Oliver Cromwell 1653-58 5 Richard Cromwell 
1658-59 6 Charles 2 1660-85 7 James 2 1685-88 8 Wil- 
liam 3 1689-1702 9 Anne 1702-14; War of Spanish succession 

07 Hanover 17 14-1837 

1 George 1 1714-27 2 George 2 1727-60 3 George 3 1760- 
1820 4 George 4 1820-30 5 William 4 1830-37 

.08 Later Hanoverian 1837- 

1 Victoria 1837-1901 2 Edward 7 1901-10 3 George 5 1910- 



HISTORY 

Geografic divisions 
942.1 Middlesex London 

.2 Southeastern 

.21 Surrey .23 Kent .25 Sussex .27 Hants .28 Isle of 
Wight .29 Berks 

.3 Southwestern 

.31 Wilts .33 Dorset .34 Channel ilands .35 Devon .37 Corn- 
wall .38 Somerset 

.4 West Midland 

.41 Gloucester .43 Monmouth .44 Hereford .45 Salop 
.46 Stafford .47 Worcester .48 Warwick 

.5 North and South Midland 

.51 Derby .52 Notts .53 Lincoln .54 Leicester, Rutland 
.55 Northampton .56 Huntington, Bedford .57 Oxford, Buck- 
ingham .58 Hertford .59 Cambridge 

.6 Eastern 

.61 Norfolk .64 Suffolk .67 Essex 

.7 Northwestern and Yorkshire 

.71 Cheshire .72 Lancashire .74 Yorkshire 

.8 Northern 

.81 Durham .82 Northumberland .85 Cumberland .88 West- 
moreland .89 Isle of Man 

.9 Wales 

.91 Anglesey .92 Carnarvon, Merioneth .93 Denbigh, Flint 
.94 Montgomery . 95 Cardigan .96 Radnor, Brecknock 
.97 Glamorgan • .98 Carmarthen .99 Pembroke 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



943 Germany and Austria 

Period divisions 

.01 Formativ period 

Wars with Rome Charlemagne 800-814 Louis 1 814-840 

Lothaire 1 840-843 
.02 Empire before the reformation 

1 Carolingian 843-911: Louis 2 843-876 Charles 2 876-877 
Charles 3 877-887 Arnulf 887-890 Louis 3 900-911 

2 House of Franconia: Conrad 1 911-918 House of Saxony, 
919-1024: Henry 1 919-936 Otto 1 936-973 Otto 2 973-983 
Otto 3 983-1002 Henry 2 1002-24 

3 House of Franconia 1024-1125: Conrad 2 1024-39 Henry 3 
1039-56 Henry 4 1056-1106 Henry 5 1106-25 House of 
Saxony: Lothaire 2 1125-37 

4 House of Hohenstaufen 1137-97: Conrad 3 1138-52 Fred- 
erick 1 1152-90 Henry 6 1190-97 

5 House of Hohenstaufen and Interregnum 1198-1272: Philip 
1198-1208 Otto 4 1208-12 Frederick 2 1212-50 * Conrad 4 
1250-54 William of Holland 1254-56 Richard of Cornwall 

1256-72 

6 Houses of Hapsburg, Luxemburg, etc. 1273-13 78: Rodolph 1 
1273-91 Adolphus 1291-98 Albert 1 1298-1308 Henry 7 
1308-13 Louis 4 1313-47 Charles 4 1347-78 

7 Interregnum 1378-1437: Wenceslaus 1378-1400 Rupert 
1400-10 Sigismund 1410-37 

8 Albert 2 1438-39 Frederick 3 1440-93 

9 Maximilian 1 1493-1519 

.03 Reformation to 1618 1517-1618 

1 Charles 5 1519-1556 2 Ferdinand 1 1556-64 3 Maxi- 
milian 2 1564-76 4 Rodolph 2 1 576-161 2 5 Matthias 
1612-19 

.04 Disintegration 1 618-1705 

1 Thirty years' war 1618-48 2 Ferdinand 2 1619-37 3 Fer- 
dinand 3 1637-57 4 Leopold 1 1658-1705 

.05 Rise of Prussia 1705-89 

1 Joseph 1 1705-11 2 Charles 6 1711-40 3 1740-42 
4 Charles 7 1742-45 5 Francis 1 1745-65 6 Seven years war 
1756-63 7 Joseph 2 1765-90 

.06 Napoleonic wars 1789-1815 

Leopold 2 1790-92 Francis 2 1792-1806 Confederation of 
the Rhine 1806-15 

.07 Reorganization 1815-66 
.08 New German empire 1866-1918 

1 North German confederation 1866-71 2 Franco-German war 
1870-71 3 William 1 1871-88 4 Frederick 1888 Wil- 
liam 2 1888-1918 ; Great war 1914-19 and downfall of empire 
.085 German republic 1918- 



HISTORY 



Geografic divisions of Germany and Austria 
Prussia and Northern Germany 

By peace of Versailles, iqiq, most of Posen (.13) and parts of East 
Prussia (.11) of West Prussia (.12) and Silesia (.14) were restored to 
Poland. Danzig (.12) as part of Poland made free city with 729 sq. mi. of 
territory 

.11 East Prussia .12 West Prussia, Danzig .13 Posen 
.14 Silesia 15 Brandenburg .16 Pomerania .17 Meck- 
lenburg and Lubeck .18 Prussian Saxony .19 Anhalt 
Central Germany 

.21 Saxony .22 Thuringia .23 Saxe-Weimar .24 Saxe- 
Altenburg .25 Saxe-Gotha-Coburg .26 Saxe-Meiningen 
.27 Schwartzburg .28 Reuss 

Bavaria 

.31 Upper Franconia .32 Middle Franconia .33 Lower 
Franconia .34 Upper Palatinate .35 Lower Bavaria 
.36 Upper Bavaria .37 Suabia 

Southern Germany 

In iqiq by peace of Versailles 382 sq. mi. of Rhenish Prussia (.42) including 
Moresnet, Malmedy and Eupen were ceded to Belgium, and 783 sq. mi. 
of Saar valley to France subject to plebiscit in 1934. Alsace (.44) and 
Lorraine (.45) taken from France in 1871 were restored. See 944.38 

.41 Hesse Darmstadt .42 Rhenish Prussia .43 Rhenish 
Bavaria .44 Alsace .45 Lorraine .46 Baden .47 Wurtem- 
burg .48 Black Forest and Danube .49 Hohenzollern 

Northwest Germany 

By peace of Versailles in 1919 part of Schleswig-Holstein (.51) was 
restored to Denmark 

.51 Schleswig-Holstein and Hamburg .52 Oldenburg and 
Bremen .53 Hanover .54 Brunswick .55 Lippe .56 West- 
phalia .57 Waldeck .58 Hesse-Nassau 

Austria 

.61 Lower Austria .62 Upper Austria .63 Salzburg .64 Tyrol 
.65 Styria .66 Carinthia .67 Carniola .68 Istria .69 Dal- 
matia 

Czechoslovakia 

Since Oct. 28, 1918, an independent nation; Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia 
Slovakia and autonomous Ruthenia 

.71 Bohemia .72 Moravia .73 Silesia .74 Galicia 
(as a result of the great war, 1 914-19, restored to Poland) 
.75 Bukowina (since Nov. 191 8 a part of Rumania) 

Poland Including history before the division 

Extinct as state from 3d partition in 1795 til 1919, when its soverenty 
was restored by the peace of Versailles. See also 943.11-.14, 943. 73-. 74 
and 947-4-5 

Hungary, etc. 

By the peace of Versailles 1919 the union of Transylvania (.92) with 
Rumania in 1918 was confirmd; Fiume (.94) was made independent, sub- 
ject to plebiscit in 4 years; Slavonia (.93) Croatia (.94) Bosnia (.95) and 
Herzogovina (.96) were recognized as part of Jugoslavia (949-7) 

.91 Hungary .92 Transylvania .93 Slavonia .94 Croatia, 
Fiume .95 Bosnia .96 Herzegovina 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



944 France 

Period^divisions 

.01 Early history -987 

Ancient Kelts -59 B, C. Roman dominion 59 B. C.-418 A. D. 
Merovingian dynasty 428-752 Carolingian 752-987 

.02 Capet and Valois 987-1589 
House of Capet 

1 Hugh Capet 987-996 Robert 2 996-1031 Henry 1 
1031-60 

2 Philip 1 1060-1108 Louis 6 1108-37 Louis 7 1137-80 

3 Philip 2 1180-1223 Louis 8 1223-26 Louis 9 1226-70 

4 Philip 3 1270-85 Philip 4 1285-13 14 Louis 10 1314-16 
John 1 1316 Philip 5 1316-22 Charles 4 1322-28 

House of Valois 

5 Philip 6 1328-50 John 2 1350-64 Charles 5 1364-80 

6 Charles 6 1380-1422 Charles 7 1422-61 

7 Louis 11 1461-83 Charles 8 1483-98 Louis 12 14^8-1515 
House of Angouleme 

8 Francis 1 1515-47 Henry 2 1547-59 

9 Francis 2 1559-60 Charles 9 1560-74 Henry 3 1574-89 
.03 Bourbon 1589-1789 

1 Henry 4 15 89-16 10 2 Louis 13 1610-43 3 Louis 14 

1 643-1 7 15; War of Spanish succession 4 Louis 15 1715-74 

5 Louis 16 1774-92 

.04 Revolution 1 789-1804 

1 National assembly 1789-92 2 First republic 1792-99: 3 Con- 
vention 1792-95 4 Reign of terror, May i7pj-July 1794 
5 Directory 1795-99 6 First consulate, Napoleon I79Q- I ^°4 

.05 First empire 1804-1815 

Napoleon 1 1804-14 Louis 18 1814-15 The hundred days, 
March 20-June 29, 181 5 

.06 Restoration 181 5-1848 

I Louis 18 1815-24 2 Charles 10 1824-30 3 Louis Philippe 
1830-48 

.07 Second republic and second empire 1848-1870 

Revolution of 1848 Second republic, Louis Napoleon, pres. 
1848-52 Napoleon 3 1852-70 
.08 Third republic 1870- 

Franco-German war, Government of national defense 1870-71 
National assembly 1871 Presidency of Thiers 1871-73 
McMahon 1873-79 GreVy 1879-87 Sadi-Carnot 1887-94 
Casimir Perier 1894-95 Faure 1895-99 Loubet 1899-1906 
Fallieres 1906-13 Poincare 1913-20; Great war 1914-19 
Deschanel 1920 Millerand 1920- 

Geografic divisions of France 

.1 Brittany Maine Anjou 

.11 Finistere .12 Cdtes du Nord .13 Morbihan .14 Loire 
Inferieure .15 Ille et Vilaine .16 Maine: Mayenne 
.17 Sarthe .18 Anjou: Maine et Loire 

.2 Normandy Picardy 

.21 Manche .22 Calvados .23 Orne .24 Eure .25 Seine 

Inferieure .26 Picardy: Somme .27 Artois: Pas de Calais 
.28 Nord 



HISTORY 



944.3 Champagne He de France Lorraine 

.31 Ardennes .32 Marne .33 Aube Haute Marne .34 He 
de France: Aisne .35 Oise .36 Seine et Oise, Paris 
.37 Seine et Marne .38 Lorraine (Alsace-Lorraine): 

.381 Meuse .382 Meurthe et Moselle .383 Alsace (But 
use .38 for Alsace and Lorraine together) See also 943-44-45 
•39 Vosges 

.4 Burgundy Franche Comte Savoy 

.41 Yonne .42 Cote d'Or .43 Sadne et Loire .44 Ain 
.45 Franche Comte: Haute Sa6ne, Belfort .46 Doubs .47 Jura 
.48 Savoy: Savoie .49 Haute Savoie 

.5 Orleans, etc. Auvergne 

.51 Eure et Loir .52 Loiret .53 Loir et Cher .54 Touraine: 
Indre et Loir .55 Berry: Indre, Cher .56 Nivernais: 
Nievre .57 Bourbonnais: Allier .58 Lyonnais: Loire, 
Rhone .59 Auvergne: Puy de Dome, Cantal 

.6 Poitou Limousin 

.61 Vendee ,62 Deux Sevres .63 Vienne .64 Charente 
Inferieure .65 Charente .66 Limousin: Haute Vienne 
.67 Correze .68 Marche: Creuse 
.7 Guienne Gascony 

.71 Gironde .72 Dordogne .73 Lot .74Aveyron .75 Tarn 
et Garonne .76 Lot et Garonne .77 Gascony: Landes, 
Gers .78 Hautes Pyrenees .79 Beam: Basses Pyrenees 

.8 Languedoc 

.81 Haute Loire, Lozere .82 Ardeche .83 Gard .84 H6rault 
.85 Tarn .86 Haute Garonne .87 Aude .88 Foix: Ariege 
.89 Pyrenees Orientales 

.9 Provence Dauphiny 

.91 Bouches du Rh6ne .92 Vaucluse .93 Var .94 Alpes 
Maritimes, Monaco .95 Basses Alpes .96 Dauphiny .97 
Hautes Alpes .98 Drome .99 Isere 

945 Italy 

Period divisions 



.01 


Gothic and Lombard kingdoms 


476-774 


.02 


Frankish emperors 


774-961 


•03 


German emperors 


962-1122 




Hildebrand and papal supremacy 




04 


Age of the communes 


1 100-1300 




Free cities Strifes of Guelphs and Ghibelines 


•05 


Age of the despots 


1300-1492 


.06 


Age of invasions 


1492-1527 


.07 


Spanish- Austrian ascendancy 


1527-1796 


.08 


Struggle for independence 


1796-1870 




Victor Emmanuel 2, Cavour, Garibaldi 




.09 


United Italy 


1870- 




Victor Emmanuel 2 -1878; Humbert 1 878-1 900; Victor Emmanuel 3 



1900- 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



945-1 
.2 

•3 
•4 
•5 

.6 
•7 



946 



.01 
.02 
.03 



.04 
.05 

.06 
.07 

.08 



.1 
.2 
•3 
4 
•5 
.6 

•7 
.8 

•9 



Geografic divisions of Italy 
Piedmont and Liguria 
Lombardy 
Venetia 
Emilia 
Tuscany 

Marches, Umbria and Latium 
Naples 

.71 Abruzzo and Molise 
.74 Salerno .75 Apulia 



72 Campania .73 Napoli 

.76 Lecce, Terra di Otranto 



.77 Basilicata, Potenza .78 Calabria .79 Reggio di Calabria 

Sicily Malta 
Sardinia and Corsica 

Spain 

Period divisions 
Early history Roman dominion Gothic kingdom 
Moorish kingdom 
Ferdinand 5 and Isabella 

Discovery 

Expulsion of the Moors 
Charles 1 and Philip 2 

Inquisition War with the Netherlands Armada 



* — 7" 
711-1479 
1479-1516 



1516-98 

Charles 1 



Philip 2 1556- 



1508-1621 
4 House 
1746-59 



Isabella 2 1833-68 



(5th of Germany) 1516-56 
Philip 3 — Charles 4 

Degeneration 1 Philip 

3 Charles 2 1665-1700 

1700-46 6 Ferdinand 

8 Charles 4 1788-1808 
Peninsular war 

Joseph Bonaparte 
Bourbon restoration 

Attempts at reform 

Ferdinand 7 1814-33 
Revolution and 2d restoration 

Revolution of 1868-70 Amadeus 1870-73 

Alfonso 12 1875-85 Alfonso 13 1886- 
Geografic divisions of Spain 
Galicia Asturias 
Leon Estramadura 
Old Castile 
New Castile 
Aragon 

Basque provinces 
Catalonia Balearic iles 
Andalusia Canary iles 

Portugal 

.98 Madeira .99 Azores 



2 Philip 
of Bourbon : 

7 Charles 



1598-1808 

4 1621-65 

5 Philip 5 
3 1759-88 

1808-14 

1814-68 



1868— 

Republic 1873-75 



Valencia Murcia 



HISTORY 



947 Russia 

Period divisions 

.01 Primitiv Russia — 862 

.02 Varangian kingdom 862-1237 

Conversion to Christianity 

.03 Mongolian invasion 1 237-1462 

Civil wars 

.04 Ivan 3-Ivan 5 1 462-1 689 

Origin of serfdom 

.05 Peter the Great 1689-1725 

Wars with Sweden and Turkey 

.06 Catharine i-Catharine 2 1725-96 

Partition of Poland 

.07 Paul 1 -Nicholas 1 1 796-1 855 

War with Napoleon 

Insurrection of Poland 

Crimean war See also 942.08, 944.07, 94s. 08, 949.6 

.08 Alexander 2 1855-81 
Emancipation of the serfs 
Turko-Russian war 

Alexander 3 1881-94 

Nicholas 2 1894-1917 
Revolution 191 7 

Geografic divisions of Russia 
.1 Finland Lapland 
.2 Northern Great Russia 

Archangel, Vologda, Olonetz, Novgorod 
.3 Southern Great Russia 
.4 Baltic provinces 

Courland, Livonia, Esthonia, Petrograd (Petersburg) 
.5 Russian Poland 

Partly restored to Poland by peace of Versailles 19 19. Lithuania 
.6 West Russia 
.7 Little Russia South Russia 

Ukraine 
.8 East Russia 
.9 Caucasia 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



Norway Sweden Denmark 

Period divisions 

01 Legendary period -800 

02 Consolidation Migration 801-1397 

Introduction of Christianity- 
Discovery of Iceland, Greenland, and America 
Conquest of Britain and Normandy 

03 Union of the 3 kingdoms 1397-1523 

Civilization Foren relations 

04 The reformation 1 523-1648 

Edict of toleration 1527 

30 years war Gustavus Adolphus 

05 Decline 1648-1792 

Wars vs Denmark, Poland, Russia 
Political changes 

06 Napoleonic wars 1792-1818 

Union of Norway and Sweden 1814 

07 Charles 14 (Bernadotte) 1818- 

Peace Internal reform 

08 

Geografic divisions 

1 Norway 

2 Christiania 

3 Christiansand Bergen 

4 Hamar Throndhjem Tromso 

5 Sweden 

6 Gothland 

7 Svealand 

8 Norrland 

9 Denmark 



HISTORY 



949 Minor countries of Europe 

.i Iceland Faroe ilands 

oi Common welth -1264 02 Medievalism 1264-155 1 03 Ab- 
solute rule, Decay 1551-1848 04 Modern Iceland 1848- 

.2 Netherlands 

01 Early history -1477 02 Austrian dominion 1477-1566 
Wars for independence 1566-1648 04 Age of prosperity 1648- 
1795 °5 Revolutionary 17Q5-1830 06 19th century 1830- 
1 goo 07 20th century^/poi- 

.3 Belgium 
.4 Switzerland 

01 Early history -1300 02 Struggle for independence 1300- 
1499 03 Reformation 1400-1648 04 Period of tranquillity 
1648-1780 05 Period of revolution 1780-18 15 06 19th cen- 
tury 1815-1900 07 20th century igoi- 

.5 Byzantine empire and modern Greece 

01 Greek revival 323-716 

Constantine the great-Theodosius 3 

02 Byzantine prosperity 716-1057 

Leo 3-Michael 6 

03 Byzantine decline 1057-1204 

Isaac i-Latin conquest of Constantinople 

04 Greek survival 1 204-1 453 

Constantinople taken by the Turks, 1453 

05 Turkish power 1453-1821 

06 Greek independence 1821- 

.6 Turkey in Europe Balkan states .61 Constantinople 

Also works covering Turkey in Asia 

.7 Jugoslavia: Serbia, Montenegro Bulgaria 

In addition to Serbia and Montenegro, Jugoslavia (K ngdom of the Serbs, 
Croats and Slovenes, establisht in 1918) includes Dalmatia (943.69), Slavonia 
(943-93), Croatia (943-94) Bosnia (943-95), Herzegovina (943-96) and Slovenia 

.8 Rumania: Wallachia, Moldavia, Dobruja 

Includes also Bessarabia (947.7) added in Mar. 1918, Bukowina (943.7s). Nov. 
1918, and Transylvania (943-92) Dec. 1918 

.9 Hands of Greek archipelago 

Divided like 939.1 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



950 Asia 

951 China 

.1 N. E. China, Peking .2 S. E. China, Canton, Hong Kong, Taiwan 
(Formosa) .3 S. W. China .4 N. W. China .5 Tibet .6 East 
Turkestan .7 Mongolia .8 Manchuria .9 Chosen (Korea) 

952 Japan 

953 Arabia 

.1 Sinai .2 Hejaz, Mecca .3 Yemen .4 Hadramaut, Mah- 
rah .5 Oman .6 Hasa .7 Dahna .8 Nejd .9 Syrian 

desert 

954 India 

.1 Bengal, Orissa, Assam, Bhotan .2 Northwest provinces, Oudh, 
Nepal .3 Central provinces .4 Rajputana .5 Punjab, 
Delhi, Lahore .6 Kashmir .7 Bombay, Sind, Baroda 

.8 Madras, Mysore, Travancore, Ceylon .9 Hyderabad 

955 Persia 

956 Turkey in Asia See also 949.6 

.1 Khodavendigar * .2 Aidin, Smyrna .3 Kastamuni, Angora 
.4 Konieh, Adana, Cyprus .5 Trebizond, Sivas .6 Armenia and 
Kurdistan: Erzerum; Mamuret el Aziz, Karput; Diarbekr; Bitlis* 
Van .7 Mesopotamia: Mosul; Bagdad; Basra .8 Aleppo .9 Syria, 
Damascus, Phenicia, Palestine 

957 Siberia 

958 Afghanistan Turkestan Baluchistan 

.1 N. E. Afghanistan, Kabul .2 South Afghanistan, Kandahar 
.3 N. W. Afghanistan, Herat .4 Turkestan .5 Kiva .6 Bok- 
hara .7 Ferghana or Khokan .8 Baluchistan 

959 Farther India 

.1 British Burma .2 Burma .3 Siam .4 Laos .5 Lower 
Siam, Malay peninsula .6 Cambodia .7 French Cochin China 
.8 Anam .9 Tonkin 



HISTORY 



Africa (Tentativ table) 

This table being publisht tentativly is not included in index 

SUMMARY 

961 North Africa 

962 Egypt 

963 Abyssinia 

964 Morocco 

965 Algeria 

966 North Central Africa 

967 South Central Africa 

968 South Africa 

969 Madagascar and outlying ilands 

North Africa 

Barbary, i.e. Morocco, Algeria, Tunis, Tripoli 
. I TuiliS 50,000 sq. mi. 

French protectorate 1881 

.2 Tripoli Libia Italiana 406,000 sq. mi. 

Annext to Italy 1911 

Tripolitania 

Oasis of Ghadames, Syrtis 

.3 Fezzan 156,000 sq. mi. 

Oases of Ghat and Murzuk 

.4 Cyrenaica or Barka Bengazi 

.9 Libyan desert 

Eastern 3d belongs to Egypt 



Egypt 



Egypt proper, including Libyan desert and Sinai peninsula but excluding Sudan, 
350,000 sq. mi. Cultivated and settled area, Nile valley and delta, 12,226 sq.mi, 

Lower Egypt Masr-el-Bahri Delta 

Extends beyond Cairo, about 30 N. 
.11 Beheira: Alexandria .12 Gharbiya .13 Daqahliya: 
Damietta .14 Menufiya .15 Sharqiya: Port Said, Ismaila, 
Suez .16 Qalyubiya: Cairo, Heliopolis 

Middle Egypt el-Wustani Vostani 

Extends from Cairo, 30 N., to Assiut, about 27 N. 
.21 Giza: Gizeh, Memphis .23 Faiyum .25 Beni-Suef 
.26 Minya .28 Asyut: Assiut 

Upper Egypt es-Said 

Extends from Assiut, 27 N., nearly to Wadi Haifa, 22 N. 
.31 Girga .33 Qena :Dendera, Luxor, Karnak, Thebes 

.36 Aswan: Assuan, Elephantine, First Cataract, Philae 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



.4 Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 1,014,400 sq . mi. 

Extends from 22 to about 5 N. 15 provinces 

.41 Nubia Northern provinces 

In a broad sense, no strictly denned limits; may be taken to include Nile 
valley from Assuan, 24 N., to Khartum, 16 N. Here used in more limited 
sense, including provinces of Haifa, Red Sea and Berber, also 962.5 Dongola 

.5 Dongola 

.6 Central provinces 

Khartum, White Nile, Blue Nile 
.7 West provinces 

Including Darfur, under nativ rule 

.8 Kordofan Nuba nits 

.9 East and south provinces 

Kassala, Sennar, Upper Nile (formerly Fashoda) 
Bahr-el-Ghazal, Mongalla (including Lado enclave)' 
Sobat-Pibor 

Abyssinia Ethiopia 350,000 sq. mi. 

Tigre, Amhara, Shoa 

,5 Eritrea 45,800 sq. mi. 

Massaua or Massowah, Assab 

Morocco French protectorate 231,500 sq. mi. 

.1 

.2 Spanish Morocco The Rif 

Cities: Tangier, Ceuta, Tetuan 

.3 Fez and the northwest coast 

Region west of Atlas mts and south to Wady Oum-er-Rabia 
Cities: Fez, Rabat, Casablanca 

.4 Central region 

Atlas mts: Middle Atlas, Great Atlas, Anti- Atlas 

.5 Southeast region 

Beyond the Atlas mts 

.6 Morocco and southwest coast Marakesh 

Region south of Wady Oum-er-Rabia 
Cities: Morocco, Mogador, Agadir 

•7 

.8 Rio de Oro Adrar Ifni (Spanish) 

.9 Canary Hands (Spanish) 

. Geograficly better here than in 946.8 

.91 Tenerif .92 Grand Canary .93 Palma .94 Gomera 
.95 Hierro or Ferro .96 Fuerteventura .97 Lanzarote 

Algeria (French) 2 2 2 ,i8o Sq .mi. 

Northern Algeria includes the 3 departments, Oran, Alger, Constantine 

.1 Oran 

.3 Alger 

•5 Constantine 

.7 Southern Algeria 

4 territo: es: Ain Sefra, Ghardaia, Touggout, Saharan oases (Tuat, Gurara, 
Tidikelt) 



HISTORY 



North Central Africa European West Africa 

SUMMARY 

. i French West Africa Sahara 

. 2 Sudan 

.3 Senegambia Senegal 

. 4 Sierra Leone 

. S Upper Guinea 

.6 Liberia Ivory Coast 

. 7 Gold Coast Ashanti 

.8 Dahomey Togo 

.9 Nigeria 

1 French West Africa Sahara 

French West Africa includes colonies: 966.12 Mauritania, 966.2 French Sudan, 
966.25 Upper Volta Colony, 966.26 Military Territory of Niger, 966.3 Senegal, 
966.52 French Guinea, 966.68 Ivory Coast, 966.8 Dahomey 

11 Sahara (French) 

In broad sense all northern Africa from Atlas mts to the Sudan, about 
3,500,000 sq. mi. This includes parts of Morocco, Algiers, Tunis and 
Egypt. French Sahara is estimated at about 1,500,000 sq. mi. 

, 1 2 Mauritania 344,967 sq. mi. 

.15 El Hodh 

. 1 7 Azaouad 

2 Sudan (French) Upper Senegal-Niger 617,600 sq. mi. 
21 River Niger 

-22 Northwest region 

Kaarta, Bakhunu, Sahel 

.23 Southwest region 

Segu, Kenedugu, Bembas State 

24 Central region 

Massina, Timbuktu, Lakes 

.25 Upper Volta 154,400 sq. mi. 

Mossi, Gurma 

.26 Military Territory of Niger 347,400 sq. mi. 
.27 Southwest region 

Cheggazar, Immanang 

.28 North region 

Air or Asben 

.3 Senegambia Senegal (French) 74.112 sq. mi. 

Senegambia, region between rivers Senegal and Gambia and sometimes in- 
cluding French Guinea; name now disused. Senegal now used for northern 
portion, including Casamance basin; includes both colony and protectorate 

.31 North coast region 

Walo, St Louis 

.32 Central coast region 

Cayor, Baol, Sine, Salum, Cape Verde, Dakar, Rufisque, Gor6e 

•33 

.34 South coast 

Basin of the Casamance 

.35 Central region 

Jolof, Ferlo 

.36 Northeast region 

Fouta, Bondu 

.37 Southeast region 

Bambuk, River Faleme" 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



966.4 Sierra Leone, colony and protectorate (British) 31.000 sq . mi. 

.41 Sierra Leone colony 4000 sq. mi. 

North section, north of Sherbro Hand Freetown 

.42 South section Sherbro Hand Turner's peninsula 

.43 Protectorate 

.44 Karene 

.45 ■ Koinadugu 

.46 Ronietta 

.47 Railway 

.48 Southern Sherbro 

.5 Upper Guinea 

Part north of Gulf of Guinea is known as Upper Guinea; includes broadly: 966.3 
Senegal, 966.4 Sierra Leone, 966.5 English, French and Portuguese Guinea, 966.6 
Liberia, Ivory Coast, 966.7 Gold Coast,,p66.8 Dahomey, Togoland, 966.9 Nigeria 

.51 Gambia English Guinea 4130 sq. mi. 

.52 French Guinea 95.218 S q. mi. 

.53 Coast region Rivieres du Sud Konakry 

.54 Central region Fouta Jallon 

Timbo, Labe, Tuba 

.55 Northeast region Sankaran 

Dinguiray, Siguiri, Kurussa, Kankan 

.56 South region 

Kissidugu, Beyla, Bissandugu 

.57 Portuguese Guinea 13.940 sq. mi. 

.579 Bissagos ilands 

.58 Cape Verde ilands 

.6 Liberia 40,000 sq. mi. Grain Coast 

Grain Coast divided between Liberia and 966.4 Sierra Leone 

.61 Montserrado 

Gondo, Toma, Bouzie, Barlin 

.62 Coast region Robertsport, Monrovia 

.63 Grand Bassa Gurra, Sapo 

.64 

.65 Sino Wau, Kru coast 
.66 

.67 Maryland Cape Palmas 

.68 Ivory Coast (French) 121,976 sq. mi. 

.681 Coast region Grand Bassam, Assinie, Bingerville 

.683 Central region Baule, Bakwe 

.685 Northwest hinterland 

.687 Northeast hinterland Ganne, Kong 



HISTORY 



966.7 Gold Coast colony (British) 80,000 sq. mi. 

Areas do not include parts of Togoland assignd by treaty to Great Britain 

7 1 Gold Coast colony proper 24,200 sq. mi. 

,72 Western province Central province 

.73 Eastern province 

.74 Ashanti 20,000 sq. mi. 

.75 Southern province Central province Coomassie 

76 Western province Northern province 

77 Northern territories 35.800 sq . mi. 
.78 Southern province 

Kintampo district, Gonga district, Salaga 

.79 Northwestern province Black Volta district Wa 

Northeastern province White Volta district Gambaga 
.8 Dahomey (French) 42,460 sq. mi. 
.81 Togoland 

Former German possession now divided between 966.7 Gold Coast (British) 
and Dahomey 

.82 Lower Dahomey 

.83 Coast region Slave Coast 

Grand Popo, Kotonu, Porto-Novo 

.86 Upper Dahomey 

.87 Borgu 

.9 Nigeria (British) 332,000 sq. mi. 

.91 Southern Nigeria 

.92 Western province Yoruba Lagos protectorate 

The colony, Abeokuta, Ijebu, Oyo, Ondo 

.93 Central province 

Benin, Onitsha, Warri, Niger delta, Oil Rivers 

.94 Eastern province 

Owerri, Ogoja, Calabar, Cameroon South 

.95 Northern Nigeria 

.96 West region 

Sokoto, Kontagora, Borgu, Nupe, Niger, Ilorin, Kabba 

.97 Central region 

Kano, Zaria Nassawara, Munshi, Bassa 

.98 East region 

Bornu, Bauchi, Yola, Muri, Cameroon North 

.99 Hands of the Gulf of Guinea 
.991 Fernando Po (Spanish) 

.993 Principe Prince's iland (Portuguese) 

.994 Sao Thome St Thomas (Portuguese) 

.996 Annobon (Spanish) 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



South Central Africa 

SUMMARY 

. i Lower Guinea Cameroon 

.2 French Equatorial Africa French Kongo Loango 

.3 Angola Portuguese West Africa 

.4 Interior Ubangi-Shari Chad - 

. s Belgian Kongo 

.6 British East Africa 

. 7 Somaliland 

.8 Zanzibar Tanganyika territory 

.9 Mozambique Portuguese East Africa 

1 Lower Guinea 

Southern or Lower Guinea comprizes coasts of 967.21 Gabun, 967.3 Angola, and 
may include coast of Cameroon, which occupies a middle position between Upper 
and Lower Guinea 

1 1 Cameroon [Kamerun] (French) 166,489 sq. mi. 

General number for former German Kamerun, larger portion of which was 
assignd to France 

12 Coast region Jang, Yabasi, Duala, Edea, Kribi 

13 Southwest region Ebolowa, Wolo Ntem, Ivindo 

14 Southeast region Lomie, Yukaduma 

15 Central region Bamun, Yaunde, Dume 

16 Adamawa Banyo, Ngaundere 

17 Garua Upper Logone 

18 Spanish Guinea Rio Muni 

19 Spanish ilands 

Alternativ place for Fernando Po see 966.991, and Annobon see 966.996 

2 French Equatorial Africa French Kongo Loango 

French Equatorial Africa includes 967.11 Cameroon, and 967.4 Ubangi-Shari 
and Chad Military Territory 

21 Gabun 121,862 sq. mi. 

22 Coast region Libreville 

23 East region Franceville, Lastourville 

24 Middle Kongo 150,292 sq. mi. 
2 5 West region 

Loango, Bakunyi, Bwenza 

26 South central region 

Bacongo, Bjwe, Pool (Brazzaville), Bateke, Alima, Kwiyu 

2 7 North central region 

Mossaka, Bakota, Bokiba, Lower Sanga, Likwala 

28 North region 

Benga Motaba, Middle Sanga, Upper Sanga 



HISTORY 

967.3 Angola Portuguese West Africa 484.800 sq. mi. 
.31 Kongo Kabinda 

.32 Loanda Shinga's country 

Guanza-Norte, Guanza-Sul 

.33 Benguela 
•34 

.35 Mossamedes 

.36 Lunda 

.37 Huila Gambos, Kamba, Mulondo 

.38 Cubango 

.39 Portuguese ilands 

Alternativ place for Principe see 966.993, and Sao Thom6 see 966.994 

.4 Interior 

.41 Ubangi-Shari (French) 208,219 sq. mi. 

.42 East region Banda 

.43 Chad Military Territory (French) 501,676 sq. mi. 

.44 Southwest region Bagirmi 

.45 Southeast region Wadai 

.46 Central region Lake Chad Kanem 

.47 Northeast region Borku 

.48 Northwest region Teda or Tibba 

.49 North region Tibesti or Tu 

.5 Belgian Kongo Free State Kongo basin 909,654 sq. mi. 

.51 Kongo-Kasai province 

Lower Kongo Boma Bakongo Middle Kongo Leopoidviiie 
.52 Kwango Kasai Sankuru 

.53 Equator province 

Lake Leopold II, Equator 
.54 Lulonga Bangala Ubangi 

.55 Eastern province 

Lower Uele, Upper Uele, Ituri, Stanleyville 
.56 Aruwimi Lowa Uregga Maniema Kasongo 

.57 Kivu Ruanda Urundi 

.58 Katanga province 

Lomami, Tanganyika-Moero, Urua 
.59 Lulua Upper Luapula 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



6 British East Africa Kenya colony and protectorate 

British East Africa includes 967.61 Uganda protectorate, 967.62- 69 Kenya 
colony and protectorate, 967.81 Zanzibar, 967.82-.89 Tanganyika territory 
Clas here general works on whole of British East Africa and those on Kenya 
colony and protectorate alone 

61 Uganda protectorate 110,300 sq. mi. 

611 Buganda province 

Masaka. Mubendi, Mengo, Entebbe including llands in Victoria Nyanza 

612 Victoria Nyanza 

613 Western province 

Kigezi, Ankoli, Toro 

614 Albert Nyanza 

615 Eastern province 

Busoga, Bukedi, Teso, Lango, Lobor, Karamojo 

616 Northern province 

Bunyoro, West Nile, Gulu, Chua 

617 Rudolf province 

Turkwel, Turkana, Dabossa 

618 Lake Rudolf 

62-. 69 Kenya colony and protectorate 246,822 sq. mi. 

62 Nyanza province 

North Kavirondo, Nandi, Kusumu, South Kavirondo, Lumbwa 

63 Naivasha province 

Southern Masai Reserve, Naivasha (distiict), Laikipia, Eldama Ravim\ 
Uasin Gishu, Turkana 

64 Kenya province 

Nyeri, Meru, Embu, Fort Hall 

65 Ukamba province 

Kitui, Kikuyu, Machakos 

66 Seyidie province 

Teita, Vanga, Mombasa, Malindi 

67 Tanaland province 

Tana River, Lamu 

68 Jubaland province 

Afmadu, Kismayu, Serenli 

69 Northern Frontier District 

Not yet organized as a province 

7 Somaliland 

71 French Somali Coast French East Africa 5790 sq. mi. 

Obok, Tajura, Jibuti 

7 2 British Somaliland protectorate 68,000 sq. mi. 

728 Sokotra iland 1382 sq . mi. 

73 Italian Somaliland 139,430 sq. mi. 

74 Sultunate of the Mijertins 

75 Territory of the Nogal 

76 Sultunate of Obbia 

77 Southern Italian Somaliland (formerly cald Benadir) 

Medio Shebeli, Basso Shebeli, Alto Shebeli. Alto Juba 



HISTORY 



967 8 Zanzibar Tanganyika territory 

. 8 1 Zanzibar 640 sq. mi. 

. 8 j 5 Pemba 380 sq. mi. 

.816 Mafia 

. 82- . 89 Tanganyika territory 365,000 sq. mf. 

Formerly German East Africa 

. 82 North coast 

Tanga, Wilhelmstal, Pangani 

. 83 Central coast 

Bagamoyo, Morogoro, Dar es Salam 

.84 South coast 

Rurlji, Kilwa, Lindi 

.85 South or Lake Nyasa region 

Songea, Mahenge, Langenburg 

. 86 South central region 

Iringa, Dodoma 

. 87 North central region 

Kondoa-Irangi, Moshi, Arusha 

. 88 Lake Victoria region 

Mwanza, Bukoba 

. 89 West or Lake Tanganyika region 

Tabora, Ujiji, Bismarckburg 

.9 Mozambique Portuguese East Africa 428,132 sq. mi. 

.91 Nyasa company Companhia do Nyasa Cabo Del- 
gado Querimba 

.92 

.93 Mozambique (district) 

. 94 Quilimane or Kilimane Zambezi delta 

•95 

. 96 Tete Zambezi basin 

.97 Mozambique company Companhia de Mozambique 

Gazaland, Sofala, Manika 

. 98 Inhambane Hlenga-land 

. 99 Lourenco Marques Delagoa Bay 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



968 South Africa 

General number for Union of South Africa 1909, which includes 
nearly all area in 96S.2-.8, with total area of 473,096 sq. mi. 

SUMMARY 

r Bechuanaland protectorate 
2 Transvaal 

,3 Zululand Swaziland Amatonga 
. 4 Natal 

5 Orange Free State 
.6 Basutoland Kaffraria 
, 7 Cape of Good Hope 

South-West Africa protectorate 
Rhodesia Nyasaland protectorate 

1 Bechuanaland protectorate 275.000 sq . mi. 

1 1 Northwest region West Bamangwato 

Use also as general number for Bamangwato tribe, which includes 968.1 1-. 14 
Ongova, Okavango, Bangai, Batawana 

12 Northeast region East Bamangwato Bashona, 
Batletli 

13 North section Madenassa 

14 South section Khama's country 

1 5 Linchwe's country Bakatla tribe 

16 Sebele's country Bakwena tribe 

Masarwa, Makalahari 

17 Bathoen's country Bangwaketse tribe 

18 Montsioa's country Barolong tribe 

19 Southwest and west region Kalahari desert 

Kalahari desert in broad sense includes all Bechuanaland protectorate and 
parts of Cape of Good Hope and South-West Africa protectorate 

2 Transvaal 110,450 sq. mi. 

1852 Transvaal State; 1877 annext by Great Britain; 1884 South African 
Republic; 1900 annext again, Transvaal; 1910 an original province of Union of 
South Africa 

2 1 Pretoria (county and city) 

22 Witwatersrand Johannesburg Krugersdorp 

23 South central counties 
Heidelberg, Standerton, Bethal 

24 Southeast counties 
Wakkerstroom, Piet Retief, Ermelo, Carolina 

25 East counties 
Barber ton, Lydenburg, Middelburg 

26 Zoutpansberg Pietersburg 
2 7 Waterberg 

28 Rustenburg Marico 

29 Southwest counties 
Lichtenburg, Pot chef stroom, Wolmaransstad, Bloemhof 



HISTORY 



968.3 Zululand Swaziland Amatonga 

Zululand annext to Natal 1897. 10,424 sq. mi. 

. 3 1 East region 

Ndwandwe, Hlabisa, Mahlabatini, Emtonjaneni, Umfolozi 

. 3 2 West region 

Eshowe, Umlalazi, Mtunzini, Nkandhla, Nqutu 

•33 

.34 Swaziland C678sq.ini. 

. 3 5 North region Mountains 

Peak, Mbabane 

.36 South region 

Ubombo, Mankaiana, Hlatikulu 

. 3 7 Amatonga 

Annext to Zululand 1897 

. 38 North region 

Ingwavuma, Tongaland, Maputa 

.39 South region Ubombo 

.4 Natal 35,284 sq. mi. (including Zululand 10,424 sq. mi.) 

.41 Northern districts 

Annext from Transvaal to Natal 1903 

Vryheid; Ngotshe, Vryheid (district), Babanango 

Utrecht; Paulpietersburg, Utrecht (district) 

. 42 Klip River division 

Newcastle, Dundee, Klip River (district), Umsinga, Helpmakaar, Impofana 

. 43 Weenen division 

Bergville, Upper Tugela, Estcourt, Weenen (district) 

.44 Umvoti division 

Krantzkop, Umvoti (district), Mapumulo 

.45 Pietermaritzburg division 

Lions River, Howick, Impendhle, Underberg, Ipolela, Ixopo, New Hanover, 
Indwedwe, Umgeni, Umkomanzi, Richmond, Camperdown 

.46 Victoria; Lower Tugela, Inanda 

. 47 Durban Umluzi 

. 48 Alexandra 

. 49 Alfred ; Alfred (district) , Lower Umzimkulu 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



968 . 5 Orange Free State 50,389 sq. mi. 

Orange River Colony 1900-1910 

. 51 Central region Bloemfontein (county and city) 

.52 West region 

Faurcsmith, Jacobsdal 

. 53 Northwest region 

Boshof, Hoopstad 

. 54 North region 

Kroonstad, Vredefort, Heilbron, Lindley, Frankfort 

. 55 Northeast region 

Vrede, Harrismith, Bethlehem 

. 56 Upper east region 

Senekal, Winburg 

. 57 Lower east region 

Ficksburg, Ladybrand, Thabanchu 

. 58 Southeast region 

Wepener, Rouxville, Smithfield 

. 59 Southwest region 

Edenburg, Bethulie, Philippolis 

. 6 Basutoland Kaffraria 

Kaffraria, east of Kei river; formerly independent nativ kingdom; an next to 
Cape of Good Hope 1875, and now incorporated as 968.63 Griqualand East, 
968.64 Pondoland, 968.65 Tembuland, 968.67 Transkei 

.61 Basutoland 11,716 sq. mi. 

Drakensberg mts form east boundary 

.62 

. 63 Griqualand East 6602 sq. mi. 

Includes most of region formerly cald Noman's-land and afterwards named 
Adam Kok's Land 

.631 Matatiele .632 Mount Currie .633 Umzimkulu .634 
Mount Ayliff .635 Mount Frere .636 Mount Fletcher .637 
Qumbu .638 Maclear .639 Tsolo 

. 64 Pondoland 3906 sq. mi. 

British protectorate proclaimd 1885, annext to Cape of Good Hope 1894 

.641 East Pondoland .642 Bizana .643 Flagstaff .644 
Tabankulu .645 Lusikisiki, Umsikaba .646 Port St John's 
.647 West Pondoland .648 Libode .649 Ngqeleni 

. 65 Tembuland 3339 sq. mi. 

Annext to Cape of Good Hope 1885 

.651 Elliot .652 Slang River .653 Xalanga .654 St Mark's 
.655 Engcobo .656 Umtata .657 Bomvanaland .658 
Mqanduli .659 Elliotdale 

.66 

.67 Transkei 2504 sq. mi. 

Annext to Cape of Good Hope 1879 

.671 Gealeka or Galekaland .672 Willowvale .673 Ken tan i 
.674 Fingoland .675 Butterworlh .676 Idutywa .677 
Nqamaqwe .678 Tsomo 



HISTORY 



968 . 7 Cape of Good Hope 276,966 sq. mi. Colony proper 208,661 sq. mi. 

Founded by Dutch 1652, taken by English I795i returned 1803, taken again 
1806, formally ceded 1814 

. 7 1 Western province 

.711 Cape Town (county) .712 Cape Town (city) .713 

Simon's Town .714 Wynberg .715 Woodstock .7 1 8 

Stellenbosch .719 Paarl 

. 7 2 Northwest province 

.721 Tulbagh .722 Worcester .723 Ceres .724 Malmesbury 
.725 Piquetberg .726 Clanwilliam .727 Calvinia .728 Van 
Rhynsdorp .729 Namaqualand 

. 73 Southwest province 

.731 Caledon .732 Bredasdorp .733 Robertson .734 Swel- 
lendam .735 Riversdale .736 Ladismith .737 Oudtshoorn 
.738 Mossel Bay .7385 George .739 Uniondale -7395 
Knysna 

. 74 Midland province 

.741 Beaufort West .742 Prince Albert -7425 Laingsburg 
.743 Aberdeen .7435 Murraysburg .744 Graaff Reinet .745 
Fraserburg -7455 Sutherland .746 Victoria West .7465 
Carnarvon .747 Kenhardt -7475 Prieska .748 Hopetovvn 
.749 Britstown -7495 Richmond 

. 7 5 Southeast province 

.751 Humansdorp .752 Wiilowmore .753 Jansenville -7535 
Steytlerville .754 Uitenhage .755 Port Elizabeth .756 
Alexandria .757 Alban}', Grahamstown .758 Bathurst 

•759 Peddie -7595 Victoria East 

. 76 Northeast province 

.761 Fort Beaufort .7615 Stockenstrom .762 Somerset East 
.763 Bedford .764 Cradock .765 Tarka .766 Middel- 
burg .7665 Steynsburg .767 Hanover .7675 Philipstown 
.768 Colesberg .769 Albert .7695 Molteno 

. 7 7 Eastern province 

.771 Aliwal North .772 Herschel .773 Barkly East .774 
Wodehouse .775 Glen Grey .776 Queenstown .777 Cath- 
cart .7775 Stutterheim .778 King William's Town .7785 
Komgha .779 East London 

. 8 South-west Africa protectorate 322,400 sq. mi. 

Formerly German West Africa 

.81 Great Namaqualand 

.82 Luderitz Land, Luderitz Bay, Angra Pequefia .825 Warmbad 

.83 Bethany .833 Keetmanshoop .838 Hasuur .84 Gibeon 

.845 Maltahohe 
.85 Damara-land or Herero-land 

.851 Swakopmund .852 Walfish or Walvis Bay .853 Reho- 

both .854 Windhoek .855 Gobabis .856 Okahandya .857 

Karibib .858 Omaruru 
. 86 Ovambo or Ovampo-land or Aajamba 

.87 Outjo, Kaoko-land .88 Ambo-land .89 Grootfontein 



DECIMAL CLASSIFI CATION 



968 . 9 Rhodesia 440.000 sq. mi. Nyasaland protectorate 

British South Africa Company charter 1889 

.91 Southern Rhodesia 149,000 sq. mi. 

.92 Matabele-land 

.921 Gwanda (including the former district of Tuli) .922 
Bulalima-Mangwe .9228 Tati district .923 Bulawayo 
.924 Matopo .9245 Umzingwane .925 Insiza .9255 
Belingwe .926 Nyamandhlovu .9265 Bubi .927 Gwelo 
.9275 Selukwe .928 Wankie .929 Sebungwe 

. 93 Mashonaland 

.931 Chibi (formerly Mtibi) .932 Victoria .9323 Ndanga 
.9327 Melsetter .933 Chilimanzi -9335 Gutu .934 
Charter .9345 Umtali .935 Hartley .9355 Marandellas 
.936 Makoni .9365 Inyanga .937 Salisbury -9374 
Mrewa -9377 Mtoko .938 Mazoe -9385 Darwin 
.939 Lomagundi 

. 94 Northern Rhodesia 291,000 sq. mi. 

Amalgamation of North-Eastern and North-Western Rhodesia 191 1 

. 95 North- Western Rhodesia 

951 Barotse or Mabunda Monkoya or Mankoya 

952 

.953 Batoka Batonga 
•954 

.955 Kafue Mashukulumbwe Walenje 

.956 Kasempa Bakwakwa or Bakakwakwa 
•957 

.958 Loangwa 

1 North region Bakonde 

5 Walamba 

.959 South region Zumbo 

1 Aluano 

5 Chicunda or Chikunda 

. 96 North-Eastern Rhodesia 

.961 Mwera or Mrewa Luapula or Mere-Mere Wausi 

Lake Mweru, Moero or Meru Waitawa, Walundi, Wakisinga 

.962 

.963 Tanganyika 

Alungu or Ulungu, Amambwe or Mambwe, North Loangwa (a former 
district which included parts of Tanganyika and Awemba) 

.964 

.965 Awemba 

Wasenga, Watwa, Awisa, Lake Bangweulu, Bangweolo or Bemba 

.966 

.967 Serenje (formerly West Loangwa) 

.968 East Loangwa or Luangwa 

Awisa, Achewa or Ackewa, Asenga 

. 97 Nyasaland protectorate 39,573 sq. mi. 

British Central Africa protectorate 1 891-1907 

.971 North Nyasa .972 West Nyasa -97^5 Mombera 

•973 Marimba .974 Central Angoniland .9741 Lilongwe 
.9745 Dedza .975 South Nyasa .976 Upper Shire .9765 
Liwonde .977 West Shire -9775 Zomba .978 Blantyre 
.9785 Mlanje or Milanji .979 Ruo -9795 Lower Shire 



HISTORY 



969 Madagascar and ilands of South Indian 
Ocean 

. 1 Madagascar (French) 2 2 s,ooo sq . mi. 

.2 

•3 

. 4 Ilands north of Madagascar 

.41 Comoro: Mayotte or Maute, Anjouan or Johanna, 

Great Comoro, Moheli or Moali (French) 

.42 Aldabra (British) 

.43 Cosmoledos (British) 

.44 Gloriosa (French) 

.45 Providence (British) 

.46 Farquhar (British) 

.47 Agelaga (British) 

. 5 Amirantes or Admiral's (British) 

.6 Seychelles (British) 

20 ilets: Mahe, Praslin, Silhouette 

.7 Chagos (British) 

Grand Chagos or Diego Garcia, Peros Banhos, Solomon, Danger, Egmont, Three 
Brothers or Trois Freres 

. 8 Mascarenes and ilands east of Madagascar 

.81 Reunion or Bourbon (French) 

. 82 Mauritius or lie de France (British) 

.83 Rodriguez (British) 

.84 Cargados Garayos, St Brandon or Nazareth (British): 

Albatross, Coco, Tromelin 

. 9 Isolated ilands 

.91 Amsterdam 

.92 Saint Paul 

. 93 Kerguelen 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



970 North America 

.1 Indians, aborigines .2 Lives of Indians .3 Special tribes 
.4 Special states .5 Government relation and treatment .6 Spe- 
cial subjects: character, civilization, agriculture, etc. 
See 371.975 Education; 572.97 Ethnology; 497 Languages 

971 Canada British America 

General works on Canada under British rule 

For histories of special periods see 971.01-.054; of special provinces see 971. 1-. 9 
For constitutional history see 342.71 

Period subdivisions 

For works not limited to any of the territorial subdivisions .1-.9 but dealing with 
a limited period 

Class archives with their periods and segregate them if wisht by booknumbers 
that wll automatically locate them ahed of other histories having the same class 
number: e.g. A1-A9 if Cutter numbers are used for other woiks; Aa-Az if 
Cutter-Sanborn numbers are used 

.01 French regime 1407-1763 

From earliest time till cession to England 

.011 Discovery and early settlement 1497-1632 

Early explorations along Atlantic seaboard 1497-1533. Discovery and occu- 
pation of St Lawrence 1534-43- Rise of fur trade 1544-1612. Permanent 
colonization 1613-32 

.016 Extension of English rule 1632-1763 

Treaty of St Germain-en-Laye 20 Mar. 1632 

.018 Struggle with England for supremacy 

Peace of Utrecht 1713-Peace of Paris 1763. Seven years war 1755-63; in 
United States cald French and Indian war. British supremacy dates actually 
from fall of Quebec, 1759; formally from peace of Paris, 10 Feb. 1763 

.02 End of 7 years war to constitutional act 1791 

Conspiracy of Pontiac 1763-64 
Quebec act 1774 

.02^ American revolution United Empire loyalists 

Canadian libraries will class here United Empire loyalists, but works on the 
revolution 1775-83 are better put in 973.3 

.03 1792 to Union act 1841 

See also 971. 3 Ontario and 971.4 Quebec 

.034 War of 1812 

1812-15 In United States cald also 2d war for independence 
Better clast in 973.52 (United States history) 

.038 Rebellion 1837-38 
.039 Union act 10 Feb. 1840 

Passage of Union act, closing the period under the Constitutional act. See 

also constitutional history, 342.719 

.04 Union 1841 to Confederation 1867 

Beginning with operation of Union act; Canadian parliament at Ottawa 13 June 
1841. Class clergy reservs agitation in 971.3 Ontario; abolition of seigniories in 

971.4 Quebec 

.048 Fenian invasions 

.049 British North America act, 29 March 1867 
.05 Dominion of Canada 1867- 

Canada under British North America act 

.051 Red river (Riel's 1st) rebellion 1870 
.054 Northwest (Riel's 2d) rebellion 1885 



HISTORY 





Geografic divisions 




British Columbia 


.2 


Northwest Territories 




Including former Hudson Bay territory 


.21 


Yukon 




Klondike region Dawson (city) 


.22 


Mackenzie 


•23 


Alberta 


.24 


Saskatchewan 


.26 


Keewatin 


~1 IT 

.27 


ivianiiooa 


.28 


Ungava 


.29 


Franklin 




See also 998 Arctic region 


.3 


Ontario 




For St Lawrence river see 971.4 




Formerly also Upper Canada or Canada West 




See also 971.4 note Class here Clergy reservs 


.31 


Northwestern 




North shore of Lake Superior and Lake Huron; 


311 


Rainy River district 




Lake of the Woods Rainy lake 


.312 


Thunder Bay district 


5 


Fort William 


•313 


Algoma district 




Sault Ste Marie 


c 




Manitoulin iland 


•3*4 


IN IJJloolllg LUbUIld 


•315 


Parry Sound Maganetawan districts 


•SIC 


Muskoka Lake of Bays district 


•317 


Simcoe 


3 Itt 


orey vjwen oounu. ^or oyuennarn,) 


.32 


Western 




Fast shore of Lake Huron 




Bruce 


122 


Huron 




Perth 


•324 




•325 


Middlesex 


.326 


London (city) 


•327 


Lambton 


•33 


Southwestern 




North shore of Lake Erie 


1 1 T 


Essex 


112 

•JO' 4 


Wind \nr ( c\i"\j\ 


111 
•000 


Kent 


•334 


Elgin 


•335 


St Thomas (city) 


•336 


Norfolk 


•337 


Haldimand 


•338 


Welland 



Georgian bay 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



971-34 

•341 
.342 
■343 
•344 
•345 
.346 
•347 
348 
97L35 

.351 
.352 

•353 
•354 

] 

•355 
•356 
•357 
•358 

•359 

.36 

.361 

.362 

.363 

.364 

.365 

.366 

.367 

.368 

.369 
•37 

.371 
•372 
•373 

•374 
•375 
•376 
•377 
•378 
•379 
.38 

.381 
.382 
.383 
.384 
.385 
.386 



West central 

Dufferin 
Wellington 

Guelph (city) 
Waterloo 

Berlin (city) 
Oxford 
Brant 

Brantford (city) 
Southern 

West and North shore of Lake Ontario 

Lincoln 

St Catherines (city) 
Wentworth 

Hamilton (city) 
Halton Peel 
York 

Pf$ Toronto (city) 

Ontario 

Durham 

Northumberland 
Hastings 
Prince Edward 
Lennox and Addington 
Central 
Haliburton 



Victoria 



Peterborough 

Peterborough (city) 

Southeastern 

St Lawrence river counties 

Frontenac 

Kingston (city) 
Leeds 

Rideau lakes and canal 
Grenville 
Dundas 
Stormont 
Glengarry 



Northeastern 

Ottawa river counties 

Renfrew 

Lanark 

Carleton 

Ottawa (city) 
Russell 
Prescott 



HISTORY 



971.4 Quebec St Lawrence river 

Lower Canada or Canada East 

From its cession by France to England in 1763 all Canada was one colony, the 
Province of Quebec, till 1701. In 1791 it was divided by the constitutional act 
into 2 provinces: Upper Canada (Ontario) and Lower Canada (Quebec). By 
the union act, 1840, the 2 provinces were reunited as the Province of Canada; 
union in 1867 by the British North America act again divided into the provinces 

of Ontario and Quebec. Queoec is from Caudebec (Normandy), home of many 

of its erly settlers. 



.41 Northern 

.411 Mistassini 

.412 Abitibi 

.414 Lake St John 

.416 Chicoutimi 

.417 Saguenay Anticosti iland 

419 Ashuanipi 

.42 Western Ottawa river counties 

.421 Pontiac 

.422 Ottawa (former county) 

1 Wright 

2 Hull (city) 
5 Labelle 

.423 Argenteuil 

.424 Terre Bonne 

.425 Two Mountains 

.426 Vaudreuil 

5 Soulanges 

.427 Laval 

.428 Hochelaga 

1 Montreal (city) 

5 Jacques Cartier 

■43 Southwestern South of the St Lawrence and west of Richelieu river 

.431 Huntingdon 

.432 Beauharnois 

•433 Chateaugay 

.434 La Prairie 

•435 Napierville 

.436 Vercheres 

.437 Chambly 

.438 St Johns 

•44 North Central North of St Lawrence from Montreal to Saguenay river 

.441 Montcalm 

6 L'Assomption 
.442 Joliette 

.443 Berthier 

.444 Maskinonge 

.445 St Maurice 

.446 Champlain 

6 Portneuf 

.447 Quebec 

I Quebec (city) 

.448 Montmorency 

lie d'Orlean< 

.449 Charlevoix 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



971.45 South Central 

Counties south of St Lawrence from Richelieu river to Quebec 
.451 Richelieu 
.452 St Hyacinthe 

5 Ba S ot 
.453 Rouville 
.454 Yamaska 
.455 Nicolet 
.456 Drummond 

5 Arthabaska 
•457 Wolfe 

5 Megantic 
.458 Lotbiniere 
.459 Levis 

.46 Southern 

Southern border from Richelieu river to Lake; Megantic 

.461 Iberville 
.462 Missisquoi 
.463 Shefford 
464 Brome 
.465 Richmond 
.466 Sherbrooke 

Sherbrooke (city) 
.467 Stanstead 
.468 Compton 
.469 Lake Megantic 

.47 Southeastern 

Lower St Lawrence, southern side from Quebec to Gulf of St Lawrence 



471 


Beauce 


472 


Dorchester 


473 


Bellechasse 


5 


Montmagny 


474 


L'Islet 


475 


Kamouraska 


476 


Temiscouata 


477 


Rimouski 


5 


Matane 


478 


Bonaventure 


479 


Gaspe" 



7 Magdalen Hands 

.5 New Brunswick 

.51 Northern 

.511 Restigouche 

.512 Gloucester 

.52 Eastern 

.52 1 Northumberland 

.522 Kent 

.523 Westmoreland 

Moncklon (city) 



HISTORY 



971.53 


Southern 


•531 


Albert 


.532 


bt John 




St John (city) 


.533 


Charlotte 


Grand Man an il 


•54 




•541 


Kings 


•54 z 


V^/UCCllb 


•543 


on 11 u 111 y 


•DO 




•551 


York 




Fredericton (city) 


.552 


Carleton 


•553 


Victoria 


•554 


Madawaska 


.6 


Nova Scotia 


fir 


ii oruiern 


.6l I 


V— '11111 DC 1 Jet llll 


.6l2 


Colchester 


.013 


"Pi r*f ^1 1 


.6 1 4 


xlllLi^UlJloll 




oouixiern 




vjuysuui uugu 


.622 


Halifax co. and city 




T .11 n pit 1 vet 


.624. 


UCCllo 




^1 ipI i\i 1 mo 

OllCl VJ n 1 


.63 


Western 


.631 


Yarmouth 


.632 


Digby 


.633 


Annapolis 


.634 


Kings 


.635 


Hants 


.60 


Cape Breton Gland) 


.691 


Inverness 


.693 


Victoria 


.695 


Cape Breton 


.696 


Sydney (city) 


.698 


Richmond 


•7 


Prince Edward Island 


.71 


Prince 


•74 


Queens 


•75 


Charlottetown (city) 


•77 


Kings 


.8 


Newfoundland 


•9 


Labrador 



ilan 1 



For Moravian missions see 266. 4<> 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



Mexico Central America 

Period divisions 

.01 Ancient civilization — 1516 

1 Toltec 2 Chichimec 3 Tarascan 4 Aztec 5 Maya 

.02 Discovery and Spanish rule 1516-1810 

.03 Independence 1810-1822 

.04 First empire Iturbide 1 Pronunciamientos 182 2-1 845 

.05 War with United States. See also 973-6 1845-1848 

.06 Constitution of '57 Reform 1 848-1 861 

.07 French intervention 1 861-1867 

.08 Later history 1867- 

Geografic divisions 
.1 Free zone and Northern states 

Tamaulipas, Nuevo Leon, Cohahuila, Chihuahua, Sonora 
Durango 

.2 Lower California and ilands 
.3 Central Pacific states 

Sinaloa, Jalisco, Colima, Michoacan 

.4 Interior states 

Zacatecas, San Luis Potosi, Aguascalientes, Guanajuato 
Quer^taro, Hidalgo, Puebla, Tlascala, Morelos 

.5 Mexico Federal district 
.6 Southern Gulf states 

Vera Cruz, Tabasco, Campeche, Yucatan 
.7 Southern Pacific states 

Guerrero, Oaxaca, Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Chiapas 

.8 Central America 

.81 Guatemala 

.82 British Honduras Belize 

.83 Honduras 

.84 San Salvador 

.85 Nicaragua 

.86 Costa Rica 

.9 West Indies 

.91 Cuba 

.92 Jamaica 

.93 Santo Domingo 

.94 Hayti 

.95 Porto Rico 

.96 Bahamas 

.97 Leeward ilands 

.98 Windward ilands Barbados 

.99 Bermudas 



HISTORY 



973 United States 

SUMMARY OF 973 



• i Discovery — 1607 

.2 Colonial 1607 — 1775 

.3 Revolution 1775 — 1789 

.4 Constitutional 1789 — 1809 

.5 War of 1812 1809 — 1845 

.6 War with Mexico 1845 — i86r 

.7 Civil war 1861 — 1865 

.8 Later 19th century 1865 — 1901 

.91 Early 20th century 1901- 

See also 342.73 U. S. constitutional law and history; 328.73 U. S. legislativ bodies 
and annals; 329 Political parties; 353 U. S. government 

.1 Discovery — 1607 

From earliest times to settlement of Jamestown 

Seealso 970. i-. 6 American indians; 913.7 American antiquities; 571.91 Mounds 
and mound bilders; 571.85 Pueblos 

.11 Precolumbian 

For precolumbian claims of Chinese, Norse, Welsh, etc. see .12 to .14 below 

Arabs Poles 

Jews Germans Martin Bchaim 

Africans Italians 
Irish 
.12 Chinese 
.13 Norse 

Gunnbiorn Bjarni Herjulfson 

Eric the Red Thorwald 
Leif Ericson Thorfinn Karlsefne 

.14 Welsh 

Prince Madoc 
.15 Columbus 
.16 Spanish and Portuguese 

Dates of voyages are added to names 
Amerigo Vespucci 149 7-1 50 4 
Gaspar and Miguel Cortereal 1500-2 Labrador 
Juan Ponce de Leon 15 13-21 Florida 
Vasco Nunez de Balboa 15 13 Pacific ocean 
Hernando Cortes 1518—40 See also 972.02 History of Mexico 
Fernando da Magalhaens 151 8-2 1 Magellan straits 
Francisco Pizarro 1524-41 See also 985 History of Peru 
Hernando de Soto 1539-42 Mississippi river 

Francisco Vasquez de Coronado 1540-42 New Mexico, Arizona, 
Colorado 

.17 English 

John and Sebastian Cabot 149 7-1 530 
Sir John Hawkins 1562-69 
Sir Francis Drake 1570-80 
Sir Martin Frobisher 1576-78 
Sir Humphrey Gilbert 1578-83 
Sir Walter Ralegh 1 578-1602 
John Davis 1585-87 
Bartholomew Gosnold 1602-07 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



973.18 French 

Giovanni da Verrazano 1524 
Jacques Cartier 1534-44 Canada 
Jean Ribault 1562-65 Florida 
Rene" de Laudonniere 1564-66 Florida 

Samuel de Champlain 1603-35 ^ee also 971 History of Canada 

.19 Other nations 

.2 Colonial period 1 607-1 775 

See also histories of separate colonies 

.21 Virginia settlement 1607-20 

Settlement of Jamestown 13 May 1607 See 975.5 Virginia history 
Hudson's Voyage 1609 See also 974.7 N. Y. history 

James 1 1603-25 

.22 New England settlement 1620-43 

Settlement of Plymouth 21 Dec. 1620 Sec 974.4 Mass. history 
Pequot war 1636-37 Connecticut 

Charles 1 1625-2,9 

.23 New England confederacy 1643-64 

United colonies of New England 19 May 1643 

Commonwelth 1649-53 
Oliver Cromwell 1653-58 
Richard Cromwell 1658-59 

.24 Conquest of New Netherland 1664-89 

King Philip's war 1675-76 Massachusetts 
War with eastern indians 1675-78 Maine 
Sir Edmund Andros, governor of New England 1686-89 

Charles 2 1660-85 
James 2 1685-88 

.25 Early French wars 1 689-1 732 

Witchcraft in New England See 133.4 
King William's war 1689-97 

Sometimes cald in Europe ' War of the Palatinate ' 
Queen Anne's war 1702—13 

Known in Europe as War of the Spanish succession 

William 3 1689-1702 
Anne 1702-14 
George 1 1714-27 

.26 Extension of English rule 1732-63 

Settlement of Georgia 1732 See 975-8 Georgia history 
King George's war 1744-48 

Known in Europe as War of the Austrian succession 
Albany convention assembled 19 June 1754 
French and indian war 1755-63 

Known in Europe as Seven years war 
Braddock's defeat 9 July 1755 
Crown Point and Ticonderoga 1758-59 
Capture of Louisburg 27 July 1758 

Capture of Quebec 18 Sep. 1759; Montcalm and Wolfe 
Peace of Paris 10 Feb. 1763 

George 2 1727-60 

.27 Last years of the colonies 1763-75 

See also specially 973.311 Causes of the Revolution 
Conspiracy of Pontiac 1763-64- 
Bouquet's expedition 1763-64 
Lord Dunmore's war Ap.-Oct. 1774 Virginia 

George 3 1760-1820 



History: united states 



973*3 Revolution and confederation 1775-89 

SUMMARY OF 973-3 

.31 Political history 

.32 Diplomatic history 

.33 Special campains and battles 

.34 General military history 

.35 Naval history 

.36 Celebrations 

.37 Prisons, hospitals 

.38 Personal narrativs 

.39 Illustrativ material 

.31 Political history; causes, results 

For financial history see 336.73 

.311 Causes 

1 Stamp act 1765 

2 Navigation acts; mercantil policy 

Burning of the Gaspe" 17 June 1772 

3 Boston massacre 5 Mar. 1770 

4 Taxation and representation 

5 Tax on tea 1767 Boston tea party 16 Dec. 1773 

6 Boston port bill 1774 
.312 Political history 1775-83 

Continental congress See 328.73 U. S. legislativ bodies 
.313 Declaration. of independence 4 July 1776 See also 973.361 

Mecklenburg declaration 20 May 1775 
.314 Loyalists, tories See also 973.381 Treason and traitors 
.315 Relations of special classes to the Revolution 
Clergy and churches 
Lawyers 

College graduates 

.316 

.317 Treaty of peace 1783 

Concluded at Paris 3 Sep. 1783; ratified 14 Jan. 1784 
.318 Confederation 1783-89 

Shay's rebellion 1786-87 Massachusetts 
Cession of western territory to United States 

.32 Diplomatic history; relations with other nations 

Divided like 940; e. g. 973-324 Relations with France; 973.326 Relations with 
Spain 

•33 Special campains and battles 

.331 Campains of 1775 

1 Lexington and Concord 19 April See also 973.362 

2 Bunker Hill 17 June See also 973.366 

3 Siege of Boston June 1775-March 1776 

4 Ticonderoga 10 May 
Crown Point 12 May 

5 Canadian expeditions 

Montgomery 

6 Arnold 
7 

8 Events in the south 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



973-332 Campains of 1776 

1 Campain for the Hudson 

2 Battle of Long Island 27 Aug. 

3 British occupation of New York 

4 American retreat Sep.-Nov. 1776 

Harlem Hights 16 Sep. 
White Plains 28 Oct. 
Fort Washington 16 Nov. 

5 Washington in the Jerseys Dec. 1776-Jan. 1777 

6 Trenton 26 Dec. 
Princeton 3 Jan. 1777 

7 

8 Events in the south 
North Carolina 

Fort Moultrie, Sullivan's iland 28 June 

•333 Campains of 1777 

1 Events in Connecticut and Rhode Island 

2 Burgoyne's campain 

Ticonderoga evacuated 6 July 
Hubbardton, Vt 7 July 
Bennington, Vt 16 Aug. 

3 Freeman's farm or Bemis Hights or Stillwater 19 Sep. 
Bemis Hights or Saratoga 7 Oct. 

Burgoyne's surrender 17 Oct. 

4 Fort Stanwix or Fort Schuyler or Oriskany 2-22 Aug. 

5 Clinton's advance up the Hudson 

Forts Clinton and Montgomery 6 Oct. 

6 Howe's campain 

Brandy wine 11 Sep. 
Paoli 20 Sep. 

7 Philadelphia taken by British 27 Sep. 
Germantown 4 Oct. 

Forts on the Delaware 

Red Bank, or Fort Mercer 22 Oct. 
Mud iland, or Fort Mifflin 10-16 Nov. 

8 Events in SOUth Including Kentucky 

.334 Campains of 1778 

1 Washington at Valley Forge 1777-78 

2 Events in middle states 

Battle of Monmouth 28 June 

3 Evacuation of Philadelphia June 

4 Indian depredations See also 973.343 

Wyoming 1-4 July 

5 Mohawk valley 
Cherry valley 1 1 Nov. 

Brant See also 970.2 Indian biografy 

6 Rhode Island campain, August See also 973.354 Naval history 

7 Events in the south 

Capture of Savannah 29 Dec. 

8 Events in northwest 1778-79 

Clark's expedition 

Vincennes, Ind. 2 Jan. and 20 Feb. 1779 



history: united states 



973 335 Campains of 1779 

1 Events in New England 

Tryon in Connecticut July 

2 Penobscot expedition Aug. and Sep. 

3 Events in middle states 

Minisink 19 July 

4 Wayne at Stony Point 16 July 

5 Paulus Hook 19 Aug. 

6 Sullivan's expedition July-Sep. 

7 Events in the south 

Briar creek 3 Mar. 

Siege of Savannah 23 Sep. and 18 Oct. 

8 Events in northwest See 973.3348 
.336 Campain of 1780 

1 Southern campains 

Waxhaws, N. C. 29 May 
Ramsour Mills, N. C. 20 June 
Leslie's expedition into Virginia Oct. 

2 Siege of Charleston Mar.-May 

3 Camden, S. C. 16 Aug. 

4 Kings mountain, S. C. 7 Oct. 

5 Events in middle states 

Springfield, N. J. 23 June 
Bull's Ferry, N. Y. 21 July 

6 Northern invasion 
•337 Campains of 178 1 

1 Southern campains 

2 Events in Carolinas Jan.-Ap. 

Cowpens, S. C. 17 Jan. 
Guilford, N. C. 15 Mar. 
Hobkirks hill, S. C. 25 Ap. 

3 Events in Carolinas May-Dec. 

Fort Ninety-Six, S. C. May-June 
• Eutaw Springs, S. C. 8 Sep. 

4 British in Virginia 

5 Siege of Yorktown Sep.-Oct. 
Surrender of Cornwallis 19 Oct. 

6 Events in the north 

7 Arnold in Connecticut Sep. 
.338 Campains of 1782 

•339 Events of 1783 

British evacuation of New York 25 Nov. See also 973.363 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



973-34 General military history 

.341 English side 

.342 Mercenaries; Hessians 

.343 Indians 

.344 American side 

Part taken by special states, specially the northern states. Under the number 
for each state use the book numbers A1-A19 for official publications, A2 for lists 
of revolutionary soldiers 

I 

2 New Hampshire 

3 Vermont Not then a state, admitted 1791 

4 Massachusetts 

5 Rhode Island 

6 Connecticut 

7 New York 

8 Pennsylvania 

9 New Jersey 



.345 




Southern states 




1 


Delaware 




2 


Maryland 




5 


Virginia 




6 


North Carolina 




7 


South Carolina 




8 


Georgia 


•346 




American auxiliaries 


.347 




French 


.348 






.349 




Special topics 






Conway cabal 1777-78 






Mutiny of Pennsylvania line Jan. 1781 






Newburgh addresses 1 782-83 


.35 


Naval history 


•351 




Events of 1775 






Capture of the Margaretta June 12 


.352 




Events of 1776 






Escape of British sloop of war Glasgow 6 Ap. 






Battle of Lake Champlain 11-13 Oct. 






Gen. Benedict Arnold 


.353 




Events of 1777 






Lexington and Alert 20 Sep. 


•354 




Events of 1778 






French fleet at Newport 


•355 




Events of 1779 






Bon Homme Richard and the Serapis 23 Sep. 


.356 




Events of 1 780 






Trumbull and Watt 2 June 


•357 




Events of 1781 






Alliance and British brigs Atalanta and Trepassey 28 May 


.358 




Privateers 



history: united states 



973.36 



.361 
.362 
•363 
.364 
•365 
.366 
•367 



•37 

.371 



.372 

•373 

•374 

•375 

.376 

•377 

•378 

•379 

.38 

.381 

.382 

.383 

.384 

.385 

.386 
•39 



.391 
•392 
•393 
•394 
•395 
.396 
•397 

.398 
•399 



Celebrations, anniversaries, commemorations 

These should usually be clast with the special event commemorated, but some 
anniversaries ar of such general caracter as to be better clast here 
For patriotic societies commemorating the revolution see 369.13 

Fourth of July See also 973-313 

19th of April See also 973. 33 It 

Evacuation day, New York S^e also 973.339 

Monuments, memorials S33 also 71s 

Bunker Hill monument S33 also 973.3312 
Washington's various hedquarters 
Newburgh, N. Y. 
Morristown, N. J. 
Prisons, hospitals, etc. 
English prisons 

1 Jersey prison ship 

2 Sugar house prison 
American prisons 
Exchange of prisoners 

Medical dep't; surgeons, nurses, etc. 
Hospitals 



Personal narrativs, vindications, secret servis 

Treason and traitors See also 973.314 Loyalists, tories 

Benedict Arnold 
Charles Lee 



Secret servis, spies 

American side: Nathan Hale 
British side: Major John Andre* 
Illustrativ material 

These numbers should be used mainly for references. Poems, dramas etc. should 
usually be clast under their own numbers, 81 1, 812, etc. but special collections 
should be clast here 

Poetry 

Drama 

Fiction 

Addresses 

Sermons 

Humor 

Pictures 

Paintings, drawings, caricatures, engravings, fotografs, sculpture 

Music 
Maps 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



973.4 Constitutional period 1789-1809 

See 342.73 U. S. constitution; 329.1 Federal party 1789-1823; 329.2 Antifederal 

party 1789-92 

.41 George Washington 30 Ap. 1789-4 Mar. 1797 

Born 22 Feb. 1732; died 14 Dec. 1799 
Sworn into offis 30 Ap. 1789 

National bank establisht 25 Feb. 179 1 See 332.11 

Vermont admitted, 14th state 4 Mar. 179 1 Sae 974.3 

Kentucky admitted, 15th state 1 June 1792 See 976.9 
.42 Indian wars 

Harmar's expedition 1790 

St Clair's expedition 1791 
.43 Washington's 2d term 4 Mar. 1793-4 Mar. 1797 

Neutrality proclamation 22 Ap. 1793 See also 341.3 

Whisky insurrection July-Nov. 1 794 

Wayne's expedition, Oct.-Nov. 1794, and treaty, 3 Aug. 1795 
Jay's treaty 28 Oct. 1795 See also 341.2 
Treaty with Spain 27 Oct. 1795 See also 341.2 
Tennessee admitted, 16th state 1 June 1796 See 976.8 
.44 John Adams 4 Mar. 1797-4 Mar. 1801 

Born 31 Oct. 1735; died 4 July 1826 

Alien act 25 June 1798 See 341. s 

Sedition act 14 July 1798 See 323 

Removal of capitol to Washington 
.45 Troubles with France 

Naval battles; Constellation and L'Insurgent 9 Feb. 1800 
.46 Thomas Jefferson 4 Mar. 1801-4 Mar. 1809 

Born 2 Ap. 1743; died 4 July 1826 

Ohio admitted, 17th state 19 Feb. 1803 See 977.1 
Purchase of Louisiana 2 May 1803 
.47 Wars with Barbary states 

.48 Jefferson's second term 4 Mar. 1805-4 Mar. 1809 

Aaron Burr's conspiracy 1806 

See also 923.27 lives of Burr; and 343-1 Trials 

Embargo act 22 Dec. 1807 
.5 War of 1812 1809-45 
.51 James Madison 4 Mar. 1809-4 Mar. 1817 

Born 16 Mar. 1751; died 28 June 1836 

Engagement between ships President and Little Belt 16 May 181 1 
Defeat of indians by Gen. Harrison at Tippecanoe 7 Nov. 181 1 
Louisiana admitted, 1 8th state 30 Ap. 18 12 See 976.3 
Indiana admitted, 19th state 11 Dec. 1816 See 977.2 



history: united states 



973.52 War of 1S12 

War declared 18 June 1S12. Treaty of peace 24 Dec. 1814 

.521 Political history; causes, results 

Hartford convention 

.522 Diplomatic history 

.523 Special campains and battles 

1 Campain in northwest 

Includes all west of New York 

Surrender of Detroit 16 Aug. 18 12 

2 Events in northwest 18 13-14 

3 Campain in New York, New England and Canada 

Battle of Queenstown 13 Oct. 18 12 

4 Events in New York and New England 18 13 
Capture of Fort Niagara 19 Dec. 

5 Events in Canada 18 13 
Capture of Fort George 27 May 
Battle of Thames 5 Oct. 

6 Events in New York and New England 18 14 

Bombardment of Stonington, Conn. 9-12 Aug. 

7 Events in Canada 18 14 

Capture of Fort Erie 3 July 
Battle of Chippewa 5 July 
Battle of Lundy's lane 25 July 

8 Campain in the south 

Battle of Bladensburg 24 Aug. 18 14 
Burning of Washington 24 Aug. 18 14 
Bombardment of Fort McHenry 13 Sep. 18 14 

9 Events in Louisiana 

Battle of New Orleans 22 Dec. 18 14-8 Jan. 18 15 
.524 General military history 

1 English side 

2 Indian allies 
3 

4 American side in general 

Divided like 974. Under the number for each state use the book numbers 
A1-A10 for official publications, A2 for lists of soldiers 

5 South Atlantic states 

Divided like 975 

6 Gulf states 

Divided like 976 

7 Lake states 

Divided like 977 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



973-5 2 5 Naval history 

1 Events of 1812 

Constitution and Guerriere 19 Aug. 
Wasp and Frolic 18 Oct. 
United States and Macedonia 25 Oct. 
Constitution and Java 29 Dec. 

2 Events on inland waters 

3 Events of 18 13 

Hornet and Peacock 24 Feb. 
Chesapeake and Shannon 1 June 
Pelican and Argus 14 Aug. 
Enterprise and Boxer 5 Sep. 

4 Events on inland waters 

Battle of Lake Erie 10 Sep. 

5 Events of 18 14 

Essex against Phoebe and Cherub 28 Mar. 
Peacock and Epervier 29 Ap. 
Wasp and Reindeer 28 June 
Wasp and Avon 1 Sep. 
Wasp and Atlanta 21 Sep. 

6 Events on inland waters 

Battle on Lake Champlain 1 1 Sep. 

7 Events of 1 81 5 

Capture of frigate President 15 Jan. 

Capture of Cyane and Levant by the Constitution 20 Feb. 
Hornet and Penguin 23 Mar. 

8 Privateers 

.526 War meetings, celebrations, anniversaries, etc. 

See note under 973 • 36 

See 369. 14 societies of the war of 1812 

.527 Prisons, hospitals, etc. 

1 English prisons Dartmoor 

.528 Personal narrativs, vindications, secret servis 

.529 Illustrativ material Divided like 973.39 

•53 Algerine war 

.54 James Monroe 4 Mar. 1817-4 Mar. 1825 

Born 28 Ap. 1758; died 4 July 183 1 

Mississippi admitted, 20th state 10 Dec. 1817 See 976.2 
Illinois admitted, 21st state 3 Dec. 1818 See 977.3 
Purchase of Florida 25 Feb. 18 19 
Alabama admitted, 22d state 14 Dec. 1819 See 976.1 
Maine admitted, 23d state, 15 Mar. 1820 See 974.1 
Missouri compromise See 326.973 and 973.7113 
Missouri admitted, 24th state 10 Aug. 1821 See 977.8 
Monroe doctrin Dec. 1823 See 327.73 
Tariff act 22 May 1824 See 337 
.541 First Seminole war 1818 

.55 John Quincy Adams 4 Mar.- 1825-4 Mar. 1829 

Born 11 July 1767; died 23 Feb. 1848 
Erie canal completed 1825 See 386 
Panama congress 1 826 See 341 . 1 
Removal of Creek indians 1825-29 See 970.3 
Tariff act 19 May 1828 See 337 



history: united states 



973.56 Andrew Jackson 4 Mar. 1829-4 Mar. 1837 

Born IS Mar. 1767; died 8 June 1845 

Rotation in offis See 351.6 
United States bank See 332.11 
Whig party See 329.4 

Compromise tariff act 3 Mar. 1833 See 337 
Independence of Texas 2 Mar. 1836 See 976.4 
Arkansas admitted, 25th state 15 June 1836 See 976.7 
Specie circular 11 July 1836 See 336.73 
Michigan admitted, 26th state 26 Jan. 1837 See 977.4 

.561 Nullification See also 342.73 

Webster and Hayne debate 25-27 Jan. 1830 
Nullification ordinance, South Carolina 24 Nov. 1832 

.562 Black Hawk war 1832 

.57 Martin Van Buren 4 Mar. 1837-4 Mar. 1841 

Born 5 Dec. 1782; died 24 July 1862 
Panic of 1837 See 332 
Alton riot 7 Nov. 1837 See 326.973 
Burning of Caroline 26 Dec. 1837 
Northeast boundary, Aroostook war Feb.-Mar. 1839 
Amistad case 1839 
.571 Second Seminole war 1835-42 

.58 William Henry Harrison 4 Mar. 184 1-4 Ap. 1841 

Born 9 Feb. 1773; died 4 Ap. 1841 

John Tyler 4 Ap. 184 1-4 Mar. 1845 

Born 29 Mar. 1790; died 18 Jan. 1862 

Dorr's rebellion May-June 1842 See 974.5 

Ashburton treaty, northeast boundary 

Texas annexation resolution 28 Feb. 1845 

Florida admitted, 27th state 3 Mar. 1845 See 975.9 

.6 War with Mexico 1845-61 
.61 James Knox Polk 4 Mar. 1845-4 Mar. 1849 

Born 2 Nov. 1795; died 15 June 1849 
Texas annext, 28th state 29 Dec. 1845 See 976.4 
Wilmot proviso adopted by house 8 Aug. 1846 See also 973.7113 
Iowa admitted, 29th state 28 Dec. 1846 See 977.7 
Wisconsin admitted, 30th state 29 May 1848 See 977.5 
Free soil party; Buffalo convention Aug. 1848 See 329.6 

.611 Northwest boundary; Oregon; treaty with England 12 June 1849 

.62 Mexican war 1845-48 

War declared 13 May 1846; treaty of peace 30 May 1848 

.621 Political history; causes, results 

Annexation of Texas 
Acquisition of California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, etc. 
.622 Diplomatic history 

.623 Special campains and battles 

1 Kearny in New Mexico 

2 Fremont in California 

3 Taylor's campain 

4 On the Rio Grande 

Palo Alto 8 May 1846 
Resaca de la Palrria 9 May 
Matamoras 18 May 

5 In Mexico 

Monterey 20-25 Sep. 1846 
Buena Vista 22-23 Feb. 1847 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



973-623 6 
7 



Scott's campain 

Vera Cruz 22-29 Mar. 1847 
Cerro Gordo 17-18 Ap. 



8 



Battles near Mexico 
Contreras 19-20 Aug. 
San Antonio 20 Aug. 
Churubusco 20 Aug. 



9 



Capture of Mexico 



.624 
.625 
.626 

.627 
.628 
.629 
.63 



.64 



.65 
.66 



.67 
.68 



Molino del Rey 8 Sep. 

Chapul tepee 12-13 Sep. 

Mexico 14 Sep. 
General military history 
Naval history 

War meetings, celebrations, anniversaries 

See note under 973-36; also 369. 14s Aztec club of 1847 
Prisons, hospitals, etc. 
Personal narrat'.vs 

Illustrativ material See note under 973.39 

Zachary Taylor 5 Mar. 1849-9 July 1850 

Born 24 Sep. 1784; died 9 July 1850 

Inaugural ceremony 5 March 

Compromise of 1850, Omnibus bil, introduced by Henry Clay 
29 Jan. I85O See also 326.973 and 973. 7"3 

Millard Fillmore 9 July 1850-4 Mar. 1853 

Born 7 Feb. 1800; died 7 Mar. 1874 
Clayton-Bulwer treaty 4 July 1850 See also 386 
California admitted, 31st state 9 Sep. 1850 See 979.4 
Fugitiv slave law 18 Sep. 1850 See 326.973 
Popular soverenty, or squatter soverenty See 342.73 and 326.973 
Filibustering expeditions to Cuba 1849-51 See 972.91 

Franklin Pierce 4 Mar. 1853-4 Mar. 1857 

Born 23 Nov. 1804; died 8 Oct. 1869 
Know-nothing party See also 329. 5 
Republican party See also 329.6 

Com. Perry's expedition to Japan 1852-54. Seealso9is.2 and34i.273 
Gadsden treaty with Mexico for purchase of southern Arizona and 

New Mexico 30 June 1854 
Kansas-Nebraska bil 30 May 1854 See also 326.973, 978. 1 and 978.2 
Ostend manifesto 18 Oct. 1854 See also 972.91 
Walker's filibuster expedition against Nicaragua 1855 See also 972.8s 

James Buchanan 4 Mar. 1857-4 Mar. 1861 

Born 23 Ap. 1791; died 1 June 1868 

Dred Scott decision 6 Mar. 1857 See also 326.973 and 973.7113 
Lecompton constitution, Kansas; proslavery 7 Nov. 1857 
See also 978.1 

Minnesota admitted, 32d state 11 May 1858 See 977.6 
Oregon admitted, 33d state 14 Feb. 1859 See 979. s 
John Brown's raid 16-17 Oct. 1859 See also 973.7116 and 326.973 
Kansas admitted, 34th state 29 Jan. 1861 See 978.1 



history: united states 



973.7 War of secession 4 Mar. 1861— 15 Ap. 1865 

SUMMARY OF 973.7 

.71 Political history 

.72 Diplomatic history 

.73 Special campains and battles 

.74 General military history 

•75 Naval history 

.76 Celebrations 

.77 Prisons, hospitals 

.78 Personal narrativs 

.79 Illustrativ material 

Abraham Lincoln 4 Mar. 1861-15 Ap. 1865 

Born 12 Feb. 1809; died 15 Ap. 1865 

1st term 4 Mar. 1861-4 Mar. 1865; 2d term 4 Mar. 1865-15 Ap. 1865 

.71 Political history; causes, results 

West Virginia admitted, 35th state 19 June 1863 See 975.4 
Nevada admitted, 36th state 31 Oct. 1864 See 979.3 
.711 Causes 

1 Slavery See also 326 

2 Extension of slavery 

Annexation of territory 
Slavery in the territories 

3 Compromises 

Missouri compromise 1820 See also 973.54 
Wilmot proviso 1846 See also 973.61 
Compromise of 1850 See also 973. 63 

4 Abolition movement 

Murder of Elijah P. Lovejoy 7 Nov. 1837 

Assault on Charles Sumner by Preston S. Brooks 22 May 1856 

5 Fugitiv slaves 

Underground railway 

Dred Scott case See also 973.68 

6 John Brown's raid See also 973.68 

7 States' rights 

8 Tarif See also 337 
.712 Efforts to preserv peace 

Crittenden compromise introduced 18 Dec. i860 
Peace conference 4-27 Feb. 1861 
.713 Secession of southern states 

South Carolina 20 Dec. i860 
Mississippi 9 Jan. 1861 
Florida 10 Jan. 
Alabama 11 Jan. 
Georgia 19 Jan. 
Louisiana 26 Jan. 
Texas 1 Feb. 

Confederate States of America formd 4 Feb. 
Virginia 17 Ap. 
Arkansas 6 May 
North Carolina 20 May 
Tennessee 8 June 

For constitutional conventions see subdivisions of 342; proceedings and docu- 
ments of Confederate congress and of state legislatures see subdivisions of 328 

.714 Results of the civil war 

Emancipation proclamation 1 Jan. 1863 See also 326.8 
Freedmen's bureau See 361 

For the present condition of negro, see 325.26 

For negro colony in Liberia, Africa, see 325.6; history of Liberia 966.6 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



973.715 Relations of special classes to the civil war 

Clergy and churches. Colleges, students and graduates 
.716 Southern side 
.717 Unionists in the south 
.718 Secessionists in the north 

.72 Diplomatic history: relations with other nations 

Divided like 940; e. g. 973.722 Relations with England, 973.727 Russia 

.721 Diplomatic history of Confederate States 

Divided like 940; e. g. 973.7214 Relations of Confederate States with Prance 

.73 Special campains and battles 

General arrangement of topics is based on Official records of the Union and Con- 
federate armies, pub. by the U. S. The indexes of those volumes can be used 
as a minute subject index for subdivisions of 973.73 

.731 Campain of 1861 

1 Operations in Charleston harbor, S. C. 20 Dec. 1860-14 Ap. 1861 

Bombardment of Fort Sumter 12-14 April 

2 Operations in other southern states (see Official records, v. 1) 

3 Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, 16 Ap.-3i July 

Riot at Baltimore, Md. 19 April 

Engagement at Big Bethel, or Bethel Church, Va. 10 June 

4 Battle of Bull Run, or Manassas, Va. 2 1 July 

5 Missouri, Arkansas, Kansas, Indian Territory 10 May- 19 Nov. 

6 Texas, New Mexico, Arizona 11 June-i Feb. 1862 
Kentucky, Tennessee 1 July- 19 Nov. 

North Carolina, southeastern Virginia 1 Aug. -11 Jan. 1862 

7 Maryland, northern Virginia, West Virginia 1 Aug. -17 Mar. 1862 

8 Engagement at Ball's Bluff, Va. 21 Oct. 
Action near Edwards Ferry, Va. 22 Oct. 

9 S. Carolina, Georgia, middle and east Florida 21 Aug. -11 Ap. 1862 
.732 Campain of 1862 

1 West Florida, southern Alabama, southern Mississippi, Louisiana 

1 Sep. 1861-12 May 1862 
Capture of New Orleans, La. 18 Ap.-i May 

2 Kentucky, Tennessee, north Alabama, southwest Virginia 

19 Nov. 1 86 1 -4 March 1862 
Capture of Fort Henry, Tenn. 6 Feb. 
Siege and capture of Fort Donelson, Tenn. 12-16 Feb. 

3 Missouri, Arkansas, Kansas, Indian T. 19 Nov. 1861-10 Ap. 1862 

Battle of Pea Ridge, or Elkhorn tavern, Ark. 6-8 Mar. 

4 Southeastern Virginia 11 Jan. -17 Mar. 

Battle of Merrimac and Monitor See 973-752 
North Carolina 1 1 Jan. -20 Aug. 

Burnside expedition 

Battle of Roanoke iland, N. C. 8 Feb. 
Texas, New Mexico, Arizona 1 Feb. -20 Sep. 

5 Kentucky, Tennessee, north Mississippi, north Alabama, south- 

west Virginia 4 Mar.- 10 June 
Siege of Corinth, Miss. 29 Ap.-io June 

6 Battle of Pittsburg Landing or Shiloh, Tenn. 6-7 Ap. 



history: united states 



973-73 2 Campain of 1862 continued 

7 Peninsular campain, Va. 1 7 Mar.-2 Sep. 

Siege of Yorktown, Va. 5 Ap.-4 May- 
Battle of Fair Oaks, or Seven Pines, Va. 31 May-i June 
Seven-days battles 25 June-i July 

8 Northern Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland 17 Mar.-2 Sep. 

Battle of Cedar Run, or Cedar (Slaughter) mountain, Va. 9 Aug. 
Second battle of Bull Run, or Manassas, Va. 30 Aug. 

9 Missouri, Arkansas, Kansas, Indian Territory, Dep't of N. W. 

10 Ap.-2o Nov. 
.733 Campain of 1862 concluded 

1 South Carolina, Georgia, middle and east Florida 12 Ap. 1862- 

11 June 1863 

2 West Florida, southern Alabama, southern Mississippi, Louisiana 

12 May 1862-14 May 1863 

Texas, New Mexico, Arizona 20 Sep. 1862-14 May 1863 

3 Kentucky, middle and east Tennessee, north Alabama, southwest 

Virginia 10 June-31 Oct. 

4 West Tennessee, northern Mississippi 10 June-20 Jan. 1863 

Battle of Corinth, Miss. 3-4 Oct. 

5 North Carolina, southeastern Virginia 20 Aug. 1862-3 June 1863 

6 Northern Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania 

3 Sep-14 Nov. 
Battle of South Mountain, Md. 14 Sep. 
Battle of Antietam, or Sharpsburg, Md. 16-17 Sep. 

7 Kentucky, middle and east Tennessee, north Alabama, southwest 

Virginia 1 Nov-20 Jan. 1863 
Battle of Stone river, or Murfreesboro, Tenn. 31 Dec. 1862- 
3 Jan. 1863 

8 Northern Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania 

15 Nov-25 Jan. 1863 

9 Battle of Fredericksburg, Va. 11-15 Dec. 
.734 Campain of 1863 

1 Missouri, Arkansas, Kansas, Indian Territory, Dep't of Northwest 

20 Nov. 1862-31 Dec. 1863 

2 Kentucky, middle and east Tennessee, north Alabama, southwest 

Virginia 21 Jan.-io Aug. 
Middle Tennessee, or Tullahoma campain 23 June-7 July 
Morgan's Ohio raid 2-26 July 

3 Mississippi, west Tennessee 20 Jan -10 Aug. 

4 Siege of Vicksburg, Miss. 19 May-4 July 

5 Northern Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania 

26 Jan.~3 June 

6 Chancellorsville, Va. campain 27 Ap.-6 May 

7 West Florida, southern Alabama, southern Mississippi, Louisiana, 

Texas, New Mexico 14 May-31 Dec. 
Siege of Port Hudson, La. 21 May-8 July 

8 North Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania 

Dep't of East 3 June-3 Aug. 

9 Battle of Gettysburg, Pa. 1-3 July 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



973-735 Campain of 1863 concluded 

I South Carolina, Georgia, middle and east Florida 12 June-31 Dec 
Operations on Morris iland, S. C. 10 July-7 Sep. 
Occupation of Battery Wagner, S. C. 6-7 Sep. 
Bombardment of Fort Sumter, S. C. 17 Aug.~3i Dec. 
Bombardment of Charleston, S. C. 21 Aug.~3i Dec. 

3 North Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania 

4 Aug-31 Dec. 
Bristoe, Va. campain 9-22 Oct. 
Mine Run, Va. campain 26 Nov-2 Dec. 

4 Kentucky, southwest Virginia, Tennessee, Mississippi, north Ala- 

bama, north Georgia 11 Aug-19 Oct. 

5 Chickamauga, Ga. campain 16 Aug.-22 Sep. 

Battle of Chickamauga, Ga. 19-20 Sep. 

6 East Tennessee campain 16 Aug.-i9 Oct. 

7 Kentucky, southwest Virginia, Tennessee, Mississippi, north Ala- 

bama, north Georgia 20 0ct.~3i Dec. 

8 Knoxville, Tenn. campain 4 N0V.-23 Dec. 

Siege of Knoxville, Tenn. 17 Nov-4 Dec. 

9 Chattanooga-Ringgold campain 23-27 Nov. 

Battle of Lookout mountain, Tenn. 24 Nov. 
Battle of Missionary ridge, Tenn. 25 Nov. 
.736 Campain of 1864 

1 Kentucky, southwest Virginia, Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama 

north Georgia 1 Jan-30 Ap. 
Meridian, Miss, expedition 3 Feb.-6 Mar. 
Forrest's expedition into west Tennessee and Kentucky 
16 Mar-14 Ap. 

Capture of Fort Pillow, Tenn. 12 Ap. 

2 N. Carolina, Virginia, W. Va. Maryland, Pennsylvania 

1 Jam-30 Ap. 

Expedition against New Berne, N. C. 28 Jan.-io Feb. 

Engagement at Morton's Ford, Va. 6-7 Feb. 

Kilpatrick's expedition against Richmond, Va. 28 Feb.~4 Mar. 

3 Louisiana, trans-Mississippi 1 Jan.~30 June 

Red river, La. campain 10 Mar.-22 May 
Camden, Ark. expedition 23 Mar.~3 May 

4 South Carolina, Florida, Georgia coast 1 Jan-13 Nov. 

Charleston, S. C. harbor and vicinity 
Florida expedition 5-22 Feb. 

Engagement at Olustee or Ocean Pond, Fla. 20 Feb. 

5 Southeastern Virginia, North Carolina 1 May-12 June 

Engagement at Proctor's Creek and Drewry's Bluff or Fort 

Darling, Va. 12-16 May 
Operations on the Bermuda Hundred, Va. front 17 May-2 June 
Engagement at Petersburg, Va. 9 June 

6 Battle of the Wilderness, Va. 5-7 May 

7 Operations about Spottsylvania Court-House, Va. 8-21 May 

8 Operations at and about Cold Harbor, Va. 31 May-12 June 

9 Northern Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania 

I May-3 Aug. 
Engagement at New Market, Va. 15 May 
Lynchburg, Va. campain 26 May-29 June 
Battle of the Monocacy, Md. 9 July 
Action near Fort Stevens, D. C. 12 July 



history: united states 



Campain of 1864 concluded 

Northern Georgia 1 May-8 Sep. 
Atlanta, Ga. campain 

Battle of Atlanta, Ga. 22 July 
Kentucky, southwest Virginia, Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama 
north Georgia 1 May- 13 Nov. 
Engagement at Harrisburg, near Tupelo, Miss. 14-15 July 
Operations in Mobile bay, Ala. 2-23 Aug. See 973-754 
Engagement at Allatoona, Ga. 5 Oct. 
Southeastern Virginia, North Carolina 13 June-31 July 
Richmond, Va. campain 

Assaults on the Petersburg lines 15-18 June 
Explosion of the mine and assault on the crater 30 July 
Louisiana, trans-Mississippi 1 July-31 Dec. 

Price's Missouri expedition 29 Aug.-2 Dec. 
Southeastern Virginia, North Carolina 1 Aug.~3i Dec. 
Richmond, Va. campain 
Expedition to Forjt Fisher, N. C. 7-27 Dec. 
Northern Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania 
4 Aug.-3i Dec. 
Shenandoah valley campain, Va. 7 Aug.-28 Nov. 
Battle of Winchester, or the Opequon, Va. 19 Sep. 
Battle of Cedar creek, Va. 19 Oct. 
South Carolina, Georgia, Florida 14 Nov-31 Dec. 

Savannah, Ga. campain, or Sherman's march to the sea 
15 N0V.-21 Dec. 

Kentucky, southwest Virginia, Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama, 
north Georgia 14 N0V.-23 Jan. 1865 
Battle of Franklin, Tenn. 30 Nov. 
Battle of Nashville, Tenn. 15-16 Dec. 
Campain of 1865 

Northern and southeastern Virginia, North Carolina, West Virginia, 
Maryland, Pennsylvania 1 Jam-30 June 
Richmond, Va. campain 1 Jan. -3 Ap. 
Expedition to and capture of Fort Fisher, N. C. 3-17 Jan. 
Appomattox, Va. campain 29 Mar.~9 Ap. 
Battle of Five Forks, Va. 1 Ap. 
Surrender of Gen. Lee 9 Ap. 
North Carolina, South Carolina, southern Georgia, east Florida 
I Jan-30 June 
Campain of the Carolinas 1 Jam-26 Ap. 
Louisiana, trans-Mississippi 1 Jam-30 June 

Kentucky, southwestern Virginia, Tennessee, northern and central 
Georgia, Mississippi, Alabama, west Florida 1 Jan-30 June 
Wilson's raid from Chickasaw to Selma, Ala. and Macon, Ga. 

22 Mar-24 Ap. 
Mobile, Ala. campain 17 Mar-4 May 
Pacific coast I Jan. 1861-30 June 1865 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



973-74 
.741 



General military history 

Northern side 



1 Regular army 

2 Volunteers, quotas 

3 Bounties 

4 Drafts 

5 Negro troops 

6 Special armies or corps 



Signal servis 

Guerrillas 

Commissariat 

8 General orders 

9 Regimental losses 
.742 Southern side 



Divided like 940 

.744-. 749 Separate states and regimental histories 



Divided like 974~979; 973-7444. Massachusetts; 973-7447, New York. Under 
each state arrange books by the following book numbers 

A for official publications 

A 1 Adjutant-general's reports 

A 2 Lists of soldiers 

B-D, General works on the part taken by the state in the conflict 

B whole state, C county, D town 

E Histories of cavalry regiments 
F Hevy artillery 
G Light artillery 
J-L Infantry 

J regiments 1-99 
K regiments 100-199 
L regiments 200-299 

The individual regiment is markt by adding its number after the letter; 
E15, 15th regiment of cavalry; K49, 149th regiment of infantry. When 
there are more than 9 regiments in any of these groups o must be prefixt to 
the number for the 1st 9, e. g. J09, 9th regiment of infantry ; otherwise the 
9th regiment of infantry, J9. would be shelvd after the 89th, J89 
For the border states which also had regiments on the Confederate side use 
similarly P-S 

O Special brigades 
P Cavalry 
Q Hevy artillery 
R Light artillery 
S Infantry 

For those states which past ordinances of secession (see list under 973-713) 
reverse these numbers using E-L for Confederate regiments and P-S for 
Union regiments 

Special numbers must be arranged for unnumberd and peculiarly numberd 
regiments and companies 



Army of the Cumberland 
Army of the Potomac 
2d army corps 
19th army corps etc. 



7 



Special branches or servises 
Cavalry 
Artillery 
Engineers 



•743 



Guerrillas 

Foren elements 



History: united states 



073-75 Naval history 

Duriag the civil war the navy was mainly user! as an auxiliary to the army and 
nearly all naval actions are also described in connection with special campains and 
battles 973 . 73 and its subdivisions 

.751 Events of 186 1 

Hatteras inlet, N. C. 28 Aug. See also 973.7316 

Port Royal, S. C. 7 Nov. See also 973.7319 

Belmont, Mo. 7 Nov. See also 973.731s 

Trent affair 8 Nov. See also 973.722 
.752 Events of 1862 

Fort Henry, Tenn. 6 Feb. s e e also 973.7322 

Roanoke iland, N. C. 7-8 Feb. See also 973.7324 

Fort Donelson, Tenn. 14 Feb. See also 973.7322 

Monitor and Merrimac 8-9 Mar. 

Island nr 10, Ky. 16 Mar.-8 Ap. See also 973.7325 

New Orleans, La. 18 Ap -1 May See also 973.7321 

Memphis, Tenn. 6 June See also 973.7325 
•753 Events of 1863 

Charleston, S. C. 7 Ap. See also 973.7331 

Vicksburg, Miss. 16 Ap. See also 973.7343 

Grand Gulf, Miss. 29 Ap. See also 973.7343 
.754 Events of 1864 

Red river, La. expedition 10 Mar -22 May See also 973.736,5 

Sassacus and Albemarle, Albemarle sound, N. C. 5 May 

See also 973-7365 

Alabama and Kearsarge, off Cherbourg, France 19 June 
Mobile bay, Ala. 5-22 Aug. See also 973.7372 
Fort Fisher, N. C. 24 Dec. See also 973.7375 
.755 Events of 1865 

Fort Fisher, N. C. 14-15 Jan. See also 973.7383 
.756 History of special squadrons or ships 
Atlantic squadron 
Gulf squadron 

•757 Confederate navy- 
Including the history of special squadrons or ships 

Alabama 

Shenandoah 

Florida 

.758 Blockade and blockade running 
•759 Privateers 

.76 War meetings, celebrations, anniversaries, commemorations 

See note under 973-36 

For patriotic societies commemorating the civil war see 369. 15. -.17 

.761 War meetings 
.762 

.763 Flags; presentations of flags; Battle-flag day 
.764 

.765 Monuments, memorials See also 718 
.766 

.767 Roll of honor List of ded For national cemeteries, see 719 

.768 Memorial day 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



Prisons, hospitals, charities, etc. 

Southern prisons, prison life 

Andersonville 

Libhy prison 
Northern prisons 
Exchange of prisoners, paroles 

Medical dep't, surgeons, nurses For military surgery see 617. 99 

Hospitals, hospital sketches 
Charities 

Soldiers homes, see 362.8 

Soldiers orphan asylums, see 362.7 

Freedmen's bureau, see 361 

Pensions, see 351 .5 

U. S. sanitary commission 
Sanitary fairs 
Religious life, chaplains, revivals 

U. S. Christian commission See also 267.11 
Personal narrativs, vindication, secret servis 

Personal narrativs when relating to soms special battle or event should be clast 
according to their subject 

Personal narrativs, northern side 

Including volumes of G. A. R. papers and Loyal legion 

Personal narrativs, southern side 
Army life 

Southern army life, southern home life 
Secret servis, spies 
Southern side 
Illustrativ material 

See note under 973.39 
Poetry 
Drama 
Fiction 
Addresses 
Sermons 
Humor 
Pictures 

Paintings, drawings, caricatures, engravings, fotografs, sculpture 

Music 
Maps 

Later 19th century 1 865-1901 

Period of reconstruction and civil servis reform 
Andrew Johnson 15 Ap. 1865-4 Mar. 1869 

Born 29 Dec. 1808; died 31 July 187s 

13th amendment abolishing slavery, adopted 18 Dec. 1865 

See also 326.8 and 342-739 

Fenian invasion of Canada 31 May-2 June 1866 See also 971.048 
Nebraska admitted, 37th state 1 Mar. 1867 See 978.2 
Cession of Alaska by Russia 20 June 1867 
Impeachment of Pres. Johnson Mar-May 1868 See 351.99 
14th amendment guaranteeing citizenship, adopted 28 July 1868 
See 342.739 



history: united states 



973.82 Ulysses Simpson Grant 4 Mar. 1869-4 Mar. 1877 

Born 27 Ap. 1822; died 23 July 1885 

Treaty for annexation of Santo Domingo, signd 29 Nov. 1869; 

rejected by senate 30 June 1870 See also 972.93 
15th amendment guaranteeing suffrage, adopted 30 Mar. 1870 
See 324.1 and 342.739 

First provision for civil servis reform 3 Mar. 1871 See also 351.6 
Geneva arbitration award 14 Sep. 1872 See 341.6; 973.722:973.757 
Northwestern or San Juan boundary decision, Emperor William 

I of Germany, arbitrator 23 Oct. 1872 
Credit mobilier investigation Dec. 1872-Feb. 1873 
Coinage act 12 Feb. 1873 See 332.47 
Modoc war, California Nov. 1872-June 1873 
Financial panic 19-30 Sep. 1873 See 332 
Virginius incident Oct.-Dec. 1873 
Whisky ring 1872-75 See 336.73 
Civil rights act 1 Mar. 1875 

Colorado admitted, 38th state 1 Aug. 1876 See 978.8 
Centennial exposition, Philadelphia 10 May-10 Nov. 1876 See 606 
Electoral commission Feb. 1877 
.83 Rutherford Birchard Hayes 4 Mar. 1877-4 Mar. 1881 

Born 4 Oct. 1822; died 17 Jan. 1893 

Halifax fishery award 23 Nov. 1877 
Bland silver act 28 Feb. 1878 See 332.47 

Resumption of specie payment 1 Jan. 1879 S2e 332.5 and 336.73 
.84 James Abram Garfield 4 Mar. 1881-19 Sep. 1881 

Born 19 Nov. 1831; died 19 Sep. 1881 

Chester Alan Arthur 19 Sep. 1881-4 Mar. 1885 

Born 5 Oct. 1830; died 18 Nov. 1886 
International cotton exposition 5 Oct.-3i Dec. 1881 See 6o5 
Edmund act to suppress poligamy 22 Mar. 1882 See also 298 
Pendleton civil servis reform act 11 Jan. 1883 Sse 351.6 
.85 Grover Cleveland 4 Mar. 1885-4 Mar. 1889 

Born 18 Mar. 1837; died 24 June 1908 

Act regulating the presidential succession 19 Jan. 1886 See 353.03 
Mexican war pension act 29 Jan. 1887 See 351.5 
Act creating Interstate commerce commission 4 Feb. 1887 See 385 
Dependent pension bil vetoed 11 Feb. 1887 See 351.5 
Centennial anniversary of Constitution, Philadelphia, Pa. 

15-17 vSep. 1887 
Act to establish the Labor dep't 13 June 1888 See 331 
Fisheries treaty, signd 15 Feb. 1888; rejected by senate 21 Aug. 

1888 

See 333-9 and 341.273 

Act to make Agriculture dep't an executiv dep't 9 Feb. 1889 
See also 630.61 and 353.8 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



973.36 Benjamin Harrison 4 Mar. 1889-4 Mar. 1893 

Born 20 Aug. 1833; died 13 Mar. 1901 
Opening of Oklahoma 2 Ap. 1889 See 976.6 
North Dakota admitted, 39th state 2 Nov. 1889 See 978.4 
South Dakota admitted, 40th state 2 Nov. 1889 See 978.3 
Montana admitted, 41st state 8 Nov. 1889 See 978.6 
Washington admitted, 42d state 11 Nov. 1889 See 979.7 
International Amer. conference 2 Oct. 1889-19 Ap. 1890 See 341. 1 
Idaho admitted, 43d state 3 July 1890 See 979.6 
Wyoming admitted, 44th state 10 July 1890 See 978.7 
Sherman silver act, repealing silver act of 1878 14 July 1890 
See 332.47 

McKinley tarif act I Oct. 1890 See 337.3 
Controversy with Chile Oct. 1391-July 1892 See 983 
Geary Chinese exclusion act 5 May 1892 Sea 325.251 
Bering sea arbitration treaty 23 Aug. 1892 

Hawaiian annexation treaty sent to senate, 15 Feb. 1893; with- 
drawn, 9 Mar. 1893 See 996.9 
.87 Grover Cleveland, second term 4 Mar. 1893-4 Mar. 1897 

World's Columbian exposition, Chicago 1 May-30 Oct. 1893 

See 606 

Decision of Bering sea court of arbitration 15 Aug. 1893 
Voorhees silver act 1 Nov. 1893 See 332.47 
Wilson tarif act 27 Aug. 1894 See 337.2 

Income tax law decided unconstitutional by U. S. supreme court 

8 Ap. 1895 See 336.24 
U. S. commission on boundary between Venezuela and British 

Guiana appointed 1 Jan. 1896 s^e 937 
Utah admitted, 45th state 4 Jan. 1896 See 979.2 
.83 William McKinley 4 Mar. 1897-14 Sep. 1901 

Born 29 Jan. 1844; died 14 Sep. 1901 

Dingley tarif act 24 July 1897 
Annexation of Hawaii 7 July 1898 
.89 War with Spain 

War declared 21 Ap. 1898 
Protocol signd 12 Aug. 1898 

Treaty of peace signd at Paris, 10 Dec. 1898; ratified, 1 1 Apr. 1899 
.891 Political history; causes, results 

Spanish misrule in Cuba 

Destruction of battleship Maine 15 Feb. 1898 

Acquisition of Philippines and Porto Rico 
.892 Diplomatic history 

.893 Special campains and battles 

Siege of Santiago 22 June-17 July 1898 
Battle of El Caney 1 July 1898 
.894 General military history May be subdivided like 973.74 

.895 Naval history 

Battle of Manila 1 May 1898 

Sinking of the Merrimac 3 June 1898 

Destruction of Cervera's squadron 3 July 1898 
.896 War meetings, celebrations, anniversaries 

See note under 973.36 

For patriotic societies commemorating the war with Spain see 369.181-.183 

.897 Prisons, hospitals, etc. 

.898 Personal narrativs 

.899 Illustrativ materials 

Sje note under 373-39 



history: united states 



973.91 Early 20th century 
.911 Theodore Roosevelt 

Born 27 Oct. 1858; died 6 Jan. 1019 



I90I- 

14 Sep. 1901-4 Mar. 1909 



.91a William Howard Taft 



4 Mar. 1909-4 Mar. 191 3 



Born 15 Sep. 1857 



.913 Woodrow Wilson 



4 Mar. 1913-4 Mar. 192 1 



Born 28 Dec. 1856 

The great war, begun with Austria's declaration of war against Serbia, 28 July 
191 4, was formally entered by the United States with a declaration of war against 
Germany, 6 Ap. 191 7; armistice signd by the Germans 11 Nov. 191 8; treaty of 
Versailles signd by treaty plenipotentiaries of Germany and the Allied Powers 
28 June 1 9 19; treaties with Germany, Austria and Hungary ratified by United 
States senate 18 Oct. 1921. 



.914 



Warren Gamaliel Harding 



4 Mar. 1921- 



Born 2 Nov. 1865 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



974 Northeastern or North Atlantic New England 

.1 Maine 

Admitted IS Mar. 1820 as 23d state 

Area 33.040 sq. mi. 16 counties Population 768,014 in 1920 
Sobriquets: Pinetree state, Polar Star state Capital: Augusta 

Population in 1920 



.11 


Aroostook 


81 728 


.12 


Somerset 


XI 171 




Piscataquis 


20 554 




Penobscot 


87 684 


T A 


Washington 


AI 700 




Hancock 


30 36I 


.15 


Waldo 


21 328 




Knox 


26 245 




Lincoln 


15 976 


.16 


Kennebec 


63 844 


•17 


Franklin 


19 825 




Oxford 


37 700 


.18 


Androscoggin 


65 796 




Sagadahoc 


23 021 


.19 


Cumberland 


124 376 




Portland 






York 


70 696 


.2 


New Hampshire 





69 272 



Area 9341 sq. mi. 10 counties Population 443,083 in 1920 
Sobriquet: Granit state Capital: Concord 

. Population in 1920 



.21 


Coos 


36 093 


.22 


White mts 




.23 


Grafton 


40 572 


.24 


Carroll 


15 017 




Belknap 


21 178 


•25 


Strafford 


38 546 


.26 


Rockingham 


52 498 


.27 


Merrimac ' 


5i 770 




Sullivan 


20 922 


.28 


Hillsboro 


135 512 


.29 


Cheshire 


30 975 


•3 


Vermont 






Area 9564 sq. mi. 


14 counties Population 352,428 in 1920 




Sobriquet: Green Mt state Capital: Montpelier 






Population in 19 


•31 


Grand Isle 


3 784 




Franklin 


30 026 




Chittenden 


43 708 


•32 


Orleans 


23 913 




Essex 


7 364 


•33 


Caledonia 


25 762 




Lamoille 


11 858 


•34 


Washington 


38 921 


•35 


Addison 


18 666 


.36 


Orange 


17 279 




Windsor 


36 984 


•37 


Rutland 


46 213 


.38 


Bennington 


21 577 


•39 


Windham 


26 373 



history: united states 



974.4 Massachusetts 

Area 8266 sq. mi. 14 counties 

Population 3,852,356 in 1920 

Sobriquet: Bay state Capital: Boston 



.61 
.62 
.63 
.64 

.65 
.66 
.67 
.68 
.69 



Population in IQ20 



.41 


Berkshire 


113 033 


.42 


Franklin 


49 361 




Hampshire 


69 599 




Hampden 


300 305 


•43 


Worcester 


455 135 


44 


Middlesex 


778 352 


•45 


Essex 


482 156 


.46 


Suffolk 


835 522 




Boston 




47 


Norfolk 


219 081 


.48 


Plymouth 


156 968 




Bristol 


359 005 


•49 


Barnstable 


26 670 




Dukes 


4 372 




Nantucket 


2 797 


•5 


Rhode Island 





748 060 



Area 1248 sq. mi. 5 counties 
Population 604,397 in 1920 
Sobriquet: Little Rhody Capital: 

Providence 

Providence (city) 

Paw tucket 
Kent 
Bristol 
Newport 

Newport (city) 

Block Island 
Washington 
Connecticut 



Providence 

Population in IQ20 
475 190 



38 269 

23 113 
42 893 



24 932 



237 595 
64 248 



30 255 



Area 4965 sq. mi. 
Population 1,380,63] 



8 counties 
in 1920 



Sobriquet: Wooden Nutmeg state 

Litchfield 
Hartford 

Hartford (city) 
Tolland 
Windham 
New London 
Middlesex 
New Haven 

New Haven (city) 
Fairfield 



Capital: Hartford 

Population in IQ20 

76 262 
336 027 



138 036 



27 216 
52 815 

104 611 
47 550 

415 214 

320 936 



162 537 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



974.7 New York 

Area 49,204 sq. mi. 61 counties (exclusiv of Bronx) 

Population 10,385.227 in 1920 

Sobriquet: Empire state Capital: Albany 

Population in IQ20 

.71 New York (city) 5 620 048 

.72 Vicinity of New York city 

.721 Long Island 2 723 764 

,722 Kings county 2 018 356 

.723 Brooklyn 2 018 356 

.724 Queens county 469 042 

5 Nassau ■ 126 120 

.725 Suffolk " no 246 
.726 Richmond " Staten Island 116 531 

.727 Westchester " 344 436 

5 Bronx boro (and county) 732 016 

.728 Rockland county 45 548 
.73 Southeast counties 

.731 Orange, West Point 119 844 

.732 Putnam 10 802 

.733 Dutchess 91 747 

.734 Ulster 74 979 

.735 Sullivan 33 163 

.736 Delaware 42 774 

.737 Green 25 796 
.738 Catskill mts 

.739 Columbia 38 930 
.74 Middle east counties 

.741 Rensselaer 113 129 

Troy 72 013 

.742 Albany 186 106 
.743 Albany (city) 113 344 

.744 Schenectady 109 363 

.745 Schoharie 21 303 

.746 Montgomery 57 928 

.747 Fulton 44 927 

.748 Saratoga 60 029 

.749 Washington 44 888 
.75 Northern counties 

.751 Warren 31 673 
Lake George 

.752 Hamilton 3 970 

.753 Essex 31 871 
Adirondaks 

.754 Clinton 43 898 

Lake Champlain 

.755 Franklin 43 541 

.756 St Lawrence 88 121 

•757 Jefferso.i 82 250 
.758 Thousand Islands 



.759 Lewis 23 704 



history: united states 



New York 



974.76 


North central counties 


Population in JQ20 


.761 


Herkimer 


64 962 




.762 


Oneida 


182 833 




.763 


Utica 




94 156 


.764 


Madison 


39 535 




•7°5 


Onondaga 


241 465 




.yoo 


Syracuse 




171 717 


.707 


Oswego 


7i 045 




./DO 


Cayuga 


65 221 




.769 


Seneca 


24 735 




•77 


South central counties 






.771 


Tompkins 


35 285 




.772 


Cortland 


29 625 




•773 


Chenango 


34 969 




•774 


Otsego 


46 200 




•775 


Broome 


113 610 




.776 


Binghamton 




66 800 


•777 


1 ioga 


24 212 




• 77« 


Chemung 


65 872 




•779 


Elmira 




45 393 


_ 
.78 


West central counties 






.781 


Schuyler 


13 098 




.782 


Yates 


16 641 




•783 


Steuben 


80 627 




.784 


Alleghany 


36 842 




•785 


Livingston 


36 830 




-0/: 
.700 


Ontario 


52 652 




.757 


Wayne 


48 827 




.7OO 


Monroe 


352 034 




.7»9 


Rochester 




295 750 


•79 


Western counties 






.791 


Orleans 


28 619 




.792 


Genesee 


37 976 




•793 


Wyoming 


30 314 




•794 


Cattaraugus 


7i 323 




•795 


Chautauqua 


115 348 




.796 


Erie 


634 688 




•797 


Buffalo 




506 775 


.798 


Niagara 


118 705 




•799 


Niagara Falls 




50 760 



DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 



974.8 Pennsylvania 

In territory claimd in 17th century by Sweden and then cald New Sweden or 
New Swedeland 

Area 45. 126 sq. mi. 67 counties 
Population 8,720,017 in 1920 

Sobriquet: Keystone state Capital: Harrisburg 

.81 Southeast counties Philadelphia and Chester group 

Population in IQ20 

.811 Philadelphia (co. and city) 1 823 779 

.812 Montgomery 199 310 

.813 Chester 115 120 

.814 Delaware 173 084 

.815 Lancaster 173 797 

.816 Berks 200 854 

.817 Schuylkill 217 754 

.818 Dauphin 153 116 

.819 Lebanon 63 152 

.82 Eastern counties Bucks group 

.821 Bucks 82 476 

.822 Northampton 153 506 

.823 Wayne 27 435 

.824 Pike 6 818 

.825 Monroe 24 295 

.826 Carbon 62 565 

.827 Lehigh 148 101 

.83 Northeast counties Northumberland group 

.831 Northumberland 122 079 

.832 Luzerne 390 991 

.833 Wilkesbarre 73 833 

.834 Susquehanna 34 763 

.835 Wyoming 14 10 1 

.836 Lackawanna 286 311 

.837 Scranton 137 783 

.838 Columbia 48 349 

.839 M